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1.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751312

RESUMO

HIV testing early in the immigration process can facilitate timely linkage to HIV prevention and treatment services for immigrants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of self-report HIV testing pre- and post-immigration and the associations between pre-immigration HIV sexual risk behaviors, access to healthcare post-immigration, and HIV testing post-immigration among young adult recent Latino immigrants. Cross-sectional data from 504 recent Latino immigrants aged 18 to 34 who immigrated to Miami-Dade County, Florida during the 12 months before assessment were analyzed using robust Poisson regression models. We found that 23.8% of participants reported HIV testing post-immigration and 56.7% reported HIV testing pre-immigration. The prevalence ratio for post-immigration HIV testing was higher for participants that had health insurance (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-2.38) and a regular doctor or healthcare provider after immigration (aPR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-2.00), and post-immigration HIV testing was higher for participants that had ever been tested for HIV before immigration (aPR: 2.41, 95% CI 1.68-3.45). Also, the prevalence ratio was lower for those who engaged in condomless sex in the three months prior to immigration (aPR: 0.65, 95% 0.47-0.90). These findings suggest that addressing barriers to healthcare and prevention services for young adult recent Latino immigrants is needed to scale-up HIV testing in this population early in the immigration process.

2.
Ethn Health ; : 1-18, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-migration trauma is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinx immigrants. Pre-migration assets like family cohesion and social support may promote positive mental health outcomes in this population. The current study aims to identify the cumulative and interaction effects of pre-migration trauma, social support, and family cohesion on acculturative stress among recent Latinx immigrants (RLIs). METHOD: The current study utilizes baseline data from an on-going longitudinal study following 540 RLIs during their initial 3 years in the U.S. Simple main effects of the predictor variables on acculturative stress were estimated using hierarchical multiple regression (HMR). Predictor variables were entered into the HMR model as follows: (1) demographic variables were entered in the first block, (2) family cohesion and social support in the second block and (3) pre-migration trauma in the third block. Interaction effects between family cohesion and social support on the association between pre-migration trauma and acculturative stress were examined. RESULTS: Results showed that 20.6% of the variance of acculturative stress was explained by the predictor variables entered into the HMR model. The first predictor block included demographic variables and explained 13.5% of the variability in acculturative stress, R 2 = 13.5, F(6, 521) = 13.55, p < .001. The second block added family cohesion and social support to the HMR model and showed an ΔR 2 of 4.5%, R 2 = 18.0, F(8, 519) = 14.22, p < .001. The third block added pre- migration trauma to the HMR model and showed an ΔR 2 change of 2.6%, R 2 = 20.6, F(9, 518) = 14.93, p < .001. Significant interaction effects were found for family cohesion among documented RLIs. Social support was not a significant moderator. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest pre-migration resources such as family cohesion and social support may ameliorate post-immigration acculturative stress among RLI, while pre-migration trauma, may exacerbate acculturative stress.

3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599938

RESUMO

Although there is a substantial body of work focusing on the processes underlying cultural identity in general, less is known regarding how these processes might operate within the context of Latinx families. Moreover, among the limited research that has included the adolescent and caregiver cultural identity, most of the research has primarily focused on how caregivers influence their adolescent's cultural identity. In the present study, the directional pathways between recently immigrated adolescents' and caregivers' ethnic and U.S. identity belonging were examined using data from a longitudinal study of acculturation and identity development among recently arrived Latinx immigrant families. The sample consisted of 302 primary caregivers (Mage = 41.09, SD = 7.13 at baseline; 67.5% mothers) and their adolescents (Mage = 14.51, SD = 0.88 at baseline; 46.7% female). The results indicated that caregivers' ethnic identity belonging significantly predicted adolescents' ethnic identity belonging over time. At the same time, adolescents' ethnic identity negatively predicted caregivers' ethnic identity belonging over time, whereas adolescents' U.S. identity belonging positively predicted caregivers' later ethnic identity belonging. The findings indicate that immigrant caregivers may retain their native culture to direct and respond to their children's changing cultural identifications.

