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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 136, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The People's Republic of China (P. R. China) has made significant progress on schistosomiasis control. Among the 12 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs) with schistosomiasis endemic in P. R. China, Guangdong, Shanghai, Fujian, Guangxi and Zhejiang PLADs (following as five PLADs) had successively eliminated schistosomiasis during 1985-1995. However, consolidation of the schistosomiasis elimination in these five PLADs remains challenging. In the current study, we sought to understand the epidemic situation in these post-elimination areas and their surveillance capabilities on schistosomiasis. METHODS: Annual data reflecting the interventions and surveillance on human beings, cattle and snails based on county level from 2005 to 2016 were collected through the national schistosomiasis reporting system and the data were analyzed to understand the epidemic status of schistosomiasis in the five PLADs. A standardized score sheet was designed to assess the surveillance capacity for schistosomiasis of selected disease control agencies in five PLADs and ten counties. Assessment on surveillance capacity including schistosomiasis diagnostic skills, identification of snails' living and infection status and knowledge about schistosomiasis and its control were made. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the epidemic status and evaluation results on surveillance capacities. RESULTS: The assessments showed that no local cases in humans and cattle or infected snail were found in these five PLADs since 2005. However, from 2005 to 2016, a total of 221 imported cases were detected in Zhejiang, Shanghai and Fujian, and 11.98 hm2 of new snail habitats were found in Zhejiang, Shanghai and Guangxi. In addition, snail infestation reoccurred in 247.55 hm2 of former snail habitats since 2011. For the surveillance capacity assessment, the accuracy rate of IHA and MHT were 100 and 89.3%, respectively. All participants could judge the living status of snails accurately and 98.1% on the infection status of snails. The accuracy rate of the questionnaire survey was 98.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Elimination of schistosomiasis was consolidated successfully in five PLADs of P. R. China due to effective and strong post-elimination surveillance. Comprehensive consolidation strategies should be focused on the elimination of residual snails and the prevention of imported infection sources to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control.

2.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 1-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563322

RESUMO

Being a zoonotic parasitic disease, schistosomiasis was widely spread in 12 provinces of Southern China in the 1950s, severly harming human health and hindering economic development. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, and Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research (NIPD-CTDR), as the only professional institution focussing on parasitic diseases at the national level, has played an important role in schistosomiasis control in the country. In this article, we look back at the changes of schistosomiasis endemicity and the contribution of NIPD-CTDR to the national schistosomiasis control programme. We review NIPD-CTDR's activities, including field investigations, design of control strategies and measures, development of diagnostics and drugs, surveillance-response of endemic situation, and monitoring & evaluation of the programme. The NIPD-CTDR has mastered the transmission status of schistosomiasis, mapped the snail distribution, and explored strategies and measures suitable for different types of endemic areas in China. With a good understanding of the life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum and transmission patterns of the disease, advanced research carried out in the NIPD-CTDR based on genomics and modern technology has made it possible to explore highly efficient and soft therapeutic drugs and molluscicides, making it possible to develop new diagnostic tools and produce vaccine candidates. In the field, epidemiological studies, updated strategies and targeted intervention measures developed by scientists from the NIPD-CTDR have contributed significantly to the national schistosomiasis control programme. This all adds up to a strong foundation for eliminating schistosomiasis in China in the near future, and recommendations have been put forward how to reach this goal.

3.
Adv Parasitol ; 110: 349-371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563331

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases have been widely epidemic in China with a long history. Great endeavours made in past 70 years led to significant decrease in morbidity and mortablity caused by several major parasitic diseases, while challenges existed to eliminate parasitic diseases. Surveillance-response system has play a crucial role in identifying public health problems, ascertaining the distribution and epidemic dynamics, discovering outbreaks and epidemic anomalies, evaluating the effects of on-site intervention activities and identifying risk factors. In this article, we reviewed the progress of the surveillance system for parasitic diseases, analysed the role of NIPD in the construction and application of surveillance-response system of parasitic diseases through elaborating the surveillance activities and typical surveillance-response events led by NIPD. Suggestion and comments for improve the surveillance-response system were put forward for further control or elimination of parasitic diseases.

4.
Med Ultrason ; 22(2): 211-219, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399528

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the value of S-Detect (a computer aided diagnosis system using deep learning) in breast ultrasound (US) for discriminating benign and malignant breast masses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was performed and relevant studies using S-Detect for the differential diagnosis of breast masses were selected. The quality of included studies was assessed using a Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) questionnaire. Two review authors independently searched the articles and assessed the eligibility of the reports. RESULTS: A total of ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95%CI: 0.77-0.87) and 0.86 (95%CI: 0.76-0.92), respectively. In addition, the diagnostic odds ratios, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 28 (95%CI: 16- 49), 5.7 (95%CI: 3.4-9.5), and 0.21 (95%CI: 0.16-0.27), respectively. Area under the curve was 0.89 (95%CI: 0.86-0.92). No significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: S-Detect exhibited a favourable diagnostic value in assisting physicians discriminating benign and malignant breast masses and it can be considered as a useful complement for conventional US.

5.
J Ultrasound Med ; 39(2): 213-222, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343772

RESUMO

To estimate the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in distinguishing between benign and malignant superficial lymph nodes, relevant articles published before October 31, 2018, in China and other countries were used. Conclusively, a total of 18 articles were analyzed. Sixteen studies used Virtual Touch tissue quantification (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany), and 4 studies used Virtual Touch tissue imaging (Siemens Healthineers). After a meta-analysis, it was found that acoustic radiation force impulse elastography is an efficient method for detecting superficial lymph nodes. In addition, if the cutoff value for the shear wave velocity were less than 2.85 m/s, the summary sensitivity would increase, and the heterogeneity would be reduced.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(1): 179-180, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855529

RESUMO

China has made remarkable progress in reducing schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum over the past 7 decades but now faces a severe threat from imported schistosomiasis. Results from national surveillance during 2010-2018 indicate integrating active surveillance into current surveillance models for imported cases is urgently needed to achieve schistosomiasis elimination in China.

7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 91, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB,both smear positive and smear negative) is an airborne infectious disease of major public health concern in China and other parts of the world where PTB endemicity is reported. This study aims at identifying PTB spatio-temporal clusters and associated risk factors in Zhaotong prefecture-level city, located in southwest China, where the PTB notification rate was higher than the average rate in the entire country. METHODS: Space-time scan statistics were carried out using PTB registered data in the nationwide TB online registration system from 2011 to 2015, to identify spatial clusters. PTB patients diagnosed between October 2015 and February 2016 were selected and a structured questionnaire was administered to collect a set of variables that includes socio-economic status, behavioural characteristics, local environmental and biological characteristics. Based on the discovery of detailed town-level spatio-temporal PTB clusters, we divided selected subjects into two groups including the cases that resides within and outside identified clusters. Then, logistic regression analysis was applied comparing the results of variables between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 1508 subjects consented and participated in the survey. Clusters for PTB cases were identified in 38 towns distributed over south-western Zhaotong. Logistic regression analysis showed that history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 3.683, 95% CI: 2.180-6.223), living in an urban area (OR = 5.876, 95% CI: 2.381-14.502) and using coal as the main fuel (OR = 9.356, 95% CI: 5.620-15.576) were independently associated with clustering. While, not smoking (OR = 0.340, 95% CI: 0.137-0.843) is the protection factor of spatial clustering. CONCLUSIONS: We found PTB specially clustered in south-western Zhaotong. The strong associated factors influencing the PTB spatial cluster including: the history of chronic bronchitis, living in the urban area, smoking and the use of coal as the main fuel for cooking and heating. Therefore, efforts should be made to curtail these associated factors.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Bronquite Crônica/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Classe Social , Conglomerados Espaço-Temporais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 53, 2017 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases in China ranks third in the world. A continuous increase in cases has recently been recorded in Zhaotong prefecture-level city, which is located in the northeastern part of Yunnan province. This study explored the space-time dynamics of PTB cases in Zhaotong to provide useful information that will help guide policymakers to formulate effective regional prevention and control strategies. METHODS: The data on PTB cases were extracted from the nationwide tuberculosis online registration system. Time series and spatial cluster analyses were applied to detect PTB temporal trends and spatial patterns at the town level between 2011 and 2015 in Zhaotong. Three indicators of PTB treatment registration history were used: initial treatment registration rate, re-treatment registration rate, and total PTB registration rate. RESULTS: Seasonal trends were detected with an apparent symptom onset peak during the winter season and a registration peak during the spring season. A most likely cluster and six secondary clusters were identified for the total PTB registration rate, one most likely cluster and five secondary clusters for the initial treatment registration rate, and one most likely cluster for the re-treatment registration rate. The most likely cluster of the three indicators had a similar spatial distribution and size in Zhenxiong County, which is characterised by a poor socio-economic level and the largest population in Yunnan. CONCLUSION: This study identified temporal and spatial distribution of PTB in a high PTB burden area using existing health data. The results of the study provide useful information on the prevailing epidemiological situation of PTB in Zhaotong and could be used to develop strategies for more effective PTB control at the town level. The cluster that overlapped the three PTB indicators falls within the geographic areas where PTB control efforts should be prioritised.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134087

