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1.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 268, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in human health, which could affect host immunity and the susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the role of intestinal microbiota in the immunopathology of invasive candidiasis remains unknown. METHODS: In this work, an antibiotic cocktail was used to eliminate the intestinal microbiota of conventional-housed (CNV) C57/BL6 mice, and then both antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice and CNV mice were intravenously infected with Candida albicans to investigate their differential responses to infection. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was applied to ABX mice in order to assess its effects on host immunity against invasive candidiasis after restoring the intestinal microbiota, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was conducted on fecal samples from both uninfected ABX and CNV group of mice to analyze their microbiomes. RESULTS: We found that ABX mice displayed significantly increased weight loss, mortality, and organ damage during invasive candidiasis when compared with CNV mice, which could be alleviated by FMT. In addition, the level of IL-17A in ABX mice was significantly lower than that in the CNV group during invasive candidiasis. Treatment with recombinant IL-17A could improve the survival of ABX mice during invasive candidiasis. Besides, the microbial diversity of ABX mice was significantly reduced, and the intestinal microbiota structure of ABX mice was significantly deviated from the CNV mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that intestinal microbiota plays a protective role in invasive candidiasis by enhancing IL-17A production in our model system.

2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(13): 15584-15591, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078128

RESUMO

In order to develop more environmentally benignant insecticides, the Ligusticum pteridophyllum Franch. rhizomes essential oil and supercritical fluid (SFE-CO2) extract were obtained by two published techniques, hydrodistillation and SFE-CO2. The chemical components of this two tested samples were identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Repellent activity and contact toxicity of the obtained samples and myristicin against the adults of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) were compared. Nineteen components were identified in the SFE-CO2 extract. Twelve components were identified in the L. pteridophyllum rhizomes essential oil. SFE-CO2 extract exhibited higher contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne, and L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 69.60 µg/adult, 14.58 µg/adult, and 1.69 µg/cm2, respectively) than that of L. pteridophyllum rhizomes essential oil (LD50 = 87.99 µg/adult, 89.82 µg/adult, and 7.87 µg/cm2, respectively). Besides, myristicin (LD50 = 36.46 µg/adult) showed superior contact toxicity against T. castaneum than that of the L. pteridophyllum rhizomes essential oil and SFE-CO2 extract. It possessed potentially practical significance to develop L. pteridophyllum rhizomes into plant pesticide or repellent agent for these stored insect controls. Graphical abstract .

3.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 62(6): 760-766, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991091

RESUMO

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients, despite currently available therapy. IL-27 is an important regulatory cytokine in infection and immunity. However, its role in the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains unknown. Here we found that Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection induced an elevated production of IL-27 in the lung. As compared with wild-type (WT) mice, IL-27R (IL-27 receptor)-deficient mice developed less severe infection when challenged with A. fumigatus conidia, as evidenced by the decreased fungal colonization and pathology of lungs and the increased survival. IL-27R deficiency led to significantly higher production of IFN-γ in the lung after A. fumigatus infection, and the increased resistance to invasive pulmonary A. fumigatus infection in IL-27R-deficient mice was ablated by neutralizing IFN-γ. Importantly, neutralization of IL-27 could protect WT mice against invasive pulmonary A. fumigatus infection. Our data therefore suggest an important role of IL-27 in impairing anti-A. fumigatus host immunity, which may have translational implications in treating clinical cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 221(12): 1989-1998, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncostatin M (OSM) is a pleiotropic cytokine of the interleukin-6 family. The role of OSM in sepsis remains unknown. METHODS: Serum OSM level was determined and analyzed in septic patients on the day of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Furthermore, the effects of OSM on polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) were assessed. RESULTS: On the day of ICU admission, septic patients had significantly higher serum OSM levels when compared with ICU patient controls and healthy volunteers, which were related to the severity of sepsis, including parameters such as the sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment score, procalcitonin level, and white blood cell number. A high serum OSM level on ICU admission was associated with 28-day mortality in septic patients. In CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis, anti-OSM antibody decreased tissue inflammation and injury, and thus improved survival, while local and systemic bacterial dissemination was almost constant. Complementarily, supplementation with recombinant OSM protein in septic mice increased tissue injury, amplified inflammation, and worsened mortality after CLP, while it did not affect bacterial dissemination in septic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis results in an increased production of OSM, which might be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for sepsis.

