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1.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472852

RESUMO

Introduction Telomere length (TL) is a potential indicator of cancer predisposition, however, the multitude of techniques used to measure it causes the results to be heterogeneous and, in some cases, controversial. In the last years, several studies adopted a strategy based on TL associated genetic variants to generate a polygenic score, often referred as teloscore, used in lieu of direct TL measurement. For pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNEN), this strategy has not been attempted yet. Methods A teloscore was generated using 11 SNPs (NAF1-rs7675998, ZNF676-rs409627, TERC-rs10936599, CTC1-rs3027234, PXK-rs6772228, DHX35-rs6028466, OBFC1-rs9420907, ZNF208-rs8105767, ACYP2-rs11125529, TERT-rs2736100 and ZBTB46-rs755017) and 291 PanNEN cases and 1686 controls collected by the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium were genotyped to analyse the association of the teloscore and its individual SNPs with the risk of developing PanNEN. Results An association between genetically determined long telomeres and the risk of developing PanNEN (OR=1.99; CI 1.33-2.98; P=0.0008), for highest vs median (third) quintile was observed. In addition, two novel SNPs associated with PanNEN risk were identified: ZNF676-rs409627 (ORC/C_vs_G/G=2.27, CI 1.58-3.27, P=8.80×10-6) and TERT-rs2736100 (ORC/A_vs_C/C=2.03, CI 1.42-2.91, P=1.06×10-4). Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides for the first time a clear indication of the association between long genetically determined telomeres and increased risk of developing PanNEN.

2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 2, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear. METHODS: Among 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes. RESULTS: Eighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Risco
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(2): 352-361, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between candidate genetic variants and treatment outcomes of oxaliplatin, a drug commonly used for colorectal cancer patients, have been reported but not robustly established. This study aimed to validate previously reported prognostic and predictive genetic markers for oxaliplatin treatment outcomes and evaluate additional putative functional variants. METHODS: Fifty-three SNPs were selected based on previous reports (40 SNPs) or putative function in candidate genes (13 SNPs). We used data from 1,502 patients with stage II-IV colorectal cancer who received primary adjuvant chemotherapy, 37% of whom received oxaliplatin treatment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models for overall survival and progression-free survival were applied separately in stage II-III and stage IV patients. For predictive SNPs, differential outcomes according to the type of chemotherapy (oxaliplatin-based vs. others) were evaluated using an interaction term. For prognostic SNPs, the association was assessed solely in patients with oxaliplatin-based treatment. RESULTS: Twelve SNPs were predictive and/or prognostic at P < 0.05 with differential survival based on the type of treatment, in patients with stage II-III (GSTM5-rs11807, ERCC2-rs13181, ERCC2-rs1799793, ERCC5-rs2016073, XPC-rs2228000, P2RX7-rs208294, HMGB1-rs1360485) and in patients with stage IV (GSTM5-rs11807, MNAT1-rs3783819, MNAT1-rs4151330, CXCR1-rs2234671, VEGFA-rs833061, P2RX7-rs2234671). In addition, five novel putative functional SNPs were identified to be predictive (ATP8B3-rs7250872, P2RX7-rs2230911, RPA1-rs5030755, MGMT-rs12917, P2RX7-rs2227963). CONCLUSIONS: Some SNPs yielded prognostic and/or predictive associations significant at P < 0.05, however, none of the associations remained significant after correction for multiple testing. IMPACT: We did not robustly confirm previously reported SNPs despite some suggestive findings but identified further potential predictive SNPs, which warrant further investigation in well-powered studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 30(4): 474-479, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845334

RESUMO

There is overwhelming epidemiologic evidence that the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) has a solid genetic background. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 23 risk loci that contribute to the genetic susceptibility of MM, but have low individual penetrance. Combining the SNPs in a polygenic risk score (PRS) is a possible approach to improve their usefulness. Using 2361 MM cases and 1415 controls from the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, we computed a weighted and an unweighted PRS. We observed associations with MM risk with OR = 3.44, 95% CI 2.53-4.69, p = 3.55 × 10-15 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of the weighted score, and OR = 3.18, 95% CI 2.1 = 34-4.33, p = 1.62 × 10-13 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of the unweighted score. We found a convincing association of a PRS generated with 23 SNPs and risk of MM. Our work provides additional validation of previously discovered MM risk variants and of their combination into a PRS, which is a first step towards the use of genetics for risk stratification in the general population.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mieloma Múltiplo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
5.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 79: 105-131, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818625

