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1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524

RESUMO

Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PK), efficacy and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n=87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year post-transplant. PK were described with a two compartment model. During follow-up 11/87 patients died and 12/87 had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan AUC(0-∞) of 1000 mg.h/L the hazard ratio (95% CI) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23, 1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36, 1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4800 mg.h/L maximised the probability of success (>20 % engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80 and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in non-malignant disease.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(8): 776-785, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512162

RESUMO

Mutations in the coiled-coil and DNA-binding domains of STAT1 lead to delayed STAT1 dephosphorylation and subsequently gain-of-function. The associated clinical phenotype is broad and can include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and/or combined immunodeficiency (CID). We report a case of CMC/CID in a 10-year-old boy due to a novel mutation in the small ubiquitin molecule (SUMO) consensus site at the C-terminal region of STAT1 leading to gain-of-function by impaired sumoylation. Immunodysregulatory features of disease improved after Janus kinase inhibitor (jakinib) treatment. Functional testing after treatment confirmed reversal of the STAT1 hyper-phosphorylation and downstream transcriptional activity. IL-17 and IL-22 production was, however, not restored with jakinib therapy (ruxolitinib), and the patient remained susceptible to opportunistic infection. In conclusion, a mutation in the SUMO consensus site of STAT1 can lead to gain-of-function that is reversible with jakinib treatment. However, full immunocompetence was not restored, suggesting that this treatment strategy might serve well as a bridge to definitive therapy such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant rather than a long-term treatment option.

3.
Allergy ; 74(11): 2064-2076, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070805

RESUMO

The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) organized the first European Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases and Asthma. The main aim was to bring together all relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in the field of allergy, asthma and clinical Immunology around an open debate on contemporary challenges and potential solutions for the next decade. The Strategic Forum was an upscaling of the EAACI White Paper aiming to integrate the Academy's output with the perspective offered by EAACI's partners. This collaboration is fundamental for adapting and integrating allergy and asthma care into the context of real-world problems. The Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases brought together all partners who have the drive and the influence to make positive change: national and international societies, patients' organizations, regulatory bodies and industry representatives. An open debate with a special focus on drug development and biomedical engineering, big data and information technology and allergic diseases and asthma in the context of environmental health concluded that connecting science with the transformation of care and a joint agreement between all partners on priorities and needs are essential to ensure a better management of allergic diseases and asthma in the advent of precision medicine together with global access to innovative and affordable diagnostics and therapeutics.

7.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

8.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 280-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatched stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of graft loss, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and transplant-related mortality. Alternative graft manipulation strategies have been used over the last 11 years to reduce these risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the outcome of using different graft manipulation strategies among children with primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2017, 147 patients with primary immunodeficiencies received 155 mismatched grafts: 30 T-cell receptor (TCR) αß/CD19-depleted grafts, 43 cord blood (CB) grafts (72% with no serotherapy), 17 CD34+ selection with T-cell add-back grafts, and 65 unmanipulated grafts. RESULTS: The estimated 8-year survival of the entire cohort was 79%, transplant-related mortality was 21.7%, and the graft failure rate was 6.7%. Posttransplantation viral reactivation, grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) complicated 49.6%, 35%, and 15% of transplantations, respectively. Use of TCRαß/CD19 depletion was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade II to IV aGvHD (11.5%) and cGvHD (0%), although with a greater incidence of viral reactivation (70%) in comparison with other grafts. T-cell immune reconstitution was robust among CB transplants, although with a high incidence (56.7%) of grade II to IV aGvHD. Stable full donor engraftment was significantly greater at 80% among TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted and CB transplants versus 40% to 60% among the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly accessible CB and haploidentical grafts are suitable alternatives for patients with no HLA-matched donor. Cord transplantation without serotherapy and TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted grafts produced comparable survival rates of around 80%, although with a high rate of aGvHD with the former and a high risk of viral reactivation with the latter that need to be addressed.