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of schistosomasis prevalence by using the spatial epidemiological method, and test the application of retrospective space-time permutation scan statistics in determining mountainous and lake-type endemic areas of schistosomiasis. Methods: The data of schistosomasis in humans, cattle and snails in Jiangxi Province during 2009-2014 and in Yunnan Province during 2004-2013 were collected and analyzed. The temporal and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis endemic areas in the two provinces was analyzed with retrospective space-time permutation scan statistics. Results: The prevalence of schistosomiasis in residents and Oncomelania snails showed a trend of decline in Jiangxi, from 0.21% and 0.03% in 2009 to 0.01% and zero in 2014. A similar trend was found in cattle, from 1.25% in 2012 to 0.12% in 2014. The average annual percentage change (APC) in residents was-47.36%(P < 0.05). The space-time permutation clustering analysis revealed a temporal and spatial clustering of schistosomiasis prevalence from 2009 to 2014 in residents, cattle, and snails, with 3,2 and 1 clustering areas, respectively, all distributed in Poyang Lake Region. A similar declining trend of schistosomiasis prevalence was found in residents, snails and cattle in Yunnan during 2004-2013, from 2.49%,0.70% and 3.76% in 2004 to no infection in residents and snails and 0.02% in cattle in 2013. The APC in residents was-49.17%(P < 0.05). There was a temporal and spatial clustering of schistosomiasis prevalence during 2004-2013 in residents, cattle, and snails, with 2,2 and 6 clustering areas, respectively. Conclusion: A declining trend of schistosomiasis prevalence is shown in lake-type endemic areas in Jiangxi during 2009-2014 and in mountainous endemic areas in Yunnan during 2004-2013. The retrospective space-time permutation scan statistics reveal a clustering of schistosomiasis in humans, cattle, and snails, suggesting its applicability in analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos , Lagos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Caramujos , Análise Espacial
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 5(1): 74, 2016 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease spread rapidly in West Africa in 2014, leading to the loss of thousands of lives. Community engagement was one of the key strategies to interrupt Ebola transmission, and practical community level measures needed to be explored in the field and tailored to the specific context of communities. METHODS: First, community-level education on Ebola virus disease (EVD) prevention was launched for the community's social mobilizers in six districts in Sierra Leone beginning in November 2014. Then, from January to May of 2015, in three pilot communities, local trained community members were organized to engage in implementation of EVD prevention and transmission interruption measures, by involving them in alert case report, contact tracing, and social mobilization. The epidemiological indicators of transmission interruption in three study communities were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 6 016 community social mobilizers from 185 wards were trained by holding 279 workshops in the six districts, and EVD message reached an estimated 631 680 residents. In three pilot communities, 72 EVD alert cases were reported, with 70.8 % of them detected by trained local community members, and 14 EVD cases were finally identified. Contact tracing detected 64.3 % of EVD cases. The median duration of community infectivity for the cases was 1 day. The secondary attack rate was 4.2 %, and no third generation of infection was triggered. No health worker was infected, and no unsafe burial and noncompliance to EVD control measures were recorded. The community-based measures were modeled to reduce 77 EVD cases, and the EVD-free goal was achieved four months earlier in study communities than whole country of Sierra Leone. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based strategy of social mobilization and community engagement was effective in case detection and reducing the extent of Ebola transmission in a country with weak health system. The successfully practical experience to reduce the risk of Ebola transmission in the community with poor resources would potentially be helpful for the global community to fight against the EVD and the other diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26094407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlations between inputs and costs and endemic situation of schistosomiasis in inner embankment, so as tb provide the references for the strategy optimization of schistosomiasis control. METHODS: Jiangling County was selected as the study field. The correlatibn and regression analyses were applied to analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013. The methods of two-stages least squares and path analysis were applied to analyze the impacts between costs and inputs and endemic situation of schistosomiasis. RESULTS: The adjusted infection rate of population, number of bovines and Oncomelania hupensis snail areas reduced by 77.42%, 76.34% and 19.43%, respectively in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013. The correlations between the infection rate of snails and the population positive rates of blood and fecal exams, and the infection rate of bovines were significant (all P < 0.05); and there was a significant linear regression between the infection rates of snails and bovines (P < 0.05). There were statistically significant regressions between inputs at different levels and the population positive rates of blood and fecal exams, and the infection rates of bovines and snails, as well as between the costs and the population positive rate of fecal exams and the infection rates of bovines and snails (all P < 0.05), whereas there was no statistically significant regression between the costs and the population positive rate by blood exams (P > 0.05). The inputs at county level had an impact on the population positive rate of blood exams; the costs of comprehensive treatment had an impact on the population positive rate of fecal exams; the costs of human labor and measures for exams and treatments had an impact on the infeiction rate of bovines; the inputs at national level and the costs of measures for exams and treatments had an impact on the infection rate of snails (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The inputs and costs of schistosomiasis control were related to the epidemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013; therefore, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive surveillance system as substitute for the current indexes on schistosomiasis control.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Esquistossomose/economia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Caramujos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caramujos/parasitologia , Áreas Alagadas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Trop ; 145: 88-92, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25700711