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC), particularly its most common form, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), is relatively rare but highly lethal. Knowledge about PC risk factors could in the long term contribute to early diagnosis and mortality reduction. We review the current status of research on germline genetic factors for PC risk. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) successfully identified common loci convincingly associated with PC risk, an endeavor that is still ongoing. The function of only a handful of risk loci has being thoroughly characterized so far. Secondary analyses of existing GWAS data are being used to discover novel loci. GWAS data have also been used to study additional risk factors with a Mendelian randomization approach. Polygenic/multifactorial risk scores show much larger risks than individual variants, but their use for risk stratification in the population is not warranted yet. At the other end of the spectrum of inherited PC risk factors, rare high-penetrance variants co-segregating with the disease have been observed in familial cancer syndromes that include PC, or in families with multiple recurrence of PC alone. Rare variants predicted to have a deleterious effect on function are studied also with a case-control approach, by resequencing candidate genes or whole-exomes/whole-genomes. Telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number are useful additional DNA-based markers of PC susceptibility. The role of common variants in prognosis of PC patients has also been explored, albeit with more limited success than risk. Finally, genetics of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET), a rarer and heterogeneous form of PC, is still understudied.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(8): 1346-1355, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964454

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) variation has been associated with increased risk of several human diseases in epidemiological studies. The quantification of mtDNAcn performed with real-time PCR is currently considered the de facto standard among several techniques. However, the heterogeneity of the laboratory methods (DNA extraction, storage, processing) used could give rise to results that are difficult to compare and reproduce across different studies. Several lines of evidence suggest that mtDNAcn is influenced by nuclear and mitochondrial genetic variability, however this relation is largely unexplored. The aim of this work was to elucidate the genetic basis of mtDNAcn variation. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mtDNAcn in 6836 subjects from the ESTHER prospective cohort, and included, as replication set, the summary statistics of a GWAS that used 295 150 participants from the UK Biobank. We observed two novel associations with mtDNAcn variation on chromosome 19 (rs117176661), and 12 (rs7136238) that reached statistical significance at the genome-wide level. A polygenic score that we called mitoscore including all known single nucleotide polymorphisms explained 1.11% of the variation of mtDNAcn (p = 5.93 × 10-7). In conclusion, we performed a GWAS on mtDNAcn, adding to the evidence of the genetic background of this trait.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is worldwide the fourth more common cancer type by incidence, and the third by mortality. We analyzed three missense variants of TAS2R38 gene: rs713598 (A49P), rs1726866 (V262A), and rs10246939 (I296V). These variants and their combination in haplotypes (proline, alanine and valine/tasters or alanine, valine and isoleucine/nontasters) and diplotypes are responsible for individual differences in bitter perception. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the related phenotypes are known to be associated with susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as Helicobacter pylori, and with risk of various cancer types. An association between intermediate tasters (as defined by TAS2R38 diplotypes) and increased risk of gastric cancer was reported in a Korean population. METHODS: We analyzed 2616 individuals of Latin American origin, representing the whole spectrum of lesions from gastritis to gastric cancer. RESULTS: Comparing cancer cases vs. noncancers we observed a decrease in risk associated with heterozygous carriers of rs10246939 (P = 0.006) and rs1726866 (P = 0.003) when compared with homozygotes of the more common allele. Also, the analysis of diplotypes/phenotypes reflected the same association, with super-tasters showing a borderline increased risk of developing gastric cancer compared to medium-tasters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-2.56; P = 0.033]. Also, nontasters showed an increased risk when compared to medium-tasters although not reaching statistical significance (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 0.80-2.87; P = 0.203). We also tested the interactions between the TAS2R38 genotypes and H. pylori cagA status in a subset of samples and found no interaction. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results suggest only a modest contribution of TAS2R38 gene genetic variability in gastric cancer etiology.