6.
Crit Care Med ; 48(1): e58-e65, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-17D has been shown to participate in the control of viral infections and cancer. Here we hypothesized that interleukin-17D may play a potential role in sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective randomized animal investigation and in vitro human blood studies. SETTING: Research laboratory from a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Female C57BL/6J mice, sepsis patients by Sepsis-3 definitions, ICU patient controls, and healthy individuals. INTERVENTIONS: Serum concentrations of interleukin-17D were measured and analyzed in human sepsis patients, patient controls, and healthy individuals. The contribution of interleukin-17D to sepsis-related survival, bacterial burden, and organ injury was assessed in a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture-induced polymicrobial sepsis by the use of anti-interleukin-17D antibody and recombinant interleukin-17D protein. The effects of interleukin-17D on bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages were also investigated using in vitro cell models. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: On the day of ICU admission (day 0), septic patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of interleukin-17D than patient controls and healthy individuals. Serum interleukin-17D levels remained significantly elevated in septic patients from ICU admission to day 3 and correlated with Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment scores and documented bacteremia on day 0. Furthermore, nonsurvivors of septic patients displayed significantly higher interleukin-17D levels compared with survivors of septic patients on days 0 and 1 of ICU admission. In animal models of sepsis, treatment with anti-interleukin-17D antibody protected mice from cecal ligation and puncture-induced severe sepsis, which was associated with improved bacterial clearance and organ injury. Conversely, administration of recombinant interleukin-17D protein aggravated cecal ligation and puncture-induced nonsevere sepsis. Furthermore, we found that interleukin-17D impaired bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages. Phagocytosis inhibition by interleukin-17D involved its ability to down-regulate the activation of nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in macrophages upon bacterial infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates a previously undescribed role of interleukin-17D in sepsis and identifies a new target for antisepsis treatment.

7.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 290, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a serious syndrome that is caused by an unbalanced host inflammatory response to an infection. The cytokine network plays a pivotal role in the orchestration of inflammatory response during sepsis. IL-26 is an emerging proinflammatory member of the IL-10 cytokine family with multifaceted actions in inflammatory disorders. However, its role in the pathogenesis of sepsis remains unknown. METHODS: Serum IL-26 level was measured and analyzed in 52 septic patients sampled on the day of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, 18 non-septic ICU patient controls, and 30 healthy volunteers. In addition, the effects of recombinant human IL-26 on host inflammatory response in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis were determined. RESULTS: On the day of ICU admission, the patients with sepsis showed a significant increase in serum IL-26 levels compared with ICU patient controls and healthy volunteers, and the serum IL-26 levels were related to the severity of sepsis. Nonsurvivors of septic patients displayed significantly higher serum IL-26 levels compared with survivors. A high serum IL-26 level on ICU admission was associated with 28-day mortality, and IL-26 was found to be an independent predictor of 28-day mortality in septic patients by logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, administration of recombinant human IL-26 increased lethality in CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. Despite a lower bacterial load, septic mice treated with recombinant IL-26 had higher concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TNF-α, CXCL1, and CCL2 in peritoneal lavage fluid and blood and demonstrated more severe multiple organ injury (including lung, liver and kidney) as indicated by clinical chemistry and histopathology. Furthermore, septic mice treated with recombinant human IL-26 showed an increased neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSIONS: Septic patients had elevated serum IL-26 levels, which may correlate with disease severity and mortality. In experimental sepsis, we demonstrated a previously unrecognized role of IL-26 in increasing lethality despite promoting antibacterial host responses.


Assuntos
Interleucinas/análise , Sepse/sangue , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Interleucinas/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Curva ROC , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
8.
Chest ; 156(4): 696-705, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the utility of apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM)/CD5L as a potentially novel biomarker of morbidity and mortality in patients with sepsis who are critically ill. METHODS: There were 150 adult patients with sepsis studied. Serum AIM levels on day of ICU admission were determined and compared with survival status and organ dysfunction. For validation, 60 adult patients with sepsis from another medical center were studied. Furthermore, the role of AIM as an outcome predictor in 51 pediatric patients with sepsis was investigated. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort of adult patients, patients with sepsis had markedly increased admission levels of serum AIM compared with ICU control subjects and healthy control subjects. Higher serum AIM levels at admission were significantly associated with higher Sequential (sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. On day of ICU admission, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for AIM level association with 28-day mortality was 0.86, higher than the AUC for SOFA (0.77), procalcitonin (0.73), lactate (0.67), IL-27 (0.65), and C-reactive protein (0.55). Patients with sepsis with higher admission levels of AIM (> 543.66 ng/mL) had significantly increased 28-day mortality compared with those with lower AIM levels (≤ 543.66 ng/mL). The association between admission levels of AIM and 28-day mortality was confirmed in the validation cohort of adult patients. In another cohort of pediatric patients with sepsis, the AUC for AIM level association with 28-day mortality was 0.82. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating AIM levels at admission were markedly increased in patients with sepsis, which can serve as a novel prognostic biomarker for predicting mortality.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/sangue , Receptores Depuradores/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
9.
Clin Immunol ; 205: 29-34, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121287

