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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(18): 1753-1761, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665579
2.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201918111290, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to characterize differences in outcomes among help-seeking individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis by identifying covariant longitudinal patterns of symptoms and functioning. METHODS: Group-based multitrajectory modeling was applied to longitudinal ratings of four symptom domains (positive, negative, disorganized, general) and general functioning among clinical high-risk individuals in an initial discovery sample (N=422). An independent sample (N=133) was used to test replicability. RESULTS: Three trajectory groups were identified among clinical high-risk individuals in the discovery sample: group 1 (30%) exhibited substantial improvement across all domains, with half reaching positive outcomes for both functioning and positive symptoms; group 2 (49%) exhibited moderate impairments across domains, with approximately one-quarter meeting criteria for positive outcomes; the remaining participants (group 3; 22%) exhibited consistent levels of severe impairment across domains and did not experience positive outcomes. These trajectory groups and remission patterns were replicated in an independent sample. CONCLUSIONS: Replicable subgroups of help-seeking clinical high-risk cases can be ascertained based on distinctive profiles of change over time in symptoms and functioning. Within each of the three identified subgroups, similar patterns of change (i.e., rapid, moderate, or no improvement) were observed across the four symptom domains and functioning. This consistency of change over time across domains within each subgroup is a novel observation supporting the syndrome consistency of clinical high-risk symptoms and signs. The observed trajectory subgroups are suggestive of different degrees of need for clinical interventions, ranging from minimal or supportive for about one-third of cases to increasingly intensive among the remainder.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3933, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477693

RESUMO

It has remained unclear why schizophrenia typically manifests after adolescence and which neurobiological mechanisms are underlying the cascade leading to the actual onset of the illness. Here we show that the use of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons of monozygotic twins from pairs discordant for schizophrenia enhances disease-specific signal by minimizing genetic heterogeneity. In proteomic and pathway analyses, clinical illness is associated especially with altered glycosaminoglycan, GABAergic synapse, sialylation, and purine metabolism pathways. Although only 12% of all 19,462 genes are expressed differentially between healthy males and females, up to 61% of the illness-related genes are sex specific. These results on sex-specific genes are replicated in another dataset. This implies that the pathophysiology differs between males and females, and may explain why symptoms appear after adolescence when the expression of many sex-specific genes change, and suggests the need for sex-specific treatments.

4.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389974

RESUMO

Importance: In most patients, a prodromal period precedes the onset of schizophrenia. Although clinical criteria for identifying the psychosis risk syndrome (PRS) show promising predictive validity, assessment of neurophysiologic abnormalities in at-risk individuals may improve clinical prediction and clarify the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Objective: To determine whether P300 event-related potential amplitude, which is deficient in schizophrenia, is reduced in the PRS and associated with clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Auditory P300 data were collected as part of the multisite, case-control North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS-2) at 8 university-based outpatient programs. Participants included 552 individuals meeting PRS criteria and 236 healthy controls with P300 data. Auditory P300 data of participants at risk who converted to psychosis (n = 73) were compared with those of nonconverters who were followed up for 24 months and continued to be symptomatic (n = 135) or remitted from the PRS (n = 90). Data were collected from May 27, 2009, to September 17, 2014, and were analyzed from December 3, 2015, to May 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline electroencephalography was recorded during an auditory oddball task. Two P300 subcomponents were measured: P3b, elicited by infrequent target stimuli, and P3a, elicited by infrequent nontarget novel stimuli. Results: This study included 788 participants. The PRS group (n = 552) included 236 females (42.8%) (mean [SD] age, 19.21 [4.38] years), and the healthy control group (n = 236) included 111 females (47.0%) (mean [SD] age, 20.44 [4.73] years). Target P3b and novelty P3a amplitudes were reduced in at-risk individuals vs healthy controls (d = 0.37). Target P3b, but not novelty P3a, was significantly reduced in psychosis converters vs nonconverters (d = 0.26), and smaller target P3b amplitude was associated with a shorter time to psychosis onset in at-risk individuals (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.00; P = .03). Participants with the PRS who remitted had baseline target P3b amplitudes that were similar to those of healthy controls and greater than those of converters (d = 0.51) and at-risk individuals who remained symptomatic (d = 0.41). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, deficits in P300 amplitude appeared to precede psychosis onset. Target P3b amplitudes, in particular, may be sensitive to clinical outcomes in the PRS, including both conversion to psychosis and clinical remission. Auditory target P3b amplitude shows promise as a putative prognostic biomarker of clinical outcome in the PRS.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 334-350, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374203

RESUMO

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is inversely correlated with general cognitive ability at both the phenotypic and the genetic level. Paradoxically, a modest but consistent positive genetic correlation has been reported between schizophrenia and educational attainment, despite the strong positive genetic correlation between cognitive ability and educational attainment. Here we leverage published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia to parse biological mechanisms underlying these results. Association analysis based on subsets (ASSET), a pleiotropic meta-analytic technique, allowed jointly associated loci to be identified and characterized. Specifically, we identified subsets of variants associated in the expected ("concordant") direction across all three phenotypes (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia, lower cognitive ability, and lower educational attainment); these were contrasted with variants that demonstrated the counterintuitive ("discordant") relationship between education and schizophrenia (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia and higher educational attainment). ASSET analysis revealed 235 independent loci associated with cognitive ability, education, and/or schizophrenia at p < 5 × 10-8. Pleiotropic analysis successfully identified more than 100 loci that were not significant in the input GWASs. Many of these have been validated by larger, more recent single-phenotype GWASs. Leveraging the joint genetic correlations of cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia, we were able to dissociate two distinct biological mechanisms-early neurodevelopmental pathways that characterize concordant allelic variation and adulthood synaptic pruning pathways-that were linked to the paradoxical positive genetic association between education and schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic correlation analyses revealed that these mechanisms contribute not only to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia but also to the broader biological dimensions implicated in both general health outcomes and psychiatric illness.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; : 112492, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387769

RESUMO

There has been growing interest on the effect of sleep problems on psychotic and prodromal symptoms. The current study investigated cross-sectional relations between sleep problems and attenuated psychotic symptoms in a large sample of 740 youth at Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis in an attempt to replicate previous findings and assess whether findings from general population samples and psychotic samples extend to this CHR sample. Sleep problems were found to be significantly positively associated with attenuated psychotic symptom severity. Sleep problems were also found to be more closely associated with certain specific prodromal symptoms (e.g., suspiciousness and perceptual abnormalities) than other attenuated psychotic symptoms. Further, we found that depression mediated the cross-sectional association between sleep problems and paranoid symptoms only. This adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting the mediation role of depression is more pronounced for paranoid-type psychotic symptoms as compared to other psychotic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations).

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(7): 545-556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic liability, and some structural brain abnormalities are common to both conditions. First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (FDRs-SZ) show similar brain abnormalities to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Imaging findings in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (FDRs-BD) have been inconsistent in the past, but recent studies report regionally greater volumes compared with control subjects. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of global and subcortical brain measures of 6008 individuals (1228 FDRs-SZ, 852 FDRs-BD, 2246 control subjects, 1016 patients with schizophrenia, 666 patients with bipolar disorder) from 34 schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder family cohorts with standardized methods. Analyses were repeated with a correction for intracranial volume (ICV) and for the presence of any psychopathology in the relatives and control subjects. RESULTS: FDRs-BD had significantly larger ICV (d = +0.16, q < .05 corrected), whereas FDRs-SZ showed smaller thalamic volumes than control subjects (d = -0.12, q < .05 corrected). ICV explained the enlargements in the brain measures in FDRs-BD. In FDRs-SZ, after correction for ICV, total brain, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, and thalamus volumes were significantly smaller; the cortex was thinner (d < -0.09, q < .05 corrected); and third ventricle was larger (d = +0.15, q < .05 corrected). The findings were not explained by psychopathology in the relatives or control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Despite shared genetic liability, FDRs-SZ and FDRs-BD show a differential pattern of structural brain abnormalities, specifically a divergent effect in ICV. This may imply that the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading to brain anomalies in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are distinct.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302732

RESUMO

Preclinical studies indicate a link between the kynurenine pathway and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but there is a lack of clinical studies examining this further. We here perform a secondary analysis of kynurenine metabolites and MCP-1 in cerebrospinal fluid of 23 twins affected from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unaffected. We show an association between MCP-1 and kynurenic acid (KYNA), driven by unique environmental influences and a less pronounced association between MCP-1 and tryptophan. No association was detected between MCP-1 and quinolinic acid. Further studies on the mechanism behind the putative relationship between KYNA and MCP-1 are needed.

10.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 72: 101748, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226640

RESUMO

Many reasoning biases that may contribute to delusion formation and/or maintenance are common in healthy individuals. Research indicating that reasoning in the general population proceeds via analytic processes (which depend upon working memory and support hypothetical thought) and intuitive processes (which are autonomous and independent of working memory) may therefore help uncover the source of these biases. Consistent with this possibility, recent studies imply that impaired conflict processing might reduce engagement in analytic reasoning, thereby producing reasoning biases and promoting delusions in individuals with schizophrenia. Progress toward understanding this potential pathway to delusions is currently impeded by ambiguity about whether any of these deficits or biases is necessary or sufficient for the formation and maintenance of delusions. Resolving this ambiguity requires consideration of whether particular cognitive deficits or biases in this putative pathway have causal primacy over other processes that may also participate in the causation of delusions. Accordingly, the present manuscript critically evaluates whether impaired conflict processing is the primary initiating deficit in the generation of reasoning biases that may promote the development and/or maintenance of delusions. Suggestions for future research that may elucidate mechanistic pathways by which reasoning deficits might engender and maintain delusions are subsequently offered.

11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101862, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150956

RESUMO

In a recent machine learning study classifying "brain age" based on cross-sectional neuroanatomical data, clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals were observed to show deviation from the normal neuromaturational pattern, which in turn was predictive of greater risk of conversion to psychosis and a pattern of stably poor functional outcome. These effects were unique to cases who were between 12 and 17 years of age when their prodromal and psychotic symptoms began, suggesting that neuroanatomical deviance observable at the point of ascertainment of a CHR syndrome marks risk for an early onset form of psychosis. In the present study, we sought to clarify the pattern of neuroanatomical deviance linked to this "early onset" form of psychosis and whether this deviance is associated with poorer premorbid functioning. T1 MRI scans from 378 CHR individuals and 190 healthy controls (HC) from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS2) were analyzed. Widespread smaller cortical volume was observed among CHR individuals compared with HC at baseline evaluation, particularly among the younger group (i.e., those who were 12 to 17 years of age). Moreover, the younger CHR individuals who converted or presented worsened clinical symptoms at follow-up (within 2 years) exhibited smaller surface area in rostral anterior cingulate, lateral and medial prefrontal regions, and parahippocampal gyrus relative to the younger CHR individuals who remitted or presented a stable pattern of prodromal symptoms at follow-up. In turn, poorer premorbid functioning in childhood was associated with smaller surface area in medial orbitofrontal, lateral frontal, rostral anterior cingulate, precuneus, and temporal regions. Together with our prior report, these results are consistent with the view that neuroanatomical deviance manifesting in early adolescence marks vulnerability to a form of psychosis presenting with poor premorbid adjustment, an earlier age of onset (generally prior to the age of 18 years), and poor long-term outcome.

12.
Psychiatry Res ; 278: 180-187, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207455

RESUMO

Twin- and family studies have shown variations in the heritability estimates of bipolar disorder (BPD). The current study uses an updated statistical methodology for heritability estimation in BPD by taking available time of follow-up into account while controlling for co-variates. We identified monozygotic and dizygotic same and different sex twins with BPD (n = 804) or unaffected from BPD (n = 91,604) from the Swedish Twin Register and the National Patient Register. We applied structural equational modeling with inversed probability weighting to estimate the heritability, taking into account censoring and truncation of data. Sex-limitation models were constructed to analyze qualitative or quantitative sex-differences in BPD. Heritability for BPD was 60.4% (95% Confidence Interval: 50.3-70.5) after age, sex, left-hand truncation and censoring of the data was taken into account. A larger proportion of females were affected from BPD (females 62.2%; males 37.8%, p < 0.001), but no sex-difference in BPD heritability was found, nor any sex-specific genetic effects. We demonstrated a robust 60% heritability for BPD with no evidence of sex-specific genetic effects on disease liability.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138891

RESUMO

We have previously reported a replicable association between variants at the PDE4D gene and familial schizophrenia in a Finnish cohort. In order to identify the potential functional mutations underlying these previous findings, we sequenced 1.5 Mb of the PDE4D genomic locus in 20 families (consisting of 96 individuals and 79 independent chromosomes), followed by two stages of genotyping across 6668 individuals from multiple Finnish cohorts for major mental illnesses. We identified 4570 SNPs across the PDE4D gene, with 380 associated to schizophrenia (p ≤ 0.05). Importantly, two of these variants, rs35278 and rs165940, are located at transcription factor-binding sites, and displayed replicable association in the two-stage enlargement of the familial schizophrenia cohort (combined statistics for rs35278 p = 0.0012; OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.06-1.32; and rs165940 p = 0.0016; OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.41). Further analysis using additional cohorts and endophenotypes revealed that rs165940 principally associates within the psychosis (p = 0.025, OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30) and cognitive domains of major mental illnesses (g-score p = 0.044, ß = -0.033). Specifically, the cognitive domains represented verbal learning and memory (p = 0.0091, ß = -0.044) and verbal working memory (p = 0.0062, ß = -0.036). Moreover, expression data from the GTEx database demonstrated that rs165940 significantly correlates with the mRNA expression levels of PDE4D in the cerebellum (p-value = 0.04; m-value = 0.9), demonstrating a potential functional consequence for this variant. Thus, rs165940 represents the most likely functional variant for major mental illness at the PDE4D locus in the Finnish population, increasing risk broadly to psychotic disorders.

14.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 15: i-iv, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067415
15.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-14, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846020

RESUMO

Childhood adversity is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes across the life span. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are considered a key mechanism underlying these associations, although findings have been mixed. These inconsistencies suggest that other aspects of stress processing may underlie variations in this these associations, and that differences in adversity type, sex, and age may be relevant. The current study investigated the relationship between childhood adversity, stress perception, and morning cortisol, and examined whether differences in adversity type (generalized vs. threat and deprivation), sex, and age had distinct effects on these associations. Salivary cortisol samples, daily hassle stress ratings, and retrospective measures of childhood adversity were collected from a large sample of youth at risk for serious mental illness including psychoses (n = 605, mean age = 19.3). Results indicated that childhood adversity was associated with increased stress perception, which subsequently predicted higher morning cortisol levels; however, these associations were specific to threat exposures in females. These findings highlight the role of stress perception in stress vulnerability following childhood adversity and highlight potential sex differences in the impact of threat exposures.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3879, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846746

RESUMO

The human brain is a dynamic system, where communication between spatially distinct areas facilitates complex cognitive functions and behaviors. How information transfers between brain regions and how it gives rise to human cognition, however, are unclear. In this article, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 783 healthy adults in the Human Connectome Project (HCP) dataset, we map the brain's directed information flow architecture through a Granger-Geweke causality prism. We demonstrate that the information flow profiles in the general population primarily involve local exchanges within specialized functional systems, long-distance exchanges from the dorsal brain to the ventral brain, and top-down exchanges from the higher-order systems to the primary systems. Using an information flow map discovered from 550 subjects, the individual directed information flow profiles can significantly predict cognitive flexibility scores in 233 novel individuals. Our results provide evidence for directed information network architecture in the cerebral cortex, and suggest that features of the information flow configuration during rest underpin cognitive ability in humans.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 41-43, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745066

RESUMO

In a recent study, a neuroanatomical-based age prediction model observed neuromaturational deviance among clinical high-risk individuals who developed psychosis. Here we aimed to investigate whether incorporating "brain age gap" (discrepancy between neuroanatomical-based predicted age and chronological age) to the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study risk calculator would enhance prediction of psychosis conversion. The effect of brain age gap was significant (HR = 1.21, P = 0.047), but its predictive variance was found to overlap entirely with age at ascertainment, consistent with the view that greater brain-age gap and earlier age at onset of prodromal symptoms are correlated indicators of insidious-onset forms of psychosis.

