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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126072, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626759

RESUMO

To comprehensively evaluate the biological and abiotic influence of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the anaerobic digestion of cornstalk, mesophilic and thermophilic digestion were conducted. Adding PAC (10 g/L) under thermophilic system obtained the maximum cellulose degradation rate and methane yield (MY), which were 57.47% and 128.19 L/kg VS. However, adding same dose of PAC at mesophilic system decreased the MY by 8.16% while increased the cellulose degradation rate and methane production rate by 6.48% and 17.92%. Under mesophilic conditions, the enhancement of PAC was owing to the enrichment of cellulolytic microorganisms, improvement of the syntrophic process and direct interspecies electron transfer. The lower methane yield was attributed to the adsorption of carbon source by PAC and CH4 consumption by Norank_c_Bathyarchaeia. The good performance of thermophilic system was owing to the lower adsorption capability of PAC, absence of Norank_c_Bathyarchaeia, and concentrated carbon flow to methane.

2.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(9): 724-730, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518699

RESUMO

Amyloidosis of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a pathological hallmark of type II diabetes (T2D), an epidemic afflicting nearly 10% of the world's population. To visualize disease-relevant hIAPP fibrils, we extracted amyloid fibrils from islet cells of a T2D donor and amplified their quantity by seeding synthetic hIAPP. Cryo-EM studies revealed four fibril polymorphic atomic structures. Their resemblance to four unseeded hIAPP fibrils varies from nearly identical (TW3) to non-existent (TW2). The diverse repertoire of hIAPP polymorphs appears to arise from three distinct protofilament cores entwined in different combinations. The structural distinctiveness of TW1, TW2 and TW4 suggests they may be faithful replications of the pathogenic seeds. If so, the structures determined here provide the most direct view yet of hIAPP amyloid fibrils formed during T2D.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112754, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488145

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an unavoidable contaminant in animal feed and agricultural products. AFB1 has been found to impair the liver and kidney function of sheep. However, few data are available, which explain the toxic damage of AFB1 exposure on meat quality. In the study, male Dorper RAMS sheep (6-month-old) were orally administrated with AFB1 at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight once. The body temperature, serum biochemistry, meat quality-related parameters, oxidation indicators in meat and serum, the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory, and microbiota composition of feces were measured 24 h after AFB1 exposure. The results showed that the body temperature was slightly increased, the mental state of mutton sheep was suppressed, and biochemical indicators were significantly changed after AFB1 exposure. AFB1 impaired mutton quality reflected by the structure of muscle fibers was changed, and increased muscle drip loss and lightness (L*), and decreased muscle redness (a*). Moreover, we found that AFB1 caused changes in the oxidative stress indicators T-SOD, T-AOC, MDA, GSH level, and GSH/GSSG ratio, and inflammation damage of mutton reflected by increasing pro-inflammatory TNF-α and reducing anti-inflammatory IL-10 mRNA levels, disrupts the secretion of inflammatory factors, and changed the composition of gut microbiota reflected by significantly increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased the abundances of Butyrivibrio, which are related to the quality of the mutton. In summary, gut microbiota participates in AFB1 to damage mutton quality, which may be co-mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation, and gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Animais , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Carne , Estresse Oxidativo , Ovinos
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125761, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455252

RESUMO

A hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor was designed and constructed to achieve simultaneous nitrification-denitrification coupled to methane oxidation in low O2/CH4 ratio and high nitrogen removal rate. Three O2/CH4 ratio stages were operated. Ammonia removal rates reached 77.5 and 95 mg/(L·d) at the O2/CH4 ratio of 1.47 and 2.1, respectively. Microbial community analysis revealed that aeration through physical partition and O2/CH4 ratio stages achieved compartmentation of microbial community in structure and function. Combined functional genes analysis using qPCR, the aeration through gas distributer was proved to promote the enrichment of autotrophic ammonia oxidizers in the suspended liquid/mixed filler samples, and the aeration through hollow-fiber membrane favored the growth of methanotrophs and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria. This study helps to develop effective regulatory strategies for high nitrogen removal based on the understanding of the community assembly process and the key driving factors.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nitrificação , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Metano , Nitrogênio
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4993, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404798