RESUMO

Coverage of migrating people in schistosomiasis control program is a growing concern in China. Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is still one of the major infectious diseases of public health importance in China though tremendous efforts have been made to control the transmission over the past decades. Along with the rapid social-economic development, migrant population has been remarkably increasing across the country. The infected migrants may introduce a new souse of infection to endemic areas or the areas where the transmission had been controlled or interrupted but the intermediate host Oncomelania snail is still present. Preliminary studies for surveillance on schistosomiasis prevalence in migrants were reported, but there is little basic information provided. We carried out an investigation on the prevalence in immigrants, emigrants and permanent residents in three villages of Hunan province located in the main endemic area of lake region, and analyzed the potential impact of migration on control practice. In the study villages, the migrant population accounts for 53.6% of the total. Schistosoma infection was detected by modified Kato-Katz method and miracidium hatching test. Questionnaire survey was conducted comprising knowledge of disease and its transmission, water contact, personal protective measures, and whether examined and treated after water contact. The survey indicated that the migrants and permanent residents had similar life style, and the majority of them experienced water contact in agricultural work or routine life activities. However, the infection rate in immigrants was significantly higher than that in permanent residents. It was also found that the migrants had significantly less knowledge about the disease than the permanent residents, and took no personal protective measures. This is due to that the control program could not cover the migrants when they were absent at the time the program being implemented. The present study suggested that the surveillance and intervention for migrants, immigrants in particular, should be included and strengthened in schistosomiasis control program and a feasible scheme be developed.