4.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(3): 339-344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459146

RESUMO

Background/Purpose: Emerging adulthood is an important time where substance use often peaks. Neighborhood Latinx ethnic density could be protective against negative health behaviors. Most studies on neighborhood ethnic density have focused on census-level aggregate measures, however perception of the neighborhood ethnic density could differ from objectively measured neighborhood density. This study investigated the effects of neighborhood ethnic density, both perceived ethnic and objectively measured ethnic density, on hazardous alcohol use among Latinx emerging adults in Maricopa County Arizona and Miami-Dade County Florida by gender. Methods: 200 Latinx emerging adults residing in Arizona and Florida completed a cross-sectional survey. Inclusion criteria were being age 18-25, self-identify as Latinx, and currently living in Maricopa County or Miami-Dade County. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and moderation analyses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between perceived and objective ethnic density (Kappa = 0.353, p < 0.001). When ethnic density was measured objectively, alcohol use severity was statistically significantly lower for individuals living in highly ethnically dense neighborhoods (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.92). However, this association was only found for women in moderation analyses. There was no statistically significant association between perceived ethnic density and alcohol use severity. Conclusion: The present study found a statistically significant decrease in alcohol use severity among Latinx emerging adults who live in highly ethnically dense neighborhoods after adjusting for covariates. Future research should investigate the potential mechanisms in which these neighborhoods protect against alcohol use severity among Latinx emerging adults.

5.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486977

RESUMO

Consistent antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is necessary for HIV viral suppression. However, adherence may fluctuate around daily routines and life events, warranting intervention support. We examined reasons for ART adherence interruptions, using in-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews, among young (18-34-year-old) Latino men who have sex with men (YLMSM) with HIV. Interviews (n = 24) were guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Theory, and the Socio-Ecological Model. Two coders independently coded transcripts using NVivo 12 software and synthesized codes into themes using Thematic Content Analysis. Results suggested 4 primary influences on ART adherence interruptions: (1) HIV diagnosis denial, (2) breaks in daily routine, (3) substance use, and (4) HIV status disclosure. Participant quotes highlighted routinization of pill-taking and planning ahead for breaks in routine as critically important. The narrative suggested modification of pill-taking routines during alcohol use, and that periods most vulnerable for long-term interruptions in ART adherence were following an HIV diagnosis and during periods of drug use. Support at the time of HIV diagnosis, including a plan for routinization of pill taking, and adaptive interventions incorporating real-time support during breaks in routines and substance use episodes may be one way to help YLMSM adhere to ARTs.

6.
J Clin Psychol ; 77(1): 121-144, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study introduces a daily, micro-level perspective on acculturation using a sample of Hispanic college students in Miami. METHODS: We conducted a 12-day diary study with a sample of first- and second-generation Hispanic college students in Miami. Outcome variables were measured on Days 1 and 12, and acculturation components (practices, identities, and values) were measured on Days 2-11. Daily fluctuations in acculturation components between Days 2 and 11 were examined as predictors of well-being, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing problems on Day 12. RESULTS: Fluctuations in comfort with speaking English negatively predicted three of the four well-being outcomes and positively predicted all of the internalizing and externalizing indicators. Fluctuations in collectivist values predicted two of the well-being outcomes and both anxiety and depressive symptoms, and fluctuations in ethnic identity predicted anxiety and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Daily volatility in comfort with English, collectivist values, and ethnic identity appear to be most distressing.

7.
Prev Sci ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231824

RESUMO

We examined national trends and mental health correlates of discrimination among Latinos in the USA. We used data from two nationally representative surveys based on the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2013. Results indicated that perceived discrimination, both any and recurrent, increased for Latinos across nearly every demographic, with the greatest increases occurring for Latinos who were ages 65 and older, had household incomes less than $35,000, were less educated, were immigrants, and who lived in the Midwest. Findings also indicated that any and recurrent discrimination were associated with increased odds of a mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder and this association was observed for nearly all manifestations of discrimination. We also observed a dose-response association where experiencing discrimination in a greater number of domains was associated with increased likelihood of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Results suggest that discrimination is a social stressor that has increased for Latino populations in recent years and may represent a serious risk factor for the psychological and behavioral health of Latinos. Findings are discussed in terms of prior research and the potential implications for prevention scientists working with Latino populations.

8.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 31(2): 713-723, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999583

RESUMO

Background: Efforts in the prevention and treatment of depression among Hispanic immigrant women require studies to identify modifiable factors of depression. Some factors that may merit investigation are gender roles such as egalitarian gender attitudes, marianismo, and self-silencing. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 231 Hispanic immigrant women living in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of covariates, egalitarian gender attitudes, marianismo, and self-silencing in relation to depression. Results: Egalitarian gender attitudes were not associated with depression. For marianismo domains, higher scores on the spiritual pillar scale were associated with lower odds of depression. With regard to self-silencing, higher scores on externalizing self-perception and divided self were associated with higher odds of depression. Conclusions: Findings add to the limited literature on depression among Hispanic immigrants and provides some insight on sociocultural factors that may be considered in depression interventions for Hispanic immigrant women.

