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1.
COPD ; : 1-14, 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455452

RESUMO

Gas exchange inefficiency and dynamic hyperinflation contributes to exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is also characterized by an elevated fraction of physiological dead space (VD/VT). Noninvasive methods for accurate VD/VT assessment during exercise in patients are lacking. The current study sought to compare transcutaneous PCO2 (TcPCO2) with the gold standard-arterial PCO2 (PaCO2)-and other available methods (end tidal CO2 and the Jones equation) for estimating VD/VT during incremental exercise in COPD. Ten COPD patients completed a symptom limited incremental cycle exercise. TcPCO2 was measured by a heated electrode on the ear-lobe. Radial artery blood was collected at rest, during unloaded cycling (UL) and every minute during exercise and recovery. Ventilation and gas exchange were measured breath-by-breath. Bland-Altman analysis examined agreement of PCO2 and VD/VT calculated using PaCO2, TcPCO2, end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) and estimated PaCO2 by the Jones equation (PaCO2-Jones). Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) was assessed. 114 measurements were obtained from the 10 COPD subjects. The bias between TcPCO2 and PaCO2 was 0.86 mmHg with upper and lower limit of agreement ranging -2.28 mmHg to 3.99 mmHg. Correlation between TcPCO2 and PaCO2 during rest and exercise was r2=0.907 (p < 0.001; CCC = 0.941) and VD/VT using TcPCO2 vs. PaCO2 was r2=0.958 (p < 0.0001; CCC = 0.967). Correlation between PaCO2-Jones and PETCO2 vs. PaCO2 were r2=0.755, 0.755, (p < 0.001; CCC = 0.832, 0.718) and for VD/VT calculation (r2=0.793, 0.610; p < 0.0001; CCC = 0.760, 0.448), respectively. The results support the accuracy of TcPCO2 to reflect PaCO2 and calculate VD/VT during rest and exercise, but not in recovery, in COPD patients, enabling improved accuracy of noninvasive assessment of gas exchange inefficiency during incremental exercise testing.

3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1141: 83-90, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248665

RESUMO

False positives are common and frequently occurring in detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) due to the complexity of the food matrix. In this paper, a novel bipolar electrode-electrochemiluminescence (BPE-ECL) sensing platform for sensitive OTA detection with one-step grain pretreatment was proposed. The biosensor uses cathode of closed BPE as a functional sensing interface and anode as a signal collection interface. On the functional sensing interface, the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyze the polymerization of aniline to form polyaniline (PANI) on nucleic acid backbone which is supplied by DNA tetrahedron-structured aptamer (DTA) and hybrid chain reaction (HCR). In the presence of OTA, PANI is formed and can cause the change of ECL and luminescence voltage of the anode of BPE. On the signal collection interface, the Ru(bpy)32+/TPA system is used as ECL light output. In this way, the analyte does not need to participate the ECL reaction of the anode, which avoids direct contact of photoactive molecules with complex reaction systems and greatly reduce the influence of complex food matrix on signal acquisition. The accuracy of the BPE-ECL biosensor (one-step grain pretreatment) was similar with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis (traditional national standard pretreatment method: GB5009.96-2016). Meanwhile, the BPE-ECL biosensor had higher sensitivity (LOD: 3 pg mL-1). Therefore, closed BPE could simplify sample pretreatment and improve detection capability.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123977, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33265017

RESUMO

Elastic biomass aerogels have attracted widespread attention but are seriously hindered by environmentally unfriendly cross-linkers and fire hazards for functional applications. This study outlines the fabrication of a fully bio-based, low fire-hazard and superelastic aerogel without any cross-linkers for excellent thermal insulation and oil absorption, via creating highly oriented wave-shaped layer microstructures and subsequently depositing nonflammable siloxane coating on the surface of the aerogel skeleton. The resultant environmental-safety aerogel showed the combined advantages of anisotropic super-elasticity, hydrophobicity, low density and high flame retardancy (limiting oxygen index value of 42%, UL-94 V-0 rating, and extremely low heat release), thus leading to many benefits for solving environmental hazards. For instance, this fire-safety biomass aerogel can be used as the high-performance thermal insulator with low thermal conductivity and high shielding efficiency. The aerogel also exhibited a great selectively oil clean-up absorption with a high absorption capacity of 117 times its own weight and excellent recyclability. Especially, due to the highly oriented microstructures, the aerogel as a filter showed the fastest separation rates of oil/water mixture (flux rate of 145.78 L h-1 g-1) ever reported. Such a method of preparing super-elastic biomass aerogels will provide new insights into their multifunctional applications with high environmental safety.