RESUMO

Dissipative self-assembly, which requires a continuous supply of fuel to maintain the assembled states far from equilibrium, is the foundation of biological systems. Among a variety of fuels, light, the original fuel of natural dissipative self-assembly, is fundamentally important but remains a challenge to introduce into artificial dissipative self-assemblies. Here, we report an artificial dissipative self-assembly system that is constructed from light-induced amphiphiles. Such dissipative supramolecular assembly is easily performed using protonated sulfonato-merocyanine and chitosan based molecular and macromolecular components in water. Light irradiation induces the assembly of supramolecular nanoparticles, which spontaneously disassemble in the dark due to thermal back relaxation of the molecular switch. Owing to the presence of light-induced amphiphiles and the thermal dissociation mechanism, the lifetimes of these transient supramolecular nanoparticles are highly sensitive to temperature and light power and range from several minutes to hours. By incorporating various fluorophores into transient supramolecular nanoparticles, the processes of aggregation-induced emission and aggregation-caused quenching, along with periodic variations in fluorescent color over time, have been demonstrated. Transient supramolecular assemblies, which act as fluorescence modulators, can also function in human hepatocellular cancer cells.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Água/química , Fluorescência , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cinética , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Temperatura
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 338: 125566, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298332

RESUMO

To explore the bioaugmentation of rumen cellulolytic bacteria (RCB) and activated carbon (AC) on thermophilic digestion of cornstalk, biochemical methane potential tests were carried out. Adding RCB or AC can improve methane production, while simultaneous existence of AC (10 g/L) and RCB (5%) obtained the best performance. The maximum cellulose degradation rate, methane production rate and methane yield were 66.92%, 32.2 L/(kgVS·d), and 144.9 L/kgVS, which increased by 30.23%, 51.17%, and 20.35% compared with control group. The cellulolytic and fermentative bacteria (Hydrogenispora), syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (norank_o_MBA03), and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter were crucial for thermophilic digestion of cornstalk. The enhancement of AC was due to the enrichment of Hydrogenispora and Methanothermobacter, while RCB can increase the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria (Halocella and norank_o_M55-D21) and mixotrophic Methanosarcina. The synergetic effect of AC and RCB owing to the enriched cellulolytic bacteria, the enhanced syntrophic acetate oxidation and the concentrated carbon metabolic flow to methane.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Rúmen , Anaerobiose , Animais , Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos , Digestão , Metano
7.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 152, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disease that affects 20-30% of individuals worldwide. Liver puncture remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of liver diseases despite limitations regarding invasive nature and sample variability. It is of great clinical significance to find noninvasive biomarkers to detect and predict NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify potential serum markers in individuals with early-stage NAFLD and to advance the mechanistic understanding of this disease using a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach. METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients with early-stage NAFLD aged 18-55 were recruited according to the guidelines. The control group included 112 healthy participants. The demographic, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory data of all participants were systematically collected. Serum samples were obtained after an overnight fast. The comprehensive serum metabolomic analysis was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The resultant data was processed by Compound Discover and SIMCA-P software to validate the potential biomarkers. Significantly altered metabolites were evaluated by variable importance in projection value (VIP > 1) and ANOVA (p < 0.01). Pathway analysis was performed using MetaboAnalyst 4.0. RESULTS: The liver function test of early NAFLD patients showed no statistical differences to control group (p > 0.05). However, obvious differences in blood lipids were observed between subjects with NAFLD and controls (p < 0.001). In total, 55 metabolites showed significant changes in experimental group were identified. The area under curve (AUC) values deduced by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis indicated that these newly identified biomarkers have high predictability and reliability. Of these, 15 metabolites with AUC greater than 0.9 were of great diagnostic value in early NAFLD patients. CONCLUSION: In this study, a total of 15 serum metabolites were found to strongly associate with early NAFLD. These biomarkers may have great clinical significance in the early diagnosis of NAFLD, as well as to follow response to therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 250-260, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866146

RESUMO

Lilium is an important commercial flowering species, and there are many varieties and more than 100 species of wild Lilium. Lilium × formolongi is usually propagated from seedlings, and the flowering of these plants is driven mainly by the photoperiodic pathway. Most of the other lily plants are propagated via bulblets and need to be vernalized; these plants can be simply divided into pretransplantation types and posttransplantation types according to the time at which the floral transition occurs. We identified three Lilium FLOWERING LOCUS T (LFT) family members in 7 Lilium varieties, and for each gene, the coding sequence of the different varieties was identical. Among these genes, the LFT1 gene of Lilium was most homologous to the AtFT gene, which promotes flowering in Arabidopsis. We analyzed the expression patterns of LFT genes in Lilium × formolongi seedlings and in different Lilium varieties, and the results showed that LFT1 and LFT3 may promote floral induction. Compared with LFT3, LFT1 may have a greater effect on floral induction in Lilium, which is photoperiod sensitive, while LFT3 may play a more important role in the floral transition of lily plants, which have a high requirement for vernalization. LFT2 may be involved in the differentiation of bulblets, which was verified by tissue culture experiments, and LFT1 may have other functions involved in promoting bulblet growth. The functions of LFT genes were verified by the use of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, which showed that both the LFT1 and LFT3 genes can promote early flowering in Arabidopsis. Compared with LFT3, LFT1 promoted flowering more obviously, and thus, this gene could be an important promoter of floral induction in Lilium.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Lilium , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Lilium/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107643, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878616