9.
Stress Health ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002313

RESUMO

Most studies on psychosocial stress among Hispanics have focused on risk factors. To better understand psychosocial stress among this population, this study aimed to examine components of bicultural identity integration and bicultural self-efficacy, that may be associated with lower psychosocial stress among Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18-25). This aim was tested on a cross-sectional sample of Hispanic emerging adults (Mage = 21.30, SD = 2.09) that included 200 participants (Arizona n = 99, Florida n = 101). The sample included men (n = 98) and women (n = 102). Most participants were US-born (70%), college students (69.5%), and of Mexican heritage (44%). Standardized coefficients from a hierarchical multiple regression model indicate that higher levels of the bicultural harmony component of bicultural identity integration (ß = -0.26, p < 0.001) and the social groundedness component of bicultural self-efficacy (ß = -0.23, p < 0.01) were associated with lower levels of psychosocial stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine components of bicultural identity integration and bicultural self-efficacy and their respective associations with psychosocial stress among any racial/ethnic group. Thus, more studies are needed to replicate our findings to determine if bicultural identity integration and bicultural self-efficacy should be considered in psychosocial stress interventions for Hispanics.

10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 216: 108316, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diversion programs are considered alternatives to the arrest and incarceration of non-violent drug offenders, including those found in possession of smaller amounts of cannabis in states with prohibitive laws. Despite the progressive nature of such programs, the inability to complete diversion program requirements can often result in greater involvement with the criminal justice system than traditional case adjudication. Few studies have evaluated racial group differences in cannabis diversion program completion. METHODS: The current study examined a sample of 8323 adult participants in Harris County, Texas' Marijuana Misdemeanor Diversion Program (MMDP) between March 2017 and July 2019. Gender, age, and race/ethnicity were examined as predictors of program completion and time to completion using Chi square, Kruskal Wallis tests, and Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Both males and African Americans were over-represented (80 % and 50 %, respectively) among participants of Harris County's MMDP. African American (HR = 0.782, 95 % CI [.735-.832], p < .001) and Latino American MMDP participants (HR = .822, 95 % CI [.720-.937], p = .003) had significantly lower odds of MMDP completion and a longer interval to program completion as compared to non-Latino White participants. CONCLUSIONS: The current study identified racial/ethnic and gender disparities in a large county's cannabis diversion program. These findings may be related to law enforcement disparities which disproportionately target males and people of color. Findings may serve to inform the continued reform of the criminal justice system, particularly laws relating to cannabis.

11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 217: 108346, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identifying the factors associated with nicotine dependence (ND) is essential to prevent initiation and continued use, and to promote cessation among youth. This study aims to document the predictors of the appearance of initial ND symptoms and full ND syndrome among adolescent waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smokers. METHODS: A 6-year longitudinal study was conducted among 8th and 9th graders from 38 schools in Lebanon. The analysis sample included exclusive-WP (n = 228) and exclusive-cigarette smokers (n = 139). Weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterizing predictors of initial ND symptoms and full ND syndrome. RESULTS: Predictors of experiencing initial ND symptoms among WP smokers included low maternal educational level, having a sibling who smoked WP, low physical activity, high body mass index (BMI), smoking initiation at a younger age. For cigarette smokers these were being male, younger, having lower BMI, having a sibling who smoked cigarettes, living in a crowded household, and smoking daily. Among WP smokers, predictors of developing full ND syndrome include being younger, believing that WP smokers have more friends, depression, high levels of impulsivity, and initiating smoking at a younger age. For cigarette smokers, predictors of full ND syndrome were being younger and initiating smoking at a younger age. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation and prevention interventions targeting youth should address modifiable, and tobacco use-specific factors that influence the development of ND among young WP and cigarette smokers. They also need to start at a younger age to target those most vulnerable to developing life-long addiction to tobacco products.

12.
Clin Case Rep ; 8(10): 1867-1871, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088508

RESUMO

Legius syndrome is characterized by numerous café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling, but typically lacks the distinctive tumor manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1. We report two siblings with Legius syndrome and Lisch nodules illustrating the importance of eye surveillance in these patients.