Assuntos
Schistosoma japonicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/tratamento farmacológico , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27097470

RESUMO

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2014, and analyzed the data captured from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi had achieved transmission interruption, 4 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Hubei had achieved transmission control, and Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces were still at infection control until 2014. There were 453 counties (city, district) endemic for schistosomiasis, with 251 million residents, and 30,048 villages endemic for schistosomiasis, with 68 million 507 thousand and 3 hundred residents. Among the 453 endemic counties (city, district), 69.09% (313/453) and 29.80% (135/ 453) endemic counties (city, district) reached the transmission interruption and transmission control respectively while the number of counties (city, district) at the stage of infection control reduced from 34 in 2013 to 5 in 2014 (accounted for 1.10% of the total number of endemic counties, 5/53). Till 2014, 115,614 people were estimated to have schistosomiasis and only 2 acute schistosomiasis cases were reported. In addition, there were 30,880 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2014. In 2014, a total of 9,461,348 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 8,270 persons were found stool positives with the reduction rate of 50.96% as compared to that (16,865 cases) in 2013. The Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 20 123 endemic villages in 2014, and the snails were detected in 5,653 villages, which accounted for 28.09% of total villages, with 13 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 576,506.37 hm² and snails were found in an area of 364 324.42 hm², including an area of 531.13 hm² detected snails for the first time. No schistosome infected snails were found in 2014. A total of 919,579 head of cattle were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China. In 2014, 494,620 head of cattle received examinations and only 666 were determined as stool positives. Based on the data from the 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, the mean Schistosomajaponicum infection rate was 0.11% and 0.05% in humans and cattle respectively, and no infected snails were detected in 2014. There were 280,855 schistosomiasis cases receiving treatments, with 2,565,555 cases undergoing expanded chemotherapy; there were 798 head of cattle with schistosomiasis receiving treatments, with 408,690 head of cattle undergoing expanded chemotherapy; there was a total 138,923.90 hm² area with snail control by using molluscicides , with actual mollusciciding of 74,538.17 hm²; and there was an environmental modification of 5,331.42 hm². These data demonstrate a decline in the endemic city of schistosomiasis in China in 2014. However, the risk of schistosomiasis transmission remains high in some regions. Further control and effective surveillance should be strengthened to consolidate the achievements and reduce the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 26(4): 367-9, 381, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25434131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial-time distribution characteristics of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County, Hubei Province from 2006 to 2011. METHODS: The surveillance data of schistosomiasis of Jiangling County from 2006 to 2011 were collected, and a spatial database was established. The spatial-time permutation cluster analysis was performed by SaTScan 9.1.1 to detect the spatial-time cluster areas of schistosomiasis, and a risk map was drawn by ArcGIS 10.0. RESULTS: Compared to 2006, the infection rates of human, cattle and Oncomelania hupensis snails decreased by 47.67%, 93.34% and 52.41%, respectively in 2011. The space-time permutation clustering analysis of the infection rates of human, cattle and snails showed 4, 3 and 4 clusters, respectively, and all the clustered areas were distributed in inner embankment areas. CONCLUSIONS: From 2006 to 2011, the schistosomiasis endemic situation presents a decline trend in Jiangling County. The detected cluster areas are the important areas for schistosomiasis control. The space-time permutation statistics could be used in the analysis of endemic situation of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25345167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the schistosomiasis japonica infection and preventive knowledge of immigration population in Jinshan District, Shanghai so as to provide the evidence for improving the control work. METHODS: The immigration population from schistosomiasis endemic provinces and local people were screened by serum IHA screening for schistosome infection, and the positives were further examined by Kato-Katz technique and the miracidium hatching method. The schistosomiasis preventive knowledge and behaviors were investigated by questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 579 were investigated with 348 immigration people and 231 local people, and among them, the male accounted for 72.0% and female accounted for 28.0%. In the immigration population, the main age group was 20-29 (56.0%), and 56.6% of the immigration had an education level at senior middle school or higher. The most proportion of immigration was from Anhui Province (36.2%). There were 4 IHA positive persons (1.15%) in the immigration, and 1 was positive in the stool test, and the schistosome infection rate was 0.29%. There were no positives in the local people. The schistosomiasis preventive knowledge of the immigration was generally poor, and some people' s behaviors of see doctor and medication were incorrect. CONCLUSION: There are schistosome infected persons among the immigration population from schistosomiasis endemic provinces, and their schistosomiasis prevention knowledge was poor, thus there is a schistosomiasis transmission risk.