18.
Schizophr Res ; 213: 48-55, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745068

RESUMO

Childhood adversity is among the strongest risk factors for psychosis-spectrum disorders, though the nature and specificity of the biological mechanisms underlying this association remains unclear. Previous research reveals overlaps in the volumetric alterations observed in both adversity-exposed individuals and in psychosis-spectrum populations, highlighting the possibility that deviations in corticolimbic gray matter development may be one mechanism linking adversity and psychosis. Given that childhood adversity encompasses a wide range of adverse experiences, there is also a critical need to examine whether these different types of experiences have unique effects on corticolimbic regions. This study examined the association between childhood adversity and cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar volume in a large sample of youth at clinical-high risk (CHR) for psychosis. We utilized a novel differentiated adversity approach that distinguishes exposures along dimensions of threat (e.g., abuse) and deprivation (e.g., poverty, neglect) to test for differential associations. Participants were drawn from the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study (NAPLS) and completed an MRI scan and a retrospective assessment of childhood adversity at baseline. We found that deprivation exposure, but not threat, was uniquely associated with smaller cortical volume and smaller right hippocampal volume in CHR youth. These associations were masked in a generalized risk model that utilized a total adversity score. The findings suggest that deprivation exposures during childhood contribute to the subtle volumetric reductions observed in clinical high-risk samples and highlight the importance of disentangling different dimensions of adversity.

19.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(6): 582-588, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The overlap versus independence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia is a topic that has garnered the attention of generations of clinicians and scientists. Although high rates of psychotic symptoms have been identified in individuals with ASD, the nature, prevalence, and prognostic significance of subclinical psychotic experiences in ASD remain poorly understood. METHOD: This study sought to compare baseline characteristics, clinical profiles, and conversion outcomes between young individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) who presented with or without a prior ASD diagnosis during the second phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS, N = 764). RESULTS: Patients with CHR and ASD (CHR/ASD+, n = 26) tended to exhibit greater social and social cognitive difficulties, but expressed relatively levels of core psychosis symptoms similar to those of to patients with CHR but no ASD (CHR/ASD-). Risk for conversion to co-occurring psychosis (18.2% CHR/ASD+ versus 16.8% CHR/ASD-) was equivalent between CHR/ASD+ and CHR/ASD- groups, and the NAPLS2 Psychosis Risk Calculator predicted conversion to psychosis equally well across groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that baseline psychosis symptoms, predictors of risk for conversion, and ultimate conversion rates are similar in patients with CHR with and without ASD. They further suggest that ASD must not be considered a mutually exclusive diagnosis when such youth present in CHR settings. Future research is needed to better track trajectories in larger cohorts of individuals with CHR and comorbid ASD and to understand whether treatment recommendations effective in the broader CHR population are useful for this particular population as well.

20.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704864

RESUMO

Mounting evidence has shown disrupted brain network architecture across the psychosis spectrum. However, whether these changes relate to the development of psychosis is unclear. Here, we used graph theoretical analysis to investigate longitudinal changes in resting-state brain networks in samples of 72 subjects at clinical high risk (including 8 cases who converted to full psychosis) and 48 healthy controls drawn from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS) consortium. We observed progressive reduction in global efficiency (P = 0.006) and increase in network diversity (P = 0.001) in converters compared with non-converters and controls. More refined analysis separating nodes into nine key brain networks demonstrated that these alterations were primarily driven by progressively diminished local efficiency in the default-mode network (P = 0.004) and progressively enhanced node diversity across all networks (P < 0.05). The change rates of network efficiency and network diversity were significantly correlated (P = 0.003), suggesting these changes may reflect shared neural mechanisms. In addition, change rates of global efficiency and node diversity were significantly correlated with change rate of cortical thinning in the prefrontal cortex in converters (P < 0.03) and could be predicted by visuospatial memory scores at baseline (P < 0.04). These results provide preliminary evidence for longitudinal reconfiguration of resting-state brain networks during psychosis development and suggest that decreased network efficiency, reflecting an increase in path length between nodes, and increased network diversity, reflecting a decrease in the consistency of functional network organization, may be implicated in the progression to full psychosis.

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