13.
J Clin Psychol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869867

RESUMO

METHOD: Two hundred Hispanic emerging adults from Arizona (n = 99) and Florida (n = 101) completed a cross-sectional survey, and data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses. RESULTS: Higher social media discrimination was associated with higher symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety. Moderation analyses indicated that higher social media discrimination was only associated with symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety among men, but not women. CONCLUSION: This is likely the first study on social media discrimination and mental health among emerging adults; thus, expanding this emerging field of research to a distinct developmental period.

14.
J Clin Psychol ; 76(12): 2329-2344, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hispanic immigrants exhibit more positive outcomes than U.S.-born Hispanics across educational, psychological, and physical health indices, a phenomenon called the immigrant paradox. We examined the immigrant paradox in relation to alcohol use severity among Hispanic young adults while considering both positive (optimism) and negative (depressive symptoms) processes. METHOD: Among 200 immigrant and U.S.-born Hispanic young adults (Mage = 21.30; 49% male) in Arizona and Florida, we tested whether optimism and depressive symptoms statistically mediated the relationship between nativity and alcohol use severity. Specifically, we examined whether Hispanic immigrants reported greater optimism than their U.S.-born counterparts, and whether such optimism was, in turn, associated with less depressive symptoms and thus lower alcohol use severity. RESULTS: Indirect effects were significant in hypothesized directions (nativity → optimism → depressive symptoms → alcohol use severity). CONCLUSIONS: Both positive and negative psychological processes are important to consider when accounting for the immigrant paradox vis-à-vis alcohol use severity among Hispanic young adults.

15.
Addict Behav ; 108: 106442, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) examine respective associations of acculturation orientations (e.g., U.S. orientation and Hispanic orientation) and domains (e.g., social groundedness and role repertoire) of bicultural self-efficacy, the perceived confidence to function effectively within the receiving culture and the heritage culture, with alcohol use severity among Hispanic emerging adults. This study also aimed to (2) examine potential moderating factors of respective associations among acculturation orientations and bicultural self-efficacy with alcohol use severity. METHOD: 200 Hispanic emerging adults from Arizona (n = 99) and Florida (n = 101) completed a cross-sectional survey. Inclusion criteria were being ages 18-25, self-identify as Hispanic or Latina/o, and currently living in Maricopa County or Miami-Dade County. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses. RESULTS: Findings indicate that neither of the acculturation orientations nor role repertoire had main effects with alcohol use severity. However, higher social groundedness was associated with lower alcohol use severity. Moderation analyses indicate that the interaction between the U.S. orientation and study site and the interaction between the Hispanic orientation and social groundedness were statistically significant in relation to alcohol use severity. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that the U.S. orientation was associated with alcohol use severity only in Arizona highlights the need for multisite studies on acculturation. Our findings demonstrate that other sociocultural processes such as acculturation can impact bicultural self-efficacy; and that the association between bicultural self-efficacy and alcohol merits further investigation. However, more thorough assessments of bicultural self-efficacy are needed to better understand its effects on alcohol.

16.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408760

RESUMO

Negative emotions related to HIV testing may influence an individual's intentions to test for HIV. However, emotion regulation strategies such as cognitive reappraisal which involves reframing the meaning of an event to modify one's emotional response to it may potentially help to regulate these emotions and facilitate decisions to get tested for HIV. In this exploratory study, we examined the association between cognitive reappraisal and HIV testing intentions and whether this association differs by gender. Cross-sectional data were collected from a convenience sample of 157 Latino emerging adults aged 18-25 years living in Arizona and Florida through an online survey. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that cognitive reappraisal was significantly associated with HIV testing intentions (aOR: 1.44, 95% CI:1.04-1.99) and that this association was specific to females (aOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.39-4.43). Our results demonstrate the potential of cognitive reappraisal to facilitate HIV testing intentions among females. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate cognitive reappraisal training to regulate and adapt to the negative emotions associated with HIV testing in efforts to increase HIV testing.