11.
Haematologica ; 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309848

RESUMO

Hyper-IgE Syndromes comprise a group of inborn errors of immunity. STAT3-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent infections and eczema, and characteristic skeletal anomalies. A loss-of-function biallelic mutation in IL6ST encoding the GP130 receptor subunit (p.N404Y) has very recently been identified in a singleton patient (herein referred to as PN404Y) as a novel etiology of hyper-IgE syndrome. Here, we studied a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome caused by a novel homozygous mutation in IL6ST (p.P498L; patient herein referred to as PP498L) leading to abrogated GP130 signaling after stimulation with IL-6 and IL-27 in PBMCs as well as IL-6 and IL-11 in fibroblasts. Extending the initial identification of selective GP130 deficiency, we aimed to dissect the effects of aberrant cytokine signaling on T helper cell differentiation in both patients. Our results reveal the importance of IL-6 signaling for the development of CCR6-expressing memory CD4+ T cells (including T helper 17-enriched subsets) and non-conventional CD8+ T cells which were reduced in both patients. Downstream functional analysis of the GP130 mutants (p.N404Y and p.P498L) have shown differences in response to IL-27, with the p.P498L mutation having a more severe effect that is reflected by reduced T helper 1 cells in this patient (PP498L) only. Collectively, our data suggest that characteristic features of GP130-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome phenotype are IL-6 and IL-11 dominated, and indicate selective roles of aberrant IL-6 and IL-27 signaling on the differentiation of T cell subsets.

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2043, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245694

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS), also known as PASLI disease (p110d-activating mutation causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency) are combined immunodeficiencies resulting from gain-of-function mutations in the genes (PIK3CD and PIK3R1) encoding the subunits of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) and were first described in 2013. These mutations result in the hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K signally pathways. In this mini-review we have detailed the current treatment options for APDS. These treatments including conventional immunodeficiency therapies such as immunoglobulin replacement, antibiotic prophylaxis, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. We also discuss the more targeted therapies of mTOR inhibition with sirolimus and selective PI3Kδ inhibitors.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers had lymphoma, and 3 had gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in 6 patients with malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and natural killer (NK) cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included application of CTLA-4 fusion proteins, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in 2 affected mutation carriers after immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency can present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled because disease manifestation can occur as late as 50 years of age. EBV- and cytomegalovirus-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.

17.
Blood Adv ; 2(7): 777-786, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618462

RESUMO

Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can experience a severe disease course, with progressive destructive polyarthritis refractory to conventional therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including biologics, as well as life-threatening complications including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative immunomodulatory strategy for patients with such refractory disease. We treated 16 patients in 5 transplant centers between 2007 and 2016: 11 children with systemic JIA and 5 with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarticular JIA; all were either refractory to standard therapy, had developed secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/MAS poorly responsive to treatment, or had failed autologous HSCT. All children received reduced toxicity fludarabine-based conditioning regimens and serotherapy with alemtuzumab. Fourteen of 16 patients are alive with a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 2.8-96 months). All patients had hematological recovery. Three patients had grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of viral infections after HSCT was high, likely due to the use of alemtuzumab in already heavily immunosuppressed patients. All patients had significant improvement of arthritis, resolution of MAS, and improved quality of life early following allo-HSCT; most importantly, 11 children achieved complete drug-free remission at the last follow-up. Allo-HSCT using alemtuzumab and reduced toxicity conditioning is a promising therapeutic option for patients with JIA refractory to conventional therapy and/or complicated by MAS. Long-term follow-up is required to ascertain whether disease control following HSCT continues indefinitely.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599784

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ Syndrome (APDS), caused by autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3CD (APDS1) or PIK3R1 (APDS2), is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency. While initial cohort-descriptions summarized the spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations, questions about long-term disease evolution and response to therapy remain. The prospective European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)-APDS registry aims to characterize the disease course, identify outcome predictors, and evaluate treatment responses. So far, 77 patients have been recruited (51 APDS1, 26 APDS2). Analysis of disease evolution in the first 68 patients pinpoints the early occurrence of recurrent respiratory infections followed by chronic lymphoproliferation, gastrointestinal manifestations, and cytopenias. Although most manifestations occur by age 15, adult-onset and asymptomatic courses were documented. Bronchiectasis was observed in 24/40 APDS1 patients who received a CT-scan compared with 4/15 APDS2 patients. By age 20, half of the patients had received at least one immunosuppressant, but 2-3 lines of immunosuppressive therapy were not unusual before age 10. Response to rapamycin was rated by physician visual analog scale as good in 10, moderate in 9, and poor in 7. Lymphoproliferation showed the best response (8 complete, 11 partial, 6 no remission), while bowel inflammation (3 complete, 3 partial, 9 no remission) and cytopenia (3 complete, 2 partial, 9 no remission) responded less well. Hence, non-lymphoproliferative manifestations should be a key target for novel therapies. This report from the ESID-APDS registry provides comprehensive baseline documentation for a growing cohort that will be followed prospectively to establish prognostic factors and identify patients for treatment studies.

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