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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021205

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have cardiovascular (CV) benefits in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Whether these medications improve CV outcomes irrespective of heart failure history or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in HFrEF remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: All randomized, placebo-controlled trials of SGLT-2 inhibitors reporting similar CV outcomes were searched in PubMed from January 1, 2010 to October 1, 2021. The primary outcome was the composite of hospitalization for heart failure or CV death. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as effect estimates and calculated with a random-effects model. Data from eleven trials and a total of 66,957 patients (n = 36,758 SGLT-2 group, n = 30,199 placebo group) were included. SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure or CV death in patients with (HR 0.76 95% CI 0.71-0.80) and without (HR 0.76 95% CI 0.68-0.86; pinteraction = 0.69) heart failure. Patients with (HR 0.87 95% CI 0.80-0.95) and without (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.73-0.95; pinteraction = 0.67) heart failure treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors had a reduction in all-cause mortality. Reduction in the primary outcome was consistently observed in HFrEF patients with (HR 0.68 95% CI 0.59-0.78) and without (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.71-0.99; pinteraction = 0.13) severely reduced LVEF, and in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients (HR 0.80 95% CI 0.70-0.92; pinteraction = 0.65). CONCLUSION: SGLT-2 inhibitors improved CV outcomes irrespective of heart failure history or type, and severity of LVEF reduction.PROSPERO registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/CRD42020219082.

2.
Am J Cardiol ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031109

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease constitutes the leading cause of mortality worldwide, irrespective of race/ethnicity. Previous studies have shown that minority patients with acute coronary syndrome have distinct clinical, anatomic, and socioeconomic characteristics which may affect clinical outcomes. We included patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, or unstable angina in a single center. Patients were stratified into Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian. Caucasians were the reference group. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, composite of death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year. Of 6,800 patients included, 49.7% were Caucasian, 20.7% Hispanic, 17.0% Asian and 12.6% African-American. Caucasians were the oldest, Hispanics and Asians had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus whereas African-Americans had more chronic kidney disease. Hispanics and African-Americans had the highest STEMI rates, whereas Asians were more likely to present with unstable angina. Compared with Caucasians, Asians had a lower rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 1 year (3.9% vs 7.1%; p <0.01) whereas Hispanics (6.2% vs 7.1%; p = 0.17) and African-Americans (8.0% vs 7.1%; p = 0.38) had comparable outcomes. Differences were driven by mortality. Findings remained unchanged after adjustment. In conclusion, in acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, Asian race/ethnicity was associated with favorable cardiovascular outcomes compared with Caucasians. No significant differences were observed for Hispanics and African-Americans.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate if patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) could benefit from ticagrelor monotherapy in terms of bleeding reduction without any compromise in ischemic event prevention. BACKGROUND: Patients with history of MI who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain at risk for recurrent ischemic events. The optimal antithrombotic strategy for this cohort remains debated. METHODS: In this prespecified analysis of the randomized TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients after Coronary Intervention) trial, the authors evaluated the impact of history of MI on treatment effect of ticagrelor monotherapy versus ticagrelor plus aspirin in patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stent with at least 1 clinical and 1 angiographic high-risk feature and free from adverse events at 3 months after index PCI. The primary endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding, and the key secondary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, MI, or stroke, both at 12 months after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 1,937 patients (29.7%) with and 4,595 patients (70.3%) without prior MI were randomized to ticagrelor and placebo or ticagrelor and aspirin. At 1 year after randomization, patients with prior MI experienced higher rates of death, MI, or stroke (5.7% vs 3.2%; P < 0.001) but similar BARC types 2 to 5 bleeding (5.0% vs 5.5%; P = 0.677) compared with patients without prior MI. Ticagrelor monotherapy consistently reduced the risk for the primary bleeding outcome in patients with (3.4% vs 6.7%; HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33-0.76) and without (4.2% vs 7.0%; HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.45-0.76; Pinteraction = 0.54) prior MI. Rates of the key secondary ischemic outcome were not significantly different between treatment groups irrespective of history of MI (prior MI, 6.0% vs. 5.5% [HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.75-1.58]; no prior MI, 3.1% vs 3.3% [HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.67-1.28]; Pinteraction = 0.52). CONCLUSION: Ticagrelor monotherapy is associated with significantly lower risk for bleeding events compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, without any compromise in ischemic prevention, among high-risk patients with history of MI undergoing PCI. (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention [TWILIGHT]; NCT02270242).