17.
AIDS Care ; 32(12): 1556-1564, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131621

RESUMO

Latino emerging adults in the United States are at a high risk of HIV and have a low prevalence of HIV testing. This study examined the association between self-efficacy for HIV testing, distress tolerance and lifetime history of HIV testing, and tested the moderating effect of distress tolerance and sexual risk behaviors on the association between self-efficacy and lifetime history of HIV testing. Data were collected from a cross-sectional sample of 157 Latino emerging adults aged 18-25 using an online survey and were analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression and moderation analyses. We found that 62.8% of those engaging in sexual risk behaviors had ever been tested for HIV. Participants that reported higher levels of self-efficacy (aOR=3.49, 95%CI: 1.78-6.83) were more likely to have ever been tested for HIV in their lifetime. There was a statistically significant three-way interaction among self-efficacy for HIV testing, distress tolerance and sexual risk behaviors (b=2.76, 95%CI: .52, 5.00, p=.016). This interaction suggests that among those that reported any sexual risk behaviors, higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with lifetime history of HIV testing only at higher levels of distress tolerance. Further research is warranted to determine how self-efficacy and distress tolerance work together among high-risk groups to promote HIV testing.

18.
Addict Behav ; 106: 106352, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite important research advances on the alcohol use behaviors of Latinx immigrants, the bulk of existing evidence has focused on alcohol use patterns after immigrant's arrival to the US. The present study examines pre- to post immigration alcohol use trajectories among Latinx immigrants of diverse national origins throughout their first decade in the United States. METHODS: Data for this longitudinal study was collected between 2007 and 2017. At baseline, retrospective pre-immigration alcohol use data was collected on 527 Cuban, South American and Central American participants ages 18-34 who immigrated to the US less than one year prior. Three subsequent follow-up assessments over the past 10 years have collected data on post-immigration alcohol use. RESULTS: Overall decreases in pre- to post-immigration alcohol use were found. Gender, income, and national origin were associated with distinct drinking patterns after immigration. CONCLUSION: Findings underscore the importance of examining pre-immigration experiences among Latinx immigrants, in addition to longitudinal alcohol use patterns after immigration. This knowledge is important not only from an epidemiological perspective, but for the development of effective culturally relevant alcohol interventions targeting Latinx immigrants early in the immigration process.

19.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 112: 68-75, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several relatively safe and effective FDA-approved medications for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). Despite the existence of these medications, the rate of returning to opioid use after treatment is relatively high, underscoring the need for continued enhancement of treatments. Adjunctive psychosocial interventions paired with medication have been shown to improve OUD treatment outcomes. However, studies have yet to conclusively examine the distinct effects of the most widely utilized psychosocial treatment modalities. The current study will investigate the relationship between individual counseling, group therapy, and 12-Step participation and illicit opioid abstinence at the end of treatment, 1 and 3 months after treatment. METHOD: A secondary analysis was conducted with data from a sample of 570 individuals diagnosed with OUD who were recruited from eight substance abuse treatment centers in the United States. Participants were enrolled in a two-group randomized, controlled trial testing buprenorphine-naloxone versus extended-release naltrexone for OUD. A two-level hierarchical linear growth model was used to examine the effects of individual counseling, group therapy, and 12-Step participation on illicit opioid abstinence (urinanalyses) 1- and 3-months post-treatment. RESULTS: Hours of individual counseling and 12-Step participation significantly predicted abstinence at follow-up (p < .001, b = -0.59, 95% CI [0.42, 0.74]; p < .01, b = -0.05, 95% CI [0.92, 0.98]). There was a significant interaction between individual counseling and 12-Step participation (p < .01, b = -0.06, 95% CI [1.02, 1.10]). Additionally, participant age and employment status were significant predictors of illicit opioid abstinence (p < .01, b = -0.02, 95% CI [0.97, 0.99]; p < .01, b = -0.38, 95% CI [0.52, 0.90]). Hours of group therapy was not found to significantly predict illicit opioid abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that greater levels of individual therapy and 12-Step participation may be beneficial for individuals receiving medication treatment for OUD.

20.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 22(5): 1039-1048, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222904

RESUMO

Research examining factors associated with low uptake of HIV testing among Latino emerging adults is scarce. Thus, this study examined the association between familism support and lifetime history of HIV testing among Latino emerging adults, and whether nativity status and gender moderated this association. A cross-sectional online survey of 157 Latino emerging adults aged 18-25 years living in Arizona and Florida was conducted and data were analyzed using robust Poisson regression models. Results indicated that 59.9% of participants reported a lifetime history of HIV testing. Higher familism support was associated with a decreased prevalence of lifetime history of HIV testing (aPR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68- 0.95). Nativity status moderated the association between familism support and lifetime history of HIV testing, with this negative association, only found among immigrants (aPR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.74). Gender did not moderate this association. Familism support plays a role in HIV testing behaviors, and thus should be considered when developing programs to increase HIV testing among Latinos.

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