RESUMO

Identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of sepsis is imperative. We report here that cytokine IL-28 (IFN-λ) levels were elevated in clinical and experimental sepsis. Neutralization of IL-28 protected mice from lethal sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), which was associated with improved bacterial clearance and enhanced neutrophil infiltration. Conversely, administration of recombinant IL-28 aggravated mortality, facilitated bacterial dissimilation and limited neutrophil recruitment, in the model of sepsis induced by CLP. This study defines IL-28 as a detrimental mediator during sepsis and identifies a potential therapeutic target for the immune therapy in sepsis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucinas/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Ceco/cirurgia , Citocinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Perfuração Intestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mortalidade , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 72: 92-97, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974283

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the primary cause of community- and health care-associated diarrhea. CXCL10, also known as IFN-γ-inducible protein of 10 (IP-10), is involved in various inflammatory diseases, but its role in CDI remains unknown. In this study, We determined the serum concentration of CXCL10 in 80 CDI patients and 76 sex & age-matched diarrhea patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analyzed the correlation between CXCL10 levels and CDI disease severity parameters. Besides, we also measured the level of other cytokines and/or chemokines in CDI patients, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and CXCL9. We found that serum CXCL10 in CDI patients was significantly higher compared with those in non-C. difficile diarrhea patients, especially in the moderate disease. Elevated serum CXCL10 correlated positively and significantly with severity score index (SSI) score in all CDI patients. CXCL10 levels were also positively correlated with WBC count, creatinine and inflammatory cytokines including, IL-1ß, IL-6 and CXCL9, but negatively correlated with albumin. Furthermore, serum CXCL10 concentration could be significantly decreased after effective treatment of CDI. Therefore, the above results suggest that the up-regulated release of CXCL10 is important in the immunopathogenesis of CDI, and may be served as a potential alternative biomarker for the monitoring of CDI disease severity and therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Infecções por Clostridium/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 72: 40-47, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959370

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative microorganism in community- and healthcare-acquired pneumonia. CD5L is an important protein in the control of immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that patients with S. aureus pneumonia displayed increased levels of circulating CD5L. Likewise, mice with S. aureus pneumonia had elevated CD5L levels in the lungs. Anti-CD5L antibody protected mice from lethal pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The survival benefit obtained with antibody against CD5L was associated with an improvement of bacterial clearance and a reduction of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, co-injection of recombinant CD5L and S. aureus markedly increased the lethality of S. aureus pneumonia. These findings suggest that CD5L contributed to the immunopathology of S. aureus pneumonia.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/imunologia , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/sangue , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/sangue
12.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 106, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients, and no specific therapeutic agent is currently approved for the treatment of sepsis. METHODS: We assessed the effects of flagellin administration on survival, bacterial burden, and tissue injury after sepsis. In addition, we examined the effects on phagocytosis and bacterial killing in monocytes/macrophages. RESULTS: Therapeutic administration of flagellin increased bacterial clearance, decreased organ inflammation and injury, and reduced immune cell apoptosis after experimental sepsis, in a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-dependent manner. Macrophages, but not neutrophils, mediated the beneficial effects of flagellin on experimental sepsis, and flagellin induced macrophage polarization into M1 in septic mice. Flagellin treatment could directly enhance phagocytosis and bacterial killing of macrophages, but not neutrophils. Subsequent studies demonstrated that flagellin could promote phagosome formation and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in macrophages. Finally, we found that the expression of TLR5 was significantly elevated on the surface of circulating monocytes, but not neutrophils, from patients with sepsis. Higher expression levels of TLR5 on monocytes were associated with increased mortality, documented bacteremia, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores of the septic patients. Moreover, flagellin treatment rescued the impaired phagocytosis and bacterial killing ability of monocytes/macrophages from patients who died of sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings not only established the potential value of application of flagellin as an immunoadjuvant in treating sepsis, but also provided new insights into targeted therapeutic strategy on the basis of monocyte TLR5 expression in septic patients.


Assuntos
Flagelina/farmacologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/análise , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flagelina/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Fatores de Proteção , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/sangue
13.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623674

RESUMO

One new sesquiterpene (α-iso-cubebenol acetate, 8), together with 9 known compounds (1-7, 9, 10) were isolated from the stems of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. by repeated silica gel column chromatography. Based on the results of MS, NMR spectra and comparing with literature data, the six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans were identified as schizandrin A to C (1-3), schizandrin (4), schisantherin A (5) and gomisin J (6), the two sesquiterpenes were identified as α-iso-cubebenol (7) and α-iso-cubebenol acetate (8), while the two triterpenic acids were identified as ganwuweizic acid (9) and kadsuric acid (10). The antifeedant activity of the 10 compounds against Tribolium castaneum adults was tested. Gomisin J (6) exhibited activity at 1500 ppm concentration with 40.3% antifeeding index percentages. As for the dibenzocyclooctene lignans (compounds 1-3, 6), the number of methylenedioxies and the position of hydroxyl groups were the main factors to affect their antifeedant activities.

14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 169: 807-813, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597779

RESUMO

In this work, the essential oils (EO) were extracted from seven typical Chinese herbs, and their repellent and contact toxicities against Tribolium castaneum adults (red flour beetles) were evaluated. The experimental results showed that the above EOs presented the various levels of repellent and contact toxicities. The EOs extracted from A. lancea and A argyi of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family presented obvious repellent effects (Repellency Percentage > 90% at 3.15 nL/cm2 after 4 h exposure) and strong contact toxicity with LD50 values of 5.78 and 3.09 µg/adult respectively. Based on literature researches and screening results, the EO from A. lancea was analyzed by GC-MS and chosen for further identification of bioactive components. Altogether 59 chemical components were identified and 17 of them were recognized as sesquiterpene compounds, accounting for 57.8% of the total weight of the EO. From the identified sesquiterpenes, three individual compounds (ß-eudesmol, hinesol, valencene) were selected for the laboratory bioassays of the toxicity against red flour beetles. It was found that all the three compounds expressed some repellent effects. Although ß-eudesmol (31.2%) and hinesol (5.1%) were identified as main constituents and had been considered to be symbolic characteristics of high medicinal value, valencene (0.3%) showed strong repellent property which could be comparable to that of DEET (N, N­diethyl­3­methylbenzamide), a powerful commercial pesticides, and it had best toxicity with LD50 values of 3.25 (µg/adult) in the contact test. This work may provide toxicity evidence of seven common herbs against red flour beetles, add the information for the development and comprehensive utilization of A. lancea, and will contribute to the application of grain preservation.


Assuntos
Atractylodes/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Inseticidas , Tribolium , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 60(3): 323-334, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326743

RESUMO

The factors involved in disturbing host homeostasis during sepsis are largely unknown. We sought to determine the immunopathological role of apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM)/CD5L in sepsis. Here, we show that blockade of AIM led to significantly increased survival after experimental sepsis, and it decreased local and systemic inflammation, reduced tissue injury, and inhibited bacterial dissemination in the blood, in particular at later time points. Supplementation of recombinant AIM in sepsis resulted in increased tissue injury, amplified inflammation, increased bacteremia, and worsened mortality. Interestingly, the most important difference in the production of cytokines and chemokines after in vivo AIM blockade or AIM administration during sepsis was IL-10. In vitro, AIM enhanced IL-10 production from macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes. In vivo, the beneficial effects of AIM blockade and the detrimental effects of AIM addition on experimental sepsis were ablated by treatment with recombinant IL-10 and neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies, respectively. This study is the first to identify AIM as an important mediator in disturbing host homeostasis in sepsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Sepse/patologia
16.
Thorax ; 74(3): 305-308, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228207

RESUMO

Progranulin (PGRN) exerts multiple functions in various inflammatory diseases. However, the role of PGRN in the pathogenesis of virus infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that PGRN production was up-regulated in clinical and experimental influenza, which contributed to the deleterious inflammatory response after influenza virus infection in mice. PGRN-deficient mice were protected from influenza virus-induced lung injury and mortality. Decreased mortality was associated with significantly reduced influx of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, release of cytokines and chemokines, and permeability of the alveolar-epithelial barrier without affecting viral clearance. Our findings suggest that PGRN exacerbates pulmonary immunopathology during influenza virus infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Progranulinas/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 37(9): 1717-1724, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030692

RESUMO

Although candidemia has been reported globally, little is known about the differences in candidemia episodes between ICU and surgical wards or the correlation between serum biomarkers and mortality from candidemia. A retrospective study of hospitalized patients with candidemia was conducted in southwest China. A total of 198 non-duplicate candidemia episodes were identified between January 2011 and December 2016. Candida albicans was the leading species causing candidemia (34.9%), and 78.8% of these isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. More than half of candidemic patients were hospitalized in surgical wards, but the incidence of these surgical patients was much lower than that of ICU patients. Compared with surgical patients, patients admitted to ICU were more frequently subjected to extensive invasive procedures, severe clinical presentations, and heavy exposure to antibiotics. In addition, the mortality in ICU was significantly higher than that in surgical wards. Multivariable analysis revealed that ascites, catheter-related candidemia, ICU admission, septic shock, and concomitant bacterial infection were independent factors associated with mortality. Moreover, we observed that high PCT and BDG levels as well as low PLT counts were also associated with mortality from candidemia. Better understanding of the specific predictors in different wards could facilitate the identification of high-risk candidates to receive early antifungal therapy, thus improving the outcomes of critically ill patients with candidemia.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Candidemia/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 67(8): 1027-1034, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012895

RESUMO

The essential oils (EOs) extracted from Evodia lenticellata Huang and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. leaves are screened to evaluate their contact toxicity and repellency towards Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) adults. The EOs are obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal components in the E. lenticellata EO are identified to be caryophyllene oxide (28.5%), ß-caryophyllene (23.1%), ß-elemene (14.5%), and ß-cubebene (4.7%), while the main components of the E. rutaecarpa EO are α-pinene (39.4%), ß-elemene (13.5%), α-ocimene (7.6%), and α-selinene (4.0%). These two kinds of EOs and their individual compounds all showed different levels of contact toxicity and repellent activity against three stored-product insects.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Evodia/química , Repelentes de Insetos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Alcenos/análise , Alcenos/toxicidade , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Destilação/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 160: 342-348, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857238

RESUMO

In this work, the essential oil (EO) was extracted from the fruits of Evodia lenticellata, and the fumigant toxicity, contact toxicity and repellency against three stored-product insect species were evaluated for the obtained EO and several of its chemical components. The target insects were the adults of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). The EO was obtained with hydrodistillation and its chemical components were analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-seven compounds, accounting for 83.1% of the total amount of the oil, were identified from the EO sample. The main compounds included linalool (12.0%), ß-pinene (11.5%), 3-carene (9.6%), caryophyllene oxide (8.7%) and ß-caryophyllene (7.9%). Among them, the amounts of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were as high as 52.7% and 22.7% to the total amount of EO respectively. The results of bioactivity test showed that the EO and its testing compounds had interspecific toxicity and repellent activity. So that, it might be expected that the EO extracted from the fruits of E. lenticellata could be developed to a new type of eco-friendly natural insecticide or repellent for the control of stored-product insects.


Assuntos
Evodia , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Neópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Animais , Frutas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Repelentes de Insetos/análise , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 61: 119-125, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857241

RESUMO

IL-34 plays diverse roles in disease due to its inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Elevated IL-34 expression has been observed in lung cancers and pulmonary infections although its role is unclear. We found that IL-34 addition to primary lung fibroblasts significantly promoted IL-6 and IL-8 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. These effects were reversed when JAK, NF-κB, Akt and p38 inhibitors were included before IL-34 addition. Protein phosphorylation in these pathways was also observed through western-blotting. Stimulation of human lung fibroblasts with IL-34 in combination with TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-4 enhanced inflammatory cytokine production. Our data confirmed the inflammatory effect of IL-34 on human lung fibroblasts and suggested that the IL-34/CSF-1R axis may be a novel therapeutic target in pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Células Cultivadas , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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