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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5849794, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256954

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a clinical issue that can result in poor outcome and lacks effective therapies at present. Mild hypothermia (32-35°C) is a physiotherapy that has been reported to significantly alleviate IR injury, while its protective effects are attributed to multiple mechanisms, one of which may be the regulation of fatty acid ß-oxidation (FAO). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of FAO in the protective effects of mild hypothermia. We used male mice to establish the experimental models as previously described. In brief, before exposure to in situ ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 6 h, mice received pretreatment with mild hypothermia for 2 h and etomoxir (inhibitor of FAO) or leptin (activator of FAO) for 1 h, respectively. Then, tissue and blood samples were collected to evaluate the liver injury, oxidative stress, and changes in hepatic FAO. We found that mild hypothermia significantly reduced the hepatic enzyme levels and the score of hepatic pathological injury, hepatocyte apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial injury. In addition, the expression of the rate-limiting enzyme (CPT1a) of hepatic FAO was downregulated almost twofold by IR, while this inhibition could be significantly reversed by mild hypothermia. Experiments with leptin and etomoxir confirmed that activation of FAO could also reduce the hepatic enzyme levels and the score of hepatic pathological injury, hepatocyte apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial injury induced by IR, which had the similar effects to mild hypothermia, while inhibition of FAO had negative effects. Furthermore, mild hypothermia and leptin could promote the phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 and upregulate the ratio of BCL-2/BAX to suppress hepatocyte apoptosis. Thus, we concluded that FAO played an important role in hepatic IR injury and mild hypothermia attenuated hepatic IR injury mainly via the regulation of JAK2/STAT3-CPT1a-dependent FAO.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196893

RESUMO

Light-harvesting systems are an important way for capturing, transferring and utilizing light energy. It remains a key challenge to develop highly efficient artificial light-harvesting systems. Herein, we report a supramolecular co-assembly based on lower-rim dodecyl-modified sulfonatocalix[4]arene (SC4AD) and naphthyl-1,8-diphenyl pyridinium derivative (NPS) as a light-harvesting platform. NPS as a donor shows significant aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) after assembling with SC4AD. Upon introduction of Nile blue (NiB) as an acceptor into the NPS-SC4AD co-assembly, the light-harvesting system becomes near-infrared (NIR) emissive (675 nm). Importantly, the NIR emitting NPS-SC4AD-NiB system exhibits an ultrahigh antenna effect (33.1) at a high donor/acceptor ratio (250:1). By co-staining PC-3 cells with a Golgi staining reagent, NBD C6 -ceramide, NIR imaging in the Golgi apparatus has been demonstrated using these NIR emissive nanoparticles.

4.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 58(1): 25-38, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900136

RESUMO

Accumulation of bile acids (BAs) contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Here, we sought to systematically characterize the serum and fecal BA profiles and the linkage between BAs and gut microbiota in PBC. The serum and fecal BAs were compared between 65 UDCA treatment-naive PBC and 109 healthy controls using UPLC-MS in cross-sectional study. In a prospective study, a subgroup of patients was enrolled for BA and microbiota analysis before and after UDCA therapy. BA compositions in serum and feces significantly differed between treatment-naive PBC and controls. Particularly, PBC was associated with decreased conversions of conjugated to unconjugated, and primary to secondary BAs, indicating impaired microbial metabolism of BAs. PBC patients at advanced stage exhibited a more abnormal BA profile compared with early-stage patients. UDCA treatment led to a decreased level of taurine-conjugated BAs, thereby reversing the conjugated/unconjugated ratio in PBC. Moreover, the level of secondary BAs such as DCA and conjugated DCA inversely correlated with PBC-enriched gut microbes (e.g., Veillonella, Klebsiella), while positively correlated with control-enriched microbes (e.g., Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira). Microbiota analysis also revealed a significant increase of taurine-metabolizing bacteria Bilophila spp. in patients after UDCA, which was strongly correlated with decreased taurine-conjugated BAs. In addition, serum FGF19 was remarkably increased in treatment-naïve PBC and decreased after UDCA. Our study established specific alterations of BA compositions in serum and feces of PBC, suggesting the potential for using BAs for diagnosis, and highlighting the possibility of modulating BA profile by altering gut microbiota. Graphical Abstract.

5.
Gut ; 69(3): 569-577, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The significance of the liver-microbiome axis has been increasingly recognised as a major modulator of autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to take advantage of a large well-defined corticosteroids treatment-naïve group of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to rigorously characterise gut dysbiosis compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional study of individuals with AIH (n=91) and matched healthy controls (n=98) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. An independent cohort of 28 patients and 34 controls was analysed to validate the results. All the patients were collected before corticosteroids therapy. RESULTS: The gut microbiome of steroid treatment-naïve AIH was characterised with lower alpha-diversity (Shannon and observed operational taxonomic units, both p<0.01) and distinct overall microbial composition compared with healthy controls (p=0.002). Depletion of obligate anaerobes and expansion of potential pathobionts including Veillonella were associated with disease status. Of note, Veillonella dispar, the most strongly disease-associated taxa (p=8.85E-8), positively correlated with serum level of aspartate aminotransferase and liver inflammation. Furthermore, the combination of four patients with AIH-associated genera distinguished AIH from controls with an area under curves of approximately 0.8 in both exploration and validation cohorts. In addition, multiple predicted functional modules were altered in the AIH gut microbiome, including lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis as well as metabolism of amino acids that can be processed by bacteria to produce immunomodulatory metabolites. CONCLUSION: Our study establishes compositional and functional alterations of gut microbiome in AIH and suggests the potential for using gut microbiota as non-invasive biomarkers to assess disease activity.

6.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(12): 1458-1466, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791216

RESUMO

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients show an increased risk for psychological disorders, malnutrition and impaired quality of life (QoL), which can result in adverse clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence and risk factors of psychological disorders, malnutrition and QoL in IBD patients.Methods: All participants were recruited to fill out the questionnaires including inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ), perceived social support scale, HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, NRS2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002), Crohn's disease activity index, Modified Truelove and Witts Activity Index, dietary beliefs and behaviors. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Multivariate regression model was performed to identify the risk factors for psychological disorders, malnutrition and QoL.Results: A total of 78 inpatients were enrolled in this study, 76 (97.4%) of IBD patients had anxiety, 71 (91%) had depressive. Forty six (59.0%) were screened at risk of malnutrition. The mean score of IBDQ was 131.51 ± 36.136. In the multivariate analysis, higher disease activity and history treated with steroids in the last year were associated with anxiety; higher disease activity was related to depressive. Higher disease activity and avoiding certain foods during disease flares were associated with high risk of malnutrition. Unemployment/no schooling status, higher disease activity and lower social support were associated with lower IBDQ score.Conclusions: The high prevalence of psychological disorders and malnutