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Life Sci ; 262: 118543, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038381


AIMS: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a phenomenon in which the ovaries fail before the age of 40 years. Prior research has used a wide range of mouse models designed to reflect different causes of POF, including genetic factors, iatrogenic factors, and immune factors. The current study employed a mouse model of POF induced by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). VCD can specifically kill primordial and primary ovarian follicles, which destroys the follicular reserve and causes POF. The current study sought to specify and extend the applications of this model by examining the effect of timing and VCD dose and by exploring the effect of the model on systems outside of the ovaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A VCD-induced mouse model of POF was constructed using established methods (VCD injected continuously at a concentration of 160 mg/kg for 15 days). Evidence for a graded effect of VCD was observed using a range of concentrations, and the best windows for examining VCD's effects on follicles and associated tissues were identified. KEY FINDINGS: The mouse model used here successfully simulated two common complications of POF - emotional changes and decreased bone density. The model's application was then extended to examine the links between disease and intestinal microorganisms, and evidence was found linking POF to the reproductively relevant composition of the gut microbiota. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide novel methodological guidance for future research, and they significantly extend the applications and scope of VCD-induced POF mouse models.

Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850784


Background: 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) has long been considered a hazardous occupational chemical that promotes ovarian failure. However, VCD is also used as a research compound to chemically induce animal models of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), and in related work we unexpectedly found that VCD apparently exhibits both dose- and duration-dependent opposing, hormone-like effects on the maintenance of the primordial follicle pool, follicle development, and ovulation induction. Results: We conducted experiments with cultured murine ovaries and performed transplantation experiments using postnatal day (PD) 2 and PD12 mice and found that low-dose, short-term exposure to VCD (VCDlow) actually protects the primordial/primary follicle pool and improves the functional ovarian reserve (FOR) by disrupting follicular atresia. VCDlow inhibits follicular apoptosis and regulates the Pten-PI3K-Foxo3a pathway. Short-term VCD exposure in vivo (80 mg/kg, 5 days) significantly increases the number of superovulated metaphase II oocytes, preovulatory follicles, and corpus luteum in middle-aged mice with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). We demonstrate that low-dose but not high-dose VCD promotes aromatase levels in granulosa cells (GCs), thereby enhancing the levels of estradiol secretion. Conclusion: Our study illustrates a previously unappreciated, hormone-like action for the occupational "ovotoxin" molecule VCD and strongly suggests that VCDlow should be explored for its potential utility for treating human ovarian follicular development disorders, including subfertility in perimenopausal women.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 19(5): 383-389, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732749


The pathogenesis and therapeutic treatment of intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) remain unsolved, highlighting the need for stable and effective experimental animal models. In this study, uterine electrocoagulation of twenty-one female New Zealand White rabbits was carried out to establish an IUA model. As rabbits have two completely separate uterine horns, each rabbit had its own internal control: one uterine horn was given an electrothermal injury (Group A, n=21), and the contralateral uterine horn received no treatment and served as the control (Group B, n=21). The endometrial morphology, number of endometrial glands, area of endometrial fibrosis, and number of implanted fetuses were compared between the two groups. In Group A, the numbers of endometrial glands on Days 7 and 14 and the number of implanted fetuses were significantly lower than those in Group B (P<0.05, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively), while the ratio of the area with endometrial stromal fibrosis to the total endometrial area was significantly increased (P<0.01). These results suggest that this method of electrothermal injury is effective for the establishment of a rabbit IUA model between 7 and 14 d after surgery.

Modelos Animais de Doenças , Aderências Teciduais/etiologia , Doenças Uterinas/etiologia , Animais , Eletrocoagulação , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Coelhos , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/terapia