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a major obstacle in liver transplantation, however an effective treatment to mitigate this injury is lacking. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC) is a kind of oxysterol involved in inflammatory and immune responses. However, its function and the underlying mechanism on rat hepatic I/R injury has not been explored. A well-established rat model of partial warm ischemia reperfusion injury was performed. 25HC was intraperitoneally administrated 4 h before ischemia. The results verified that 25HC pretreatment effectively mitigated liver I/R injury, which was demonstrated by lower serum levels of transaminases, histology injury score and less apoptosis. Mechanistically, 25HC pretreatment activated PINK1/Parkin dependent mitophagy and inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome. Via using mitophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), we further found that 3-MA counteracted the protective effect of 25HC on hepatic I/R injury and the NLRP3 inflammasome. In conclusion, 25HC pretreatment ameliorates rat hepatic I/R injury, and this protective effect may be dependent on activating mitophagy and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

10.
Cell Immunol ; 362: 104286, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524739

RESUMO

Despite the remarkable success and efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy against the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, it induces sustained responses in a sizeable minority of cancer patients due to the activation of immunosuppressive factors such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Inhibiting the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs is critical for successful cancer ICB therapy. Interestingly, lipid metabolism is a crucial factor in modulating MDSCs function. Fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) conferred the function of PMN-MDSCs in cancer via the upregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. However, whether regulating lipid accumulation in MDSCs by targeting FATP2 could block MDSCs reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and enhance PD-L1 blockade-mediated tumor immunotherapy remains unexplored. Here we report that FATP2 regulated lipid accumulation, ROS, and immunosuppressive function of MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice. Tumor cells-derived granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced FATP2 expression in MDSCs by activation of STAT3 signaling pathway. Pharmaceutical blockade of FATP2 expression in MDSCs by lipofermata decreased lipid accumulation, reduced ROS, blocked immunosuppressive activity, and consequently inhibited tumor growth. More importantly, lipofermata inhibition of FATP2 in MDSCs enhanced anti-PD-L1 tumor immunotherapy via the upregulation of CD107a and reduced PD-L1 expression on tumor-infiltrating CD8+T-cells. Furthermore, the combination therapy blocked MDSC's suppressive role on T- cells thereby enhanced T-cell's ability for the production of IFN-γ. These findings indicate that FATP2 plays a key role in modulating lipid accumulation-induced ROS in MDSCs and targeting FATP2 in MDSCs provides a novel therapeutic approach to enhance anti-PD-L1 cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Coenzima A Ligases/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Transdução de Sinais , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
11.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 411-418, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462448

RESUMO

Animal studies implicate meningeal lymphatic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is no direct evidence in humans to support this role1-5. In this study, we used dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to assess meningeal lymphatic flow in cognitively normal controls and patients with idiopathic PD (iPD) or atypical Parkinsonian (AP) disorders. We found that patients with iPD exhibited significantly reduced flow through the meningeal lymphatic vessels (mLVs) along the superior sagittal sinus and sigmoid sinus, as well as a notable delay in deep cervical lymph node perfusion, compared to patients with AP. There was no significant difference in the size (cross-sectional area) of mLVs in patients with iPD or AP versus controls. In mice injected with α-synuclein (α-syn) preformed fibrils, we showed that the emergence of α-syn pathology was followed by delayed meningeal lymphatic drainage, loss of tight junctions among meningeal lymphatic endothelial cells and increased inflammation of the meninges. Finally, blocking flow through the mLVs in mice treated with α-syn preformed fibrils increased α-syn pathology and exacerbated motor and memory deficits. These results suggest that meningeal lymphatic drainage dysfunction aggravates α-syn pathology and contributes to the progression of PD.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Vasos Linfáticos/fisiopatologia , Meninges/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Meninges/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
12.
Histopathology ; 78(4): 542-555, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926596