8.
J Transl Genet Genom ; 5: 200-217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622145

RESUMO

AIM: Recessive genetic variation is thought to play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Runs of homozygosity (ROH), defined based on long, continuous segments of homozygous SNPs, can be used to estimate both measured and unmeasured recessive genetic variation. We sought to examine genome-wide homozygosity and NHL risk. METHODS: We used data from eight genome-wide association studies of four common NHL subtypes: 3061 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3814 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2784 follicular lymphoma (FL), and 808 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, as well as 9374 controls. We examined the effect of homozygous variation on risk by: (1) estimating the fraction of the autosome containing runs of homozygosity (FROH); (2) calculating an inbreeding coefficient derived from the correlation among uniting gametes (F3); and (3) examining specific autosomal regions containing ROH. For each, we calculated beta coefficients and standard errors using logistic regression and combined estimates across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We discovered positive associations between FROH and CLL (ß = 21.1, SE = 4.41, P = 1.6 × 10-6) and FL (ß = 11.4, SE = 5.82, P = 0.02) but not DLBCL (P = 1.0) or MZL (P = 0.91). For F3, we observed an association with CLL (ß = 27.5, SE = 6.51, P = 2.4 × 10-5). We did not find evidence of associations with specific ROH, suggesting that the associations observed with FROH and F3 for CLL and FL risk were not driven by a single region of homozygosity. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the role of recessive genetic variation in the etiology of CLL and FL; additional research is needed to identify the specific loci associated with NHL risk.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19787, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611289

RESUMO

Breast cancer metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer. Identification of germline variants associated with survival in aggressive types of breast cancer may inform understanding of breast cancer progression and assist treatment. In this analysis, we studied the associations between germline variants and breast cancer survival for patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis. We used data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) including 1062 women of European ancestry with metastatic breast cancer, 606 of whom died of breast cancer. We identified two germline variants on chromosome 1, rs138569520 and rs146023652, significantly associated with breast cancer-specific survival (P = 3.19 × 10-8 and 4.42 × 10-8). In silico analysis suggested a potential regulatory effect of the variants on the nearby target genes SDE2 and H3F3A. However, the variants showed no evidence of association in a smaller replication dataset. The validation dataset was obtained from the SNPs to Risk of Metastasis (StoRM) study and included 293 patients with metastatic primary breast cancer at diagnosis. Ultimately, larger replication studies are needed to confirm the identified associations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2179-2187, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that immune cells play a prominent role in pancreatic cancer etiology but prospective investigations are missing. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study with 502 pairs of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls. Relative counts of circulating immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocyte sublineages: total CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative to nucleated cells, (white blood cells) were measured by qRT-PCR. ORs with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regressions, modeling relative counts of immune cells on a continuous scale. RESULTS: Neither relative counts of immune cell types taken individually, nor mutually adjusted for each other were associated with pancreatic cancer risks. However, in subgroup analyses by strata of lag-time, higher relative counts of Tregs and lower relative counts of CD8+ were significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risks in participants diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results might reflect reverse causation, due to higher relative counts of Tregs and lower counts of CD8+ cells among individuals with more advanced stages of latent pancreatic cancer, who are closer to the point of developing clinical manifest disease. IMPACT: We have shown, for the first time, that increased relative counts of regulatory T cells and lower relative counts of CD8+, cytotoxic T cells may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk or relatively late-stage tumor development.See related commentary by Michaud and Kelsey, p. 2176.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 86, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15). RESULTS: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Br J Cancer ; 125(8): 1135-1145, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy. RESULTS: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10-2), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect. CONCLUSION: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(7): 1190-1203, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146516

RESUMO

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10-31).


Assuntos
Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Deleção de Sequência
14.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(4): 74, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854038

RESUMO

Telomeres are involved in processes like cellular growth, chromosomal stability, and proper segregation to daughter cells. Telomere length measured in leukocytes (LTL) has been investigated in different cancer types, including multiple myeloma (MM). However, LTL measurement is prone to heterogeneity due to sample handling and study design (retrospective vs. prospective). LTL is genetically determined; genome-wide association studies identified 11 SNPs that, combined in a score, can be used as a genetic instrument to measure LTL and evaluate its association with MM risk. This approach has been already successfully attempted in various cancer types but never in MM. We tested the "teloscore" in 2407 MM patients and 1741 controls from the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMeNSE) consortium. We observed an increased risk for longer genetically determined telomere length (gdTL) (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.36-2.11; P = 2.97 × 10-6 for highest vs. lowest quintile of the score). Furthermore, in a subset of 1376 MM patients we tested the relationship between the teloscore and MM patients survival, observing a better prognosis for longer gdTL compared with shorter gdTL (HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.86-0.99; P = 0.049). In conclusion, we report convincing evidence that longer gdTL is a risk marker for MM risk, and that it is potentially involved in increasing MM survival.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Homeostase do Telômero , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telômero/genética
15.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 111, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) is a very aggressive cancer and has one of the poorest prognoses. Usually, the diagnosis is late and resistant to conventional treatment. Environmental and genetic factors contribute to the etiology, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes and obesity. Somatic mutation in pancreatic cancer cells are known and SNP profile by GWAS could access novel genetic risk factors for this disease in different population context. Here we describe a SNP panel for Brazilian pancreatic cancer, together with clinical and epidemiological data. METHODS: 78 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 256 non-pancreatic cancer subjects had 25 SNPs genotyped by real-time PCR. Unconditional logistic regression methods were used to assess the main effects on PA risk, using allelic, co-dominant and dominant inheritance models. RESULTS: 9 SNPs were nominally associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk, with 5 of the minor alleles conferring protective effect while 4 related as risk factor. In epidemiological and clinical data, tobacco smoking, diabetes and pancreatitis history were significantly related to pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk. Polygenic risk scores computed using the SNPs in the study showed strong associations with PA risk. CONCLUSION: We could assess for the first time some SNPs related with PA in Brazilian populations, a result that could be used for genetic screening in risk population such as familial pancreatic cancer, smokers, alcohol users and diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7570, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828170