5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 109: 71-81, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316369

RESUMO

Galectins, a family of evolutionary conserved ß-galactoside-binding proteins, have been characterized in a wide range of species. Many reports have indicated vital roles of galectins in innate immunity, especially in the mucosal tissues against infection. However, the systematic identification of galectin gene family is still lacking in teleost. Here, we characterized the galectin gene family and investigated their expression profiles post bacterial challenge in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). In this study, a total of 13 galectin genes were characterized in turbot, phylogenetic analyses revealed their strong relationships to half smooth tongue sole and puffer fish, and syntenic analyses confirmed the orthology suggested by the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the copy number of galectin genes is similar across a broad spectrum of species from fish to amphibians, birds, and mammals, ranging from 8 to 16 genes. Furthermore, the galectin genes were widely expressed in all the examined turbot tissues, and most of the galectin genes were strongly expressed in mucosal tissues (skin, gill and intestine). Moreover, majority of the galectin genes were significantly regulated after Vibrio anguillarum infection in the intestine, gill and skin, suggesting that galectins were involved in the mucosal immune response to V. anguillarum infection in turbot. In addition, subcellular localization analysis showed lgals3a was distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, the knowledge of galectins are still limited in teleost species, further studies should be carried out to better characterize its detailed roles in teleost mucosal immunity.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(1): 428-436, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377774

RESUMO

In order to reduce the immunoreactivity of sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SCP), site-directed mutations were used to replace key amino acids in the conformational epitopes and calcium-binding sites. The mutant SCPs (mSCPs) were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their immunoreactivities were analyzed using iELISA and basophil activation assays. Furthermore, the structural changes of mSCPs were determined from the circular dichroism spectra. The iELISA results showed that mSCPs could effectively inhibit the binding of wild-type SCP (wtSCP) to sensitive serum, with inhibition rates that reached 90%. Moreover, mSCPs could downregulate the expression levels of CD63 and CD203c on the basophil surface. Compared with wtSCP, the peak values were significantly changed, and the calcium binding ability was impaired, which explained the decline in immunoreactivities of the mSCPs. All of the data confirmed that this approach was effective in reducing the immunoreactivity of SCP and could be applied to other shellfish allergens.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23874, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371175

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic since December 2020. It has not only associated with physiological disorder but also with psychological distress and symptoms of mental illness. Whether the vaccines and antivirals can provide protects remains unknown. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is recommended as an alternative and significant way of preventing and treating COVID-19 in China. However, few studies have assessed the benefits of this treatment and mental health after they recover. Our study is designed to investigate effects and safety when using TCM on the course of this disease and the impact of COVID-19 on pandemic-related anxiety. METHOD: For this prospective cohort study, we will enroll 300 COVID-19 patients aged 18 to 80 years at 4 centers. We divide them into 2 groups, according to whether they use Baidu Jieduan Granule at a ratio of 1:1. We will compare treatments combined Baidu Jieduan Granule with conventional Western medicine (experimental group) vs treatment of conventional Western medicine only (control group). The basic information of patients including demographic, general condition, primary diseases, and complications will be assessed. Related examines will be conducted at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days. The primary outcomes are clinical outcome. A follow-up time of 1 year (to June 30, 2021) allow us to evaluate the psychiatric disorder after recovery. We will monitor adverse events throughout the trial. DISCUSSION: It will be the first prospective cohort study which uses Baidu Jieduan Granule, based on the innovation traditional Chinese medicine strategy of " Internal and External Relieving -Truncated Torsion " to treat the common type of COVID-19. The result of this study may provide evidence-based recommendations of TCM for treatment and psychological distress or symptoms of mental illness of the common type of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos
8.
Chemosphere ; : 128654, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268095

RESUMO

Atmospheric CO2 levels have been increasing with increasing industrialization. Studies have shown the growth response of various plant species to climate change and increasing CO2 levels, but variations in phytoremediation caused by elevated CO2 levels, especially in intercropping systems, have rarely been reported. The current study therefore revealed variations in the phytoremediation effect of Festuca arundinacea intercropped with Echinochloa caudata, a pernicious annual weed, exposed to various CO2 levels (280, 400, and 550 ppm). The biomass yield and Cd uptake capacity of monocultured F. arundinacea were found to increase with increasing atmospheric CO2 level, highlighting the promoted phytoremediation efficiency of this species under elevated CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 levels also significantly increased the dry weight of monocultured E. caudata but did not change the Cd content in various parts of the plant. However, the intercropping system decreased the biomass yield of belowground and aerial parts of F. arundinacea under all treatments, since E. caudata competed with it for water and nutrients. The weight reduction of F. arundinacea in the intercropping system increased with increasing CO2 level, because elevated CO2 significantly increased the competitiveness of the weed. Therefore, the Cd phytoremediation efficiency of F. arundinacea intercropped with E. caudata exposed to 280, 400, and 550 ppm CO2 decreased by 46.1%, 81.5%, and 215.0%, respectively, as evidenced by the decreased dry weight of F. arundinacea. Therefore, elevated CO2 levels could decrease the phytoremediation effect of F. arundinacea in fields where weed growth is unavoidable.

9.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350038

RESUMO

Seed dormancy profiles show the relative importance of nondormancy and each of the five classes of dormancy. Long-term forest dynamics monitoring plots provide information on number of individual species in the plot, allowing us for the first time to construct seed dormancy profiles at the species and individual levels for a specific site. Focusing on the Xishuangbanna tropical season rainforest plot (XTRDP), we used data from nine forest dynamics plots (2 for tropical, 4 for subtropical and 3 for temperate) and information on kind of seed dormancy to generate seed dormancy profiles for communities across tropical to temperate latitudes at the species and individual levels. Seed dormancy information was collected from previous publications, and some data were provided by two germplasm banks that test seed germination of wild plants in China. In XTRDP, 35% of the species and 58% of individuals have nondormant seeds; the dominant species have nondormant seeds. In all plots, the most common kind of dormancy among species and individuals with dormant seeds was physiological dormancy. At the species level, the profile for tropical, subtropical and temperate plots was similar to profiles for each of these vegetation regions. In all plots, except one subtropical plot, the percentage of species vs. individuals with dormant seeds differed. All temperate plots had a higher percentage of individuals than species with dormant seeds, but this pattern was not consistent for tropical or subtropical plots. We show that dormancy increases with latitude at both the species and individual levels. Dormancy profiles at the individual tree level provide new insight into seed dormancy relationships within plant communities.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178319

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if microRNA (miRNA) expression is different among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with early liver fibrosis classified according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes. Eighteen CHB-fibrosis patients and 12 CHB patients without fibrosis were enrolled. The CHB-fibrosis group included 9 patients with the TCM syndrome of Ganyu Pixu Xueyu (GYPXXY), characterized by liver stagnation, spleen deficiency, and blood stasis, and 9 patients with the TCM syndrome of Qixu Xueyu (QXXY), characterized by deficiency of qi, blood, and blood stasis. Agilent miRNA microarray was performed first in liver specimens to determine whether miRNA expression is different in patients with these two TCM syndromes of CHB-fibrosis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG analysis were applied to determine the roles of the differentially expressed miRNAs. QRT-PCR was performed to validate the Agilent miRNA microarray results. Compared with GYPXXY patients, 6 differentially expressed miRNAs were upregulated (miR-144-5p, miR-18a-5p, miR-148b-3p, miR-654-3p, miR-139-3p, and miR-24-1-5p) and 1 was downregulated (miR-6834-3p) in QXXY patients. According to qRT-PCR data, miR-144-5p and miR-654-3p were confirmed as upregulated in CHB-liver fibrosis patients compared to CHB patients without fibrosis, whereas the other 4 miRNAs were not significantly different. More importantly, miR-654-3p was confirmed to be significantly upregulated in QXXY patients compared with values in GYPXXY patients, whereas no significant difference was found in miR-144-5p. Moreover, the pathways of central carbon metabolism in cancer and cell cycle related to miR-654-3p and the target genes of PTEN and ATM were found to be different between QXXY patients and GYPXXY patients. These results indicate that there are different miRNAs, pathways, and target genes between QXXY patients and GYPXXY patients. However, due to the limited sample, whether miR-654-3p and the target genes PTEN and ATM could be molecular markers to differentiate TCM syndromes could not be established.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144872

RESUMO

Kang-Xian (KX) pills have been clinically used for the treatment of chronic hepatic injury (CHI). However, the mechanisms of KX on CHI remain unknown. The aim of this study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effects of KX in a CHI mouse model based on modulating gut microbiota and gut permeability. We first established a CHI model using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated it with KX. The anti-inflammatory effects of KX on CHI model mice and the changes in gut permeability after KX treatment were also investigated. 16S rRNA analysis was used to study the changes of gut microbiota composition after KX treatment. In addition, gut microbiota was depleted using a combination of antibiotics in order to further confirm that KX could inhibit the inflammatory response and decrease gut permeability to treat CHI by modulating the gut microbiota. Results showed that KX treatment significantly improved liver function in CHI model mice. KX could also increase the levels of tight junction proteins in the colon and decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver. 16S rRNA analysis indicated that KX treatment affected the alpha and beta diversities in CHI model mice. Further analysis of 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that KX treatment increased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes at the phylum level. At the genus level, KX treatment increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia and decreased the relative abundance of Ralstonia, Alloprevotella, and Lachnoclostridium. However, KX could not alleviate CHI after depleting the gut microbiota. The effects of KX on gut permeability and inflammatory response in the liver were also decreased following the depletion of gut microbiota. In conclusion, our current study demonstrated that gut microbiota was significantly affected during CHI progression. KX could inhibit the inflammatory response and decrease the gut permeability in CHI model mice through modulating the gut microbiota.

12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183189

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is a major disease affecting human health, and its pathogenesis is caused by many factors. Through the use of 'omics' technology, precision medicine is playing an increasingly important role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Dialectical treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)will result in personalized treatment, which is consistent with precision medicine to a certain extent. However, due to the multitarget, multipath, and multistep characteristics of TCM, its mechanism of action is not easy to elucidate. Network pharmacology can be used to predict the mechanism, toxicity and metabolic characteristics of TCM. This review summarizes commonly used bioinformatics resources for cardiovascular diseases and TCM, as well as the opportunities and challenges of TCM in cardiovascular precision medicine, with special emphasis on network pharmacology methods.

13.
Chemosphere ; : 128940, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218720

RESUMO

Elevated atmospheric O3 can inhibit the growth rate of various plants and increase metal content in their tissues owing to the oxidative damage, thereby affecting their phytoremediation efficiency. In this study, a series of O3 fumigation treatments were designed to evaluate the dry weight, Cd content, and transpiration rate responses of Celosia argentea to different levels of O3 (40, 50, 55, 60, 65, and 80 ppb). The dry weight of C. argentea decreased as the atmospheric O3 level increased, and the Cd concentration of the plant leaves increased until the level of O3 reached 60 ppb before decreasing slightly. The variations in the transpiration rate followed a similar trend to the Cd content under different O3 levels. The phytoremediation efficiency of C. argentea increased with O3 fumigation at low (50 ppb) and moderate (55 and 60 ppb) levels, and significantly decreased at the highest level. The regression curves indicated that the plant species treated with 52 ppb of O3 exhibited the highest Cd accumulation capacity. Overall, the phytoremediation effect of C. argentea cultivated in Cd-polluted soil might be improved under the high-O3 conditions. This result might help to choose suitable plants for soil remediation in future atmospheric environment.

14.
Food Funct ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226057

RESUMO

Nevadensin (NEV), a natural flavonoid compound derived from Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim, has numerous biological activities. However, few researchers have examined its potential impact on alleviating allergies. In the present study, NEV was found to upregulate rectal temperature, suppress the development of diarrhea, and decrease the levels of serum specific immunoglobulin E, histamine and mouse MC protease-1 in ovalbumin-allergic mice. Moreover, NEV also alleviated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions and inhibited the release of ß-hexosaminidase and histamine in bone marrow-derived mast cells. Furthermore, we provide the first demonstration that NEV decreases the expression of c-Kit and suppresses the proliferation of bone marrow-derived mast cells and accelerates their apoptosis. These findings indicated that L. pauciflorus-derived NEV might have the potential to alleviate food hypersensitivity.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144260

RESUMO

The ameliorative effect of depolymerized sulfated polysaccharides from Eucheuma serra (DESP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-caused induced food allergy was investigated in this work. Results showed that OVA stimulated the secretion of allergy-related cytokines (OVA-specific IgE, mMCP-1, IgA, TNF-α) and led to diarrhea, intestinal epithelial damage, and intestinal microflora dysbiosis in sensitized mice. After the administration of DESP, however, the anaphylactic symptoms (shortness of breath, hypothermia, diarrhea), along with the allergy-related cytokines, were effectively suppressed. Moreover, the reduced intestinal inflammation was discovered in the DESP-treated group. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples was performed, and gene count and α-diversity analysis revealed that DESP improved microbial community richness. Taxonomic composition analysis showed that DESP modulated the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes/Proteobacteria. Particularly, DESP increased probiotics (Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae and Prevotellaceae) and decreased pathogenic bacteria (Helicobacteraceae and Desulfovibrionaceae). These findings, therefore, suggest that DESP may ameliorate food allergy through the regulation of intestinal microbiota.

16.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106226, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212165

RESUMO

The threat of antibiotic resistance has been increased dramatically during last few years, an old antibiotic agent, fosfomycin, has been re-introduced to fight against infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase -producing K. pneumonia (KPC-KP). However, the trend of fosfomycin resistance among KPC-KP strains is increasing. Eighty KPC-KP clinical isolates were collected from three teaching hospitals during 2014 and 2017 in China. The strains were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS). The fosfomycin resistance phenotype and mechanisms were investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and carbon source growth test, respectively. In all KPC-KP strains, 80% (64/80) strains were resistance to fosfomycin and 36.3% (29/80) strains were positive for mobile fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3. Among the 63 strains that were unable to grow in M9 basic medium with glycerol-3-phosphate as the sole carbon source (mutation of the target gene glpt mediated), there was no significant difference regarding to the MIC distribution of fosfomycin between fosA3-positive strains and fosA3-negative strains (P=0.577). Among the 50 strains which were negative for fosA3 but positive for fosA, the MICs of fosfomycin of strains that were unable to grow in M9 basic medium with glycerol-3-phosphate as the sole carbon source were significantly higher than (P<0.001) the strains that were able to grow in M9 basic medium with glycerol-3-phosphate as the sole carbon source. Our findings indicate that fosfomycin resistance among KPC-KP in China was an emerging problem, and the two major mechanisms of resistance identified were plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 and mutation of the target gene glpt.

17.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) is a novel breast imaging technique that can provide additional information of breast tissue blood supply. This study aimed to test the possibility of CEM in improving the diagnostic accuracy of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 calcification-only lesions with consideration of morphology and distribution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of patients with suspicious malignant calcification-only lesions (BI-RADS 4) on low-energy CEM and proved pathologic diagnoses were retrospectively collected. Two junior radiologists independently reviewed the two sets of CEM images, low-energy images (LE) to describe the calcifications by morphology and distribution type, and recombined images (CE) to record the presence of enhancement. Low-risk and high-risk groups were divided by calcification morphology, distribution, and both, respectively. Positive predictive values and misdiagnosis rates (MDR) were compared between LE-only reading and CE reading. Diagnostic performance was also tested using machine learning method. RESULTS: The study included 74 lesions (26 malignant and 48 benign). Positive predictive values were significantly higher and MDRs were significantly lower using CE images than using LE alone for both the low-risk morphology type and low-risk distribution type (P < .05). MDRs were significantly lower when using CE images (18.18%-24.00%) than using LE images alone in low-risk group (76.36%-80.00%) (P < .05). Using a machine learning method, significant improvements in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were observed in both low-risk and high-risk groups. CONCLUSION: CEM has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of BI-RADS 4 calcification-only lesions; in particular, those presented as low risk in morphology and/or distribution may benefit more.

18.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 700, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219258

RESUMO

Cyclic di-nucleotides are important secondary signaling molecules in bacteria that regulate a wide range of processes. In this study, we found that Caenorhabditis elegans can detect and are attracted to multiple signal molecules produced by Vibrio cholerae, specifically the 3',5'-cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), even though this bacterium kills the host at a high rate. C-di-GMP is sensed through C. elegans olfactory AWC neurons, which then evokes a series of signal transduction pathways that lead to reduced activity of two key stress response transcription factors, SKN-1 and HSF-1, and weakened innate immunity. Taken together, our study elucidates the role of c-di-GMP in interkingdom communication. For C. elegans, bacterial c-di-GMP may serve as a cue that they can use to detect food. On the other hand, preexposure to low concentrations of c-di-GMP may impair their immune response, which could facilitate bacterial invasion and survival.

19.
Plant Divers ; 42(4): 302-311, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094201

RESUMO

Ethiopia is land of geographical contrasts with elevations that range from 125 m below sea level in the Danakil Depression to 4533 m above sea level in the Semien Mountains, a world heritage site. The diverse climate of various ecological regions of the country has driven the establishment of diverse vegetation, which range from Afroalpine vegetation in the mountains to the arid and semi-arid vegetation type in the lowlands. The formation of Ethiopian vegetation is highly connected to the climate and geological history of the country. Highland uplift and rift formation due to volcanic forces formed novel habitats with different topography and climatic conditions that have ultimately become drivers for vegetation diversification. Due to Ethiopia's connection with the temperate biome in the north and the Arabian Peninsula during the dry glacial period, the biotic assemblage of Ethiopian highlands consists of both Afrotropical and palearctic biota. In general, eight distinct vegetation types have been identified in Ethiopia, based mainly on elevation and climate gradients. These vegetation types host their own unique species, but also share several common species. Some of the vegetation types are identified as centers of endemism and have subsequently been identified globally as the East African Afromontane hotspot. Ethiopia is biologically rich, with more than 6500 vascular plant species. Of these species, 12% are endemic mainly due to geographical isolation and unique climatic conditions. However, researchers have yet to extensively investigate the ecology, phenology, as well as the evolutionary, genetics, and conservation status of Ethiopian vegetations at community and species level over space and time. This lack of research is a barrier to achieving the goal of zero global plant extinctions. Taxa extinction risk assessment has not been extensively carried out for majority of Ethiopian species. Detailed research is needed to explore how vegetation and species respond to rapidly growing environmental change. Currently, human-induced climate change and habitat fragmentation are severely threatening the country's biodiversity, and the consequences of these effects have not been studied at large. Furthermore, we still lack scientific evidence on how micro- and macro-ecological and evolutionary processes have been shaping vegetation structures in this climatically, topographically, and geologically diverse country. These gaps in our knowledge represent an opportunity for ecologists, geneticists, evolutionary biologists, conservation biologists, and other experts to investigate the biodiversity status and the complex ecological processes involved in structuring vegetation dynamics so as to help take effective conservation actions.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013360

RESUMO

Lymphatic vessels, as an important part of the lymphatic system, form a fine vascular system in humans and play an important role in regulating fluid homeostasis, assisting immune surveillance and transporting dietary lipids. Dysfunction of lymphatic vessels can cause many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, lymphedema, inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis. Research on lymphangiogenesis has become increasingly important over the last few decades. Nevertheless, the explicit role of regulating lymphangiogenesis in preventing and treating diseases remains unclear owing to the lack of a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways of the specific and tissue-specific changes in lymphangiopathy. TCM, consisting of compound extracted from TCM, Injections of single TCM and formula, is an important complementary strategy for treating disease in China. Lots of valuable traditional Chinese medicines are used as substitutes or supplements in western countries. As one of the main natural resources, these TCM are widely used in new drug research and development in Asia. Moreover, as a historical and cultural heritage, TCM has been widely applied to clinical research on lymphangiogenesis leveraging new technologies recently. Available studies show that TCM has an explicit effect on the regulation of lymphatic regeneration. This review aims to clarify the function and mechanisms, especially the inhibitory effect of TCM in facilitating and inhibiting lymphatic regeneration.

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