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058052

RESUMO

Inflammation and procedural complexity are individually associated with adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to evaluate the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with adverse events according to PCI complexity. We included patients with available hsCRP levels who underwent PCI at our center from 2012 to 2017. We compared patients with hsCRP ≥3 versus <3 mg/L. Complex PCI was defined as having ≥1 of the following: ≥3 different target vessels, ≥3 lesions treated, ≥3 stents implanted, bifurcation lesion treated with 2 stents, chronic total occlusion as target lesion, or total stent length >60 mm. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization) at 1 year. A total of 11,979 patients were included, of which 2,840 (24%) underwent complex PCI. In those, 767 (27%) had hsCRP ≥3 mg/L. The 1-year incidence of MACE was 6% (noncomplex PCI, low hsCRP), 10% (noncomplex PCI, high hsCRP), 10% (complex PCI, low hsCRP), and 15% (complex PCI, high hsCRP). Overall, hsCRP ≥3 mg/L was associated with an increased risk of MACE compared with hsCRP <3 mg/L; this was independent of the number of complex PCI features: 0 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27 to 1.86), 1 (adjusted HR 1.77; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.60), or ≥2 (adjusted HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.83) (pinteraction = 0.42). In conclusion, in patients who underwent PCI, elevated hsCRP is associated with an increased risk of ischemic events. The effect of elevated hsCRP on cardiovascular risk is consistent regardless of PCI complexity.

5.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the TWILIGHT trial, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was shown to be a safe bleeding avoidance strategy in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES). AIMS: To evaluate the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI, according to DES type. METHODS: In the current subanalysis from TWILIGHT, patients were stratified into 3 groups based on DES type: durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES), durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents (DP-ZES), and biodegradable polymer DES (BP-DES). Bleeding and ischemic outcomes were assessed at 1 year after randomization. RESULTS: Out of 5,769 patients, 3,014 (52.2%) had DP-EES, 1,350 (23.4%) had DP-ZES and 1,405 (24.4%) had BP-DES. Compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy had significantly lower BARC type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding compared with DAPT; DP-EES (3.8% vs. 6.7%; HR:0.56, 95% CI:0.41-0.78), DP-ZES (4.6% vs. 6.9%; HR:0.66, 95% CI:0.42-1.04) and BP-DES (4.2% vs. 7.9%; HR:0.52, 95% CI:0.33-0.81; pinteraction=0.76). Ticagrelor monotherapy resulted in similar rates of death, MI, or stroke: DP-EES (4.2% vs. 4.3%; HR:0.97; 95% CI:0.68-1.37); DP-ZES (4.1% vs. 3.1%; HR:1.32; 95% CI:0.75-2.33); BP-DES (3.9% vs. 4.2%; HR:0.92; 95% CI:0.54-1.55; pinteraction=0.60). In both unadjusted and covariate-adjusted analyses, DES type was not associated with any differences in ischemic or bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short DAPT duration lowered bleeding complications without increasing the ischemic risk, irrespective of DES type. We observed no significant differences among DES-types.

6.
Lancet ; 398(10315): 1974-1983, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrast-associated acute kidney injury can occur after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prediction of the contrast-associated acute kidney injury risk is important for a tailored prevention and mitigation strategy. We sought to develop a simple risk score to estimate contrast-associated acute kidney injury risk based on a large contemporary PCI cohort. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing PCI at a large tertiary care centre between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2020, with available creatinine measurements both before and within 48 h after the procedure, were included; only patients on chronic dialysis were excluded. Patients treated between 2012 and 2017 comprised the derivation cohort and those treated between 2018 and 2020 formed the validation cohort. The primary endpoint was contrast-associated acute kidney injury, defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network. Independent predictors of contrast-associated acute kidney injury were derived from multivariate logistic regression analysis. Model 1 included only pre-procedural variables, whereas Model 2 also included procedural variables. A weighted integer score based on the effect estimate of each independent variable was used to calculate the final risk score for each patient. The impact of contrast-associated acute kidney injury on 1-year deaths was also evaluated. FINDINGS: 32 378 PCI procedures were performed and screened for inclusion in the present analysis. After the exclusion of patients without paired creatinine measurements, patients on chronic dialysis, and multiple procedures, 14 616 patients were included in the derivation cohort (mean age 66·2 years, 29·2% female) and 5606 were included in the validation cohort (mean age 67·0 years, 26·4% female). Contrast-associated acute kidney injury occurred in 860 (4·3%) patients. Independent predictors of contrast-associated acute kidney injury included in Model 1 were: clinical presentation, estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, haemoglobin, basal glucose, congestive heart failure, and age. Additional independent predictors in Model 2 were: contrast volume, peri-procedural bleeding, no flow or slow flow post procedure, and complex PCI anatomy. The occurrence of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in the derivation cohort increased gradually from the lowest to the highest of the four risk score groups in both models (2·3% to 34·9% in Model 1, and 2·0% to 38·8% in Model 2). Inclusion of procedural variables in the model only slightly improved the discrimination of the risk score (C-statistic in the derivation cohort: 0·72 for Model 1 and 0·74 for model 2; in the validation cohort: 0·84 for Model 1 and 0·86 for Model 2). The risk of 1-year deaths significantly increased in patients with contrast-associated acute kidney injury (10·2% vs 2·5%; adjusted hazard ratio 1·76, 95% CI 1·31-2·36; p=0·0002), which was mainly due to excess 30-day deaths. INTERPRETATION: A contemporary simple risk score based on readily available variables from patients undergoing PCI can accurately discriminate the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, the occurrence of which is strongly associated with subsequent death. FUNDING: None.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(22): 2447-2457, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognostic impact of high bleeding risk (HBR), as determined by the Academic Research Consortium HBR criteria, in real-world patients undergoing left main (LM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: LM PCI is often reserved for patients at increased risk for periprocedural adverse events. Patients at HBR represent a relevant percentage of this cohort, but their outcomes after LM PCI are still poorly investigated. METHODS: All patients undergoing LM PCI between 2014 and 2017 at a tertiary care center were prospectively enrolled. Patients were defined as having HBR if they met at least 1 major or 2 minor Academic Research Consortium HBR criteria. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke at 12 months. RESULTS: Among 619 enrolled patients, 55.3% were at HBR. The rate of the primary endpoint was 4-fold higher in patients at HBR compared with those without HBR (20.5% vs 4.9%; HR: 4.43; 95% CI: 2.31-8.48), driven by an increased risk for all-cause death (HR: 3.88; 95% CI: 1.88-8.02) and MI (HR: 6.18; 95% CI: 1.83-20.9). Rates of target vessel or lesion revascularization and stent thrombosis were comparable in the 2 groups. Bleeding occurred more frequently in patients at HBR (HR: 3.77; 95% CI: 1.83-7.76). Consistent findings were observed after Cox multivariable regression adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing LM PCI, those with HBR are at increased risk for all-cause death, MI, and bleeding. Conversely, rates of repeat revascularization and stent thrombosis were comparable, suggesting frailty and comorbidities as primary causes of worse outcomes in patients at HBR.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(21): 2060-2072, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to compare 1 vs 3 months of DAPT in HBR patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation. METHODS: The XIENCE Short DAPT program comprised 3 prospective, multicenter, single-arm studies of HBR patients treated with a short DAPT course followed by aspirin monotherapy after PCI with a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. In this exploratory analysis, patients who received 1-month DAPT (XIENCE 28 USA and 28 Global) were compared with those on 3-month DAPT (XIENCE 90) using propensity score stratification. Ischemic and bleeding outcomes were assessed between 1 and 12 months after index PCI. RESULTS: A total of 3,652 patients were enrolled and 1,392 patients after 1-month DAPT and 1,972 patients after 3-month DAPT were eligible for the analyses. The primary endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction was similar between the 2 groups (7.3% vs 7.5%; difference -0.2%; 95% CI: -2.2% to 1.7%; P = 0.41). The key secondary endpoint of BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) type 2-5 bleeding was lower with 1-month DAPT compared with 3-month DAPT (7.6% vs 10.0%; difference -2.5%; 95% CI: -4.6% to -0.3%; P = 0.012). Major BARC type 3-5 bleeding did not differ at 12 months (3.6% vs 4.7%; difference -1.1%; 95% CI: -2.6% to 0.4%; P = 0.082), but was lower with 1-month DAPT at 90 days (1.0% vs 2.1%; P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI, 1 month of DAPT, compared with 3 months of DAPT, was associated with similar ischemic outcomes and lower bleeding risk. (XIENCE 90 Study; NCT03218787; XIENCE 28 USA Study; NCT03815175; XIENCE 28 Global Study; NCT03355742).

9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4624-4634, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662382

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) represent a prevalent subgroup among those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Early aspirin discontinuation after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has emerged as a bleeding avoidance strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT in a contemporary HBR population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis of the TWILIGHT trial evaluated the treatment effects of early aspirin withdrawal followed by ticagrelor monotherapy in HBR patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. After 3 months of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomized to 12 months of aspirin or placebo in addition to ticagrelor. A total of 1064 (17.2%) met the Academic Research Consortium definition for HBR. Ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 2, 3, or 5 bleeding compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in HBR (6.3% vs. 11.4%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.82) and non-HBR patients (3.5% vs. 5.9%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.77) with similar relative (Pinteraction = 0.67) but a trend towards greater absolute risk reduction in the former [-5.1% vs. -2.3%; difference in absolute risk differences (ARDs) -2.8%, 95% CI -6.4% to 0.8%, P = 0.130]. A similar pattern was observed for more severe BARC 3 or 5 bleeding with a larger absolute risk reduction in HBR patients (-3.5% vs. -0.5%; difference in ARDs -3.0%, 95% CI -5.2% to -0.8%, P = 0.008). There was no significant difference in the key secondary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke between treatment arms, irrespective of HBR status. CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI who completed 3-month DAPT without experiencing major adverse events, aspirin discontinuation followed by ticagrelor monotherapy significantly reduced bleeding without increasing ischaemic events, compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin. The absolute risk reduction in major bleeding was larger in HBR than non-HBR patients.

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(17): 1870-1883, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 abbreviated dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) regimens in patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Current-generation drug-eluting stents are preferred over bare-metal stents for HBR patients, but their optimal DAPT management remains unknown. METHODS: The XIENCE Short DAPT program included 3 prospective, multicenter, single-arm studies enrolling HBR patients who underwent successful PCI with a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. After 1 month (XIENCE 28 USA and XIENCE 28 Global) or 3 months (XIENCE 90) of DAPT, event-free patients discontinued the P2Y12 inhibitor. The postmarketing approval XIENCE V USA study was used as historical control in a propensity score-stratified analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,652 patients were enrolled. The propensity-adjusted rate of the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction was 5.4% among 1,693 patients on 3-month DAPT versus 5.4% in the 12-month DAPT historical control (Pnoninferiority = 0.0063) and 3.5% among 1,392 patients on 1-month DAPT versus 4.3% in the 6-month DAPT historical control (Pnoninferiority = 0.0005). Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) types 2 to 5 bleeding was not significantly lower with 3- or 1-month DAPT, while BARC types 3 to 5 bleeding was reduced in both experimental groups. The rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis was 0.2% in XIENCE 90 (P < 0.0001 for the performance goal of 1.2%) and 0.3% in XIENCE 28. CONCLUSIONS: Among HBR patients undergoing PCI with cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents, DAPT for 1 or 3 months was noninferior to 6 or 12 months of DAPT for ischemic outcomes and may be associated with less major bleeding and a low incidence of stent thrombosis.