RESUMO

Although pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) survival is poor, there are differences in patients' response to the treatments. Detection of predictive biomarkers explaining these differences is of the utmost importance. In a recent study two genetic markers (CD44-rs353630 and CHI3L2-rs684559) were reported to be associated with survival after PDAC resection. We attempted to replicate the associations in 1856 PDAC patients (685 resected with stage I/II) from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium. We also analysed the combined effect of the two genotypes in order to compare our results with what was previously reported. Additional stratified analyses considering TNM stage of the disease and whether the patients received surgery were also performed. We observed no statistically significant associations, except for the heterozygous carriers of CD44-rs353630, who were associated with worse OS (HR = 5.01; 95% CI 1.58-15.88; p = 0.006) among patients with stage I disease. This association is in the opposite direction of those reported previously, suggesting that data obtained in such small subgroups are hardly replicable and should be considered cautiously. The two polymorphisms combined did not show any statistically significant association. Our results suggest that the effect of CD44-rs353630 and CHI3L2-rs684559 cannot be generalized to all PDAC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Quitinases/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Cancer Res ; 81(11): 3134-3143, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine whether there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P < 5 × 10-8 was considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region that included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 [per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95% CI, 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.40, P interaction = 3.08 × 10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1818613 (r 2 = 0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings. SIGNIFICANCE: This large genome-wide interaction study identifies a susceptibility locus on 2q21.3 that significantly modified PDAC risk by smoking status, providing insight into smoking-associated PDAC, with implications for prevention.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/etiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Ciclina T/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
18.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 15, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex disease in which both non-genetic and genetic factors interplay. To date, 40 GWAS hits have been associated with PC risk in individuals of European descent, explaining 4.1% of the phenotypic variance. METHODS: We complemented a new conventional PC GWAS (1D) with genome spatial autocorrelation analysis (2D) permitting to prioritize low frequency variants not detected by GWAS. These were further expanded via Hi-C map (3D) interactions to gain additional insight into the inherited basis of PC. In silico functional analysis of public genomic information allowed prioritization of potentially relevant candidate variants. RESULTS: We identified several new variants located in genes for which there is experimental evidence of their implication in the biology and function of pancreatic acinar cells. Among them is a novel independent variant in NR5A2 (rs3790840) with a meta-analysis p value = 5.91E-06 in 1D approach and a Local Moran's Index (LMI) = 7.76 in 2D approach. We also identified a multi-hit region in CASC8-a lncRNA associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis-with a lowest p value = 6.91E-05. Importantly, two new PC loci were identified both by 2D and 3D approaches: SIAH3 (LMI = 18.24), CTRB2/BCAR1 (LMI = 6.03), in addition to a chromatin interacting region in XBP1-a major regulator of the ER stress and unfolded protein responses in acinar cells-identified by 3D; all of them with a strong in silico functional support. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-step strategy, combined with an in-depth in silico functional analysis, offers a comprehensive approach to advance the study of PC genetic susceptibility and could be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 623-642, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (P adj > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m2 [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Estrona/análogos & derivados , Pregnanodiol/análogos & derivados , Progesterona/urina , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Estrona/genética , Estrona/urina , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pregnanodiol/genética , Pregnanodiol/urina , Pré-Menopausa
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