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25223050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the progress of implementation of integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources and effectiveness for joint-project of schistosomiasis control in Hubei province. METHODS: Data on the endemic status and implementation of each integrated intervention in 6 collaborated counties including Gongan, Hanchuan, Honghu, Jiangling, Xiantao and Yangxin during 2009-2013 were collected and analyzed. 18 administrative villages with a history of endemic schistosomisis from 6 counties were selected for field survey. Individuals aged 6-65 years received screening test by IHA, and feces of antibody positive inhabitants were collected and tested by miracidia hatching technique. Hatching technique was conducted to determine the infection rate of schistosomiasis in cattle if there was any cattle existed. RESULTS: Various interventions were conducted with adaption to the local situation by the Departments of Agriculture, Water Conservancy, Forestry, and Health. The total number of cattle decreased from 75 388 at the beginning of 2009 to 1 805 at the end of 2013 in 6 counties with a reduction rate of 97.5%, while the prevalence in cattle reduced to 0-0.3% in 2013. Snail-infested areas were stable but areas with infected snails decreased significantly, and no infected snails were found in 2012-2013. Meanwhile, the infection rate of human beings on county level were less than 1%. No infected snails and cattle were found in 18 selected villages and the prevalence in inhabitants was in the range of 0-0.8%. CONCLUSION: Cooperation between provincial government and the Ministries of Health and Agruiculture accelerates the process to reach the criteria of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province. However, sustainable effort in needed as the current endemic situation of schistosomiasis is stillunstable.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Fezes , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Caramujos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25051834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of schistosomiasis control in Gongan County, Hubei Province by longitudinal observations so as to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis control strategy in lake and marshland regions. METHODS: The schistosomiasis epidemic data in Gongan County from 2000-2013 were collected by the retrospective research method, and analyzed about the changing tendency of human and cattle infection rates, and Oncomelania hupensis snail situation. RESULTS: The tendency of schistosomiasis epidemic situation was descended from 2000 to 2013. The human infection rate declined from 12.62% in 2000 to 0.69% in 2013. The decline scope of human infection rate was 24.1% in the first stage, 64.4% in the second stage, and 73.0% in the third stage. Eight acute schistosomiasis cases were reported in the first stage, 15 cases in the second stage, and none in the third stage. The cattle infection rate declined from 6.50% in 2000 to 0.30% in 2013. The rise scope of cattle infection rate was 74.2% in the first stage, but the decline scope was 75.0% in the second stage and 87.6% in the third stage. All the cattle were disposal at the end of 2013. The infection rate of snails, area with infected snails, and average density of living snails in the first stage increased by 18.1%, 46.0% and 7.6%, respectively. The 3 indexes above-mentioned in the second stage decreased by 76.8%, 97.8% and 37.9%, respectively. In the third stage, the infection rate of snails and area with infected snails decreased by both 100%, but the average density of living snails increased by 2.7%. The infected snails were found from 2000 to 2011, but none in 2012 and 2013. The infection rate of snails and area with infected snails dropped yearly, the infection rate of snails declined from 0.0007% in 2000 to 0.0002% in 2011, and the area with infected snails declined from 267.8 hm2 in 2000 to 6.37 hm2 in 2011. CONCLUSION: After the implementation of the integrated schistosomiasis prevention and control strategy with the emphasis on infectious source control, the human and cattle schistosome infection rates decline significantly. Hereafter, it is necessary to prevent the schistosomiasis epidemic outbreak or rebound.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caramujos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964649