Assuntos
Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Quimioterapia Combinada , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(6): E785-E795, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare characteristics and clinical outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among target vessel types in patients with a prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. BACKGROUND: Patients with a prior CABG often require repeat revascularization with PCI. Graft PCI has been associated with worse outcomes compared to native vessel PCI, yet the optimal PCI strategy in prior CABG patients remains unknown. METHODS: We stratified prior CABG patients who underwent PCI at a tertiary-care center between 2009 and 2017 by target vessel type: native vessel, venous graft, and arterial graft. The primary outcome of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or target vessel revascularization up to 1 year post-PCI. RESULTS: Prior CABG patients (n = 3983) represented 19.5% of all PCI interventions during the study period. PCI was most frequently performed on native vessels (n = 2928, 73.5%) followed by venous (n = 883, 22.2%) and arterial grafts (n = 172, 4.3%). Procedural success and complications were similar among the groups; however, slow- and no-reflow phenomenon was more common in venous graft PCI compared to native vessel PCI (OR 4.78; 95% CI 2.56-8.95; p < 0.001). At 1 year, there were no significant differences in MACE or in its individual components. CONCLUSIONS: Target vessel choice did not appear to affect MACE at 1 year in a large cohort of patients with prior CABG undergoing PCI. Whether PCI of surgical grafts versus native arteries truly results in similar outcomes warrants further investigation in randomized controlled trials.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386899

RESUMO

Perioperative cardiovascular complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality associated with non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with recent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to illustrate the types and timing of different surgeries occurring after PCI, and to evaluate the risk of thrombotic and bleeding events according to the perioperative antiplatelet management. Patients undergoing urgent or elective non-cardiac surgery within 1 year of PCI at a tertiary-care center between 2011 and 2018 were included. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE; composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis) at 30 days. Perioperative bleeding was defined as ≥ 2 units of blood transfusion. A total of 1092 surgeries corresponding to 747 patients were classified by surgical risk (low: 50.9%, intermediate: 38.4%, high: 10.7%) and priority (elective: 88.5%, urgent/emergent: 11.5%). High-risk and urgent/emergent surgeries tended to occur earlier post-PCI compared to low-risk and elective ones, and were associated with an increased risk of both MACE and bleeding. Preoperative interruption of antiplatelet therapy (of any kind) occurred in 44.6% of all NCS and was more likely for procedures occurring later post-PCI and at intermediate risk. There was no significant association between interruption of antiplatelet therapy and adverse cardiac events. Among patients undergoing NCS within 1 year of PCI, perioperative ischemic and bleeding events primarily depend on the estimated surgical risk and urgency of the procedure, which are increased early after PCI. Preoperative antiplatelet interruption was not associated with an increased risk of cardiac events.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347202

RESUMO

Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk for thrombotic and bleeding complications compared to patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). The academic research consortium (ARC) recently suggested a set of criteria to identify patients at high bleeding risk (HBR). We sought to evaluate the performance of the ARC-HBR criteria among patients undergoing PCI according to clinical presentation. We included all consecutive patients undergoing PCI at a tertiary-care center. Patients were deemed at HBR if they fulfilled ≥ 1 major or ≥ 2 minor ARC-HBR criteria. The primary bleeding endpoint was a composite of in-hospital or post-discharge bleeding at 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes included all-cause death and myocardial infarction. Out of 6068 patients, 1391 (22.9 %) presented with AMI and were more often at HBR than those with CCS (46.9 % vs. 43.0 %, p = 0.01). HBR patients had a higher risk for the primary bleeding endpoint than non-HBR, irrespective of the clinical indication for PCI (AMI: 19.5 % vs. 5.5 %; HR 3.86, 95 % CI 2.63-5.69; CCS: 6.8 % vs. 2.6 %; HR 2.65, 95 % CI 1.92-3.68; p-interaction = 0.11). Secondary outcomes followed a similar trend. After multivariable adjustment, AMI presentation remained significantly associated with increased risk for bleeding at 1 year (HR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.13-2.38, p = 0.01). The ARC-HBR criterion associated with the highest bleeding risk was severe/end-stage chronic kidney disease in AMI and moderate/severe anemia in CCS. The ARC-HBR framework successfully identified AMI and CCS patients with increased risk for bleeding complications at 1 year post-PCI. Figure prepared with BioRender.

18.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(5): 438-446, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458912

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the acute and chronic patterns of myocardial injury among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their mid-term outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had a hospital encounter within the Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) between 27 February 2020 and 15 October 2020 were evaluated for inclusion. Troponin levels assessed between 72 h before and 48 h after the COVID-19 diagnosis were used to stratify the study population by the presence of acute and chronic myocardial injury, as defined by the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Among 4695 patients, those with chronic myocardial injury (n = 319, 6.8%) had more comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease and heart failure, while acute myocardial injury (n = 1168, 24.9%) was more associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Both types of myocardial injury were strongly associated with impaired survival at 6 months [chronic: hazard ratio (HR) 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.44-5.06; acute: HR 4.72, 95% CI 4.14-5.36], even after excluding events occurring in the first 30 days (chronic: HR 3.97, 95% CI 2.15-7.33; acute: HR 4.13, 95% CI 2.75-6.21). The mortality risk was not significantly different in patients with acute as compared with chronic myocardial injury (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36), except for a worse prognostic impact of acute myocardial injury in patients <65 years of age (P-interaction = 0.043) and in those without coronary artery disease (P-interaction = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute myocardial injury represent two distinctive patterns of cardiac involvement among COVID-19 patients. While both types of myocardial injury are associated with impaired survival at 6 months, mortality rates peak in the early phase of the infection but remain elevated even beyond 30 days during the convalescent phase.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Troponina/análise , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459481

RESUMO

AIM: Optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) intends to balance ischemic and bleeding risks. Various DAPT de-escalation strategies, defined as switching from a full-dose potent to a reduced dose or less potent P2Y12 inhibitor, have been evaluated in several ACS-PCI trials. We aimed to compare DAPT de-escalation to standard DAPT with full dose potent P2Y12 inhibitors in ACS patients who underwent PCI. METHODS & RESULTS: PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible randomised controlled trials. Aspirin monotherapy trials were excluded. Five randomised trials (n = 10,779 patients) that assigned DAPT de-escalation (genetically guided to clopidogrel n = 1,242; platelet function guided to clopidogrel n = 1,304; unguided to clopidogrel n = 1,672; unguided to lower dose n = 1,170) versus standard DAPT (control group n = 5,391) were included in this analysis. DAPT de-escalation was associated with a significant reduction in Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ≥ 2 bleeding (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.78; I2 = 77%) as well as major adverse cardiac events, represented in most trials by the composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis and stroke (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96; I2 = 0%). Notwithstanding the limited power, consistency was noted across various de-escalation strategies. CONCLUSION: De-escalation of DAPT after PCI for ACS, both unguided and guided by genetic or platelet function testing, was associated with lower rates of clinically relevant bleeding and ischemic events as compared to standard DAPT with potent P2Y12 inhibitors based on five open-label RCTs reviewed.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 42(45): 4683-4693, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423374

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prespecified subanalysis of the TWILIGHT trial, we evaluated the treatment effects of ticagrelor with or without aspirin according to renal function. The trial enrolled patients undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation who fulfilled at least one clinical and one angiographic high-risk criterion. Chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, was a clinical study entry criterion. Following a 3-month period of ticagrelor plus aspirin, event-free patients were randomly assigned to aspirin or placebo on top of ticagrelor for an additional 12 months. Of the 6835 patients randomized and with available eGFR at baseline, 1111 (16.3%) had CKD. Ticagrelor plus placebo reduced the primary endpoint of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin in both patients with [4.6% vs. 9.0%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.80] and without (4.0% vs. 6.7%; HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.75; Pinteraction = 0.508) CKD, but the absolute risk reduction was greater in the former group. Rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were not significantly different between the two randomized groups irrespective of the presence (7.9% vs. 5.7%; HR 1.40, 95% CI 0.88-2.22) or absence of (3.2% vs. 3.6%; HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.20; Pinteraction = 0.111) CKD. CONCLUSION: Among CKD patients undergoing PCI, ticagrelor monotherapy reduced the risk of bleeding without a significant increase in ischaemic events as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin.

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