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), infection has been deemed as a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation. While diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is recognised to be the primary manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia, there has been little emphasis on the progression to the fibrosing phase of DAD. This topic is of great interest, due to growing concerns regarding the potential long-term complications in prolonged survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report a detailed histopathological study of 30 autopsy cases with COVID-19 virus infection, based on minimally invasive autopsies performed between February and March, 2020. The mean age was 69 years, with 20 (67%) males and 10 (33%) females and frequent (70.0%) underlying comorbidities. The duration of illness ranged from 16 to 82 (median = 42) days. Histologically, the most common manifestation was diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in 28 (93.3%) cases which showed predominantly acute (32%), organising (25%) and/or fibrosing (43%) patterns. Patients with fibrosing DAD were one decade younger (P = 0.034) and they had a longer duration of illness (P = 0.033), hospitalisation (P = 0.037) and mechanical ventilation (P = 0.014) compared to those with acute DAD. Patients with organising DAD had a longer duration of illness (P = 0.032) and hospitalisation (P = 0.023) compared to those with acute DAD. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pneumonia patients who develop DAD can progress to the fibrosing pattern. While we observed fibrosing DAD in fatal cases, whether or not surviving patients are at risk for developing pulmonary fibrosis and the frequency of this complication will require further clinical and radiological follow-up studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/virologia
13.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 13(1): 19-31, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504282

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a leg disorder caused by the abnormal development of the tibia in fast-growing poultry. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) strains have been reported to have effects on increasing bone growth and improving osteoporosis in animals. However, whether L. rhamnosus JYLR-005 can improve bone growth in TD chickens remains unclear. In this study, we noted that L. rhamnosus JYLR-005 could not reduce the suppression of the production performance of TD broilers (p > 0.05) but had a slight protective effect on the broiler survival rate (χ2 = 5.571, p = 0.062). However, for thiram-induced TD broiler chickens, L. rhamnosus JYLR-005 could promote tibia growth by increasing tibia-related parameters, including the tibia weight (day 11, p = 0.040), tibia length (day 15, p = 0.013), and tibia mean diameter (day 15, p = 0.035). Moreover, L. rhamnosus JYLR-005 supplementation improved the normal growth and development of the tibial growth plate by maintaining the morphological structure of the chondrocytes and restored the balance of calcium and phosphorus. Taken together, these findings provide a proof of principle that L. rhamnosus JYLR-005 may represent a therapeutic strategy to treat leg disease in chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Osteocondrodisplasias , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Tiram/efeitos adversos , Tíbia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondrodisplasias/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/prevenção & controle , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Tiram/farmacologia , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tíbia/patologia
14.
Clin Rehabil ; 35(6): 801-811, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the most effective pain management method for meniscus injuries by comparing pain relief observed with several common interventions including combined different combinations of surgery and exercise, surgery alone, supervised exercise alone and home exercise alone. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, and PEDro were searched from database inception through October 15, 2020. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of surgery and exercise for meniscus injuries by using the visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment were eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome was mean change in VAS score from baseline. Comparisons between interventions were made through use of random-effects network meta-analysis over the short-term (three months) and mid-term (12 months). Relative ranking of therapies was assessed by the surface-under-the-cumulative ranking possibilities. All reference lists of included studies were hand-searched. RESULTS: We investigated six RCTs (total n = 796 patients). No significant difference was found between different treatments of pain control in three months and 12 months. The surface under the cumulative ranking curves suggested that supervised exercise combined with surgery was considered most likely to overshadow other treatments in reducing short-term pain (surface under cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values: 98.1; mean ranks: 1.1) and mid-term pain (SUCRA values: 97.2; mean rank: 1.1). CONCLUSION: There is not sufficient evidence to identify any preferred or more effective surgical and/or exercise-based treatment program.

15.
Food Chem ; 344: 128688, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246686

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is the common leg disease in commercial broilers. However, the effects of TD on meat quality and the protective of Morinda officinalis polysaccharide (MOP) are largely unknown. Three hundred broiler chicks (one-day-old) were equally allocated into control (CON), TD and MOP-treated groups for 15 days. The results indicated that TD influenced morphology and meat quality-related parameters of the breast muscle, and changed the activity and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and breast muscles. Moreover, metabolomics profiling of breast muscle revealed that the main altered metabolites 4-guanidinobutyric acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, which are related to meat quality and oxidative stress. Additionally, 500 mg/L MOP effectively restored the content of meat metabolites and oxidative damage. These findings suggest that oxidative damage caused by TD may affect meat quality in broilers by changing the content of breast muscle metabolites and that MOP supplementation has a restorative effect.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Morinda/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Análise Discriminante , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Peitorais/enzimologia , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Water Res ; 188: 116555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137529