RESUMO

The diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) infection in low prevalence areas of the People's Republic of China is challenging due to the sensitivity of the detection methods, leading to an underestimation of the disease burden. We compared the sensitivities of the miracidium hatching test (MHT) with the modified Kato-Katz method (KK) and the combination of the two methods (KK-MHT) to detect Sj infection in low prevalence areas of China. The stool samples of 3,853 residents from 8 villages with a light to moderate prevalence (0-23%) of Sj infection were examined by KK, MHT and KK-MHT. The findings were inconsistent. The KK-MHT conbination gave more positives than either the KK or MHT alone. Using the KK-MHT, we determined the missed rates with the KK (mR(K)) and MHT (mR(H)) to be 30.1% and 10.2%, respectively. At light prevalence sites (infection rate < 10%) the mR(K) was 60.6%, significantly higher than the mR(K) of 22.3% found at moderate prevalence sites (10-23%). However, the mR(H) at the light and moderate prevalence sites were 11.54% and 9.90%, respectively (p > 0.05). The combination KK-MHT had the best sensitivity in low Sj prevalence areas in China and the KK method alone was the least sensitive. Using KK alone as a screening method will result in an underestimation of Sj infection disease burden.


Assuntos
Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Japônica/diagnóstico , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25782259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To build a high quality diagnosis system for schistosomiasis surveillance in the situation of low infection in Jianglin County. METHODS: The network laboratory for schistosomiasis diagnosis was built according to the national criteria in Jianglin County in 2012. RESULTS: The network laboratory for schistosomiasis diagnosis was established successfully and the operation was quiet well. CONCLUSION: The establishment and operation of the laboratory play an important role in the realization of schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Laboratórios/normas , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Animais , China , Cidades , Humanos , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Recursos Humanos
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25856882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the schistosomiasis control effect of the measures of replacing cattle with machine for cultivation and forbidding depasturage of livestock on marshlands in marshland and lake regions. METHODS: The retrospective review and field survey were implemented in the Jiangling and Gongan counties of Hubei Province where were implemented with the measure of replacing cattle with machine for cultivation, and Yuanjiang and Huarong counties of Hunan Province where were implemented with the measure of forbidding the depasturage of livestock on marshlands. The schistosome infection status of human, cattle, and Oncomelania hupensis snails, and schistosome-infested field excreta were surveyed from 2007 to 2013. The effects of the interventions were compared before and after their implementations. RESULTS: The 6 villages of Hubei Province were implemented with the measure of replacing cattle with machine for cultivation, and 7 villages of Hunan Province were implemented with the measure of forbidding the depasturage of livestock on marshlands. From 2007 to 2013, the schistosome infection rates of residents declined from 3.95% to 0.70% (χ2 = 128.376, P < 0.05), with the descend range of 82.53%. The descend ranges of the measures of replacing cattle with machine for cultivation and forbidding the depasturage of livestock on marshlands were 83.081% and 81.62% respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two measures (χ2 = 0.132, P > 0.05). The infection rate of cattle decreased from 3.66% in 2007 to 0.65% in 2013, and the descend range was 82.24% (χ2 = 13.692, P < 0.05). The field excreta was surveyed in the snail breeding place in 2013. The investigated area was 157.435 hm2, and 625 samples of field feces of cattle were collected with the density of field excreta of 3.97/hm2, and the positive rate was 1.12% (7/625). The schistosome infection rate of snails and the density of infected snails decreased successively from 2007, and no infected snails were detected from 2011 to 2013. CONCLUSIONS: The schistosomiasis endemic situation are decreased significantly after the interventions of replacing cattle with machine for cultivation and forbidding the depasturage of livestock on marshlands. Therefore, schistosomiasis control effect of these measures is notable in the marshland and lake regions.


Assuntos
Agricultura/instrumentação , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Caramujos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
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