RESUMO

It would be highly beneficial to use the methane produced by anaerobic digestion, which is low cost and accessible, as the carbon source in the removal of nitrogenous contaminants in wastewater. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding coupling systems that entail methane oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification, which restricts their industrial application. In this study, we acclimated a mixed culture to deal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification coupled to methane oxidation in a laboratory-scale hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor, which achieved a steady ammonia removal rate of 38.09 mg N/(L•d). Furthermore, a series of batch experiments were conducted to test methane oxidation coupled to nitrate denitrification (AME-D3), nitrite denitrification (AME-D2), and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (ME-SND). The molar ratio between methane consumed and nitrate reduced (C/N) equals 10 and 5 mol CH4C mol-1 NO3N in AME-D3 and AME-D2, averagely and respectively. Without methane injection, the removal of nitrates and nitrites was very low, indicating that the coupling of nitrate/nitrite denitrification and methane oxidation was beneficial. The average ammonia removal rates in the 20% O2 and 25% O2 groups were 20.06 and 22.03 mg N/(L•d) in the ME-SND system, respectively. Without methane, the ammonia oxidation rate declined, and large amounts of nitrite accumulated. As traditional ammonia and nitrite oxidation approaches are autotrophic, we proposed the possibility of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD). To study the coupling systems, the microbial communities and functional bacteria were analyzed. The results indicated that the system contained a guild of methanotrophs (mainly Methylobacter) and HN-AD bacteria (mainly Chrysobacterium and Comamonas).


Assuntos
Amônia , Nitrificação , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Metano , Nitritos , Nitrogênio
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8893305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274010

RESUMO

As an essential lipid, cholesterol is of great value in keeping cell homeostasis, being the precursor of bile acid and steroid hormones, and stabilizing membrane lipid rafts. As a kind of cholesterol metabolite produced by enzymatic or radical process, oxysterols have drawn much attention in the last decades. Among which, the role of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, antivirus process, and inflammatory response has been largely disclosed. This review is aimed at revealing these functions and underlying mechanisms of 25-HC.


Assuntos
Hidroxicolesteróis/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Viroses/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/patologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/virologia , Viroses/patologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18794, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139863

RESUMO

Anyang, the last capital of the Chinese Shang dynasty, became one of the largest metal consumers in Eurasia during the second millennium BCE. However, it remains unclear how Anyang people managed to sustain such a large supply of metal. By considering the chemical analysis of bronze objects within archaeological contexts, this paper shows that the casting and circulation of metal at Anyang was effectively governed by social hierarchy. Objects belonging to the high elites such as Fuhao, particularly the bronze ritual vessels, were made by carefully controlled alloying practice (primary) using very pure copper, whereas the lower elites only had access to bronzes made by secondary alloying practice and copper with more impurities. Such contrasts allow scholars to identify those objects which are less likely to have been made by mixing and recycling, which has very important implications for the chemical and isotopic determination of provenance for future studies.

19.
Cell Rep ; 33(4): 108315, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113380

RESUMO

G9a is a lysine methyltransferase that regulates epigenetic modifications, transcription, and genome organization. However, whether these properties are dependent on one another or represent distinct functions of G9a remains unclear. In this study, we observe widespread DNA methylation loss in G9a depleted and catalytic mutant embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we define how G9a regulates chromatin accessibility, epigenetic modifications, and transcriptional silencing in both catalytic-dependent and -independent manners. Reactivated retrotransposons provide alternative promoters and splice sites leading to the upregulation of neighboring genes and the production of chimeric transcripts. Moreover, while topologically associated domains and compartment A/B definitions are largely unaffected, the loss of G9a leads to altered chromatin states, aberrant CTCF and cohesin binding, and differential chromatin looping, especially at retrotransposons. Taken together, our findings reveal how G9a regulates the epigenome, transcriptome, and higher-order chromatin structures in distinct mechanisms.

20.
J Org Chem ; 85(19): 12270-12283, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883080

RESUMO

An efficient three-component domino or one-pot strategy has been developed for the synthesis of medicinally important benzothiophene and benzothiopheno[2,3-e]azepinedione derivatives for the first time. Amine-promoted selective cleavage of C-S bond of thioisatin is the key step in this process. The reported methodology benefits from environmentally friendly solvent (H2O), wide substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, and high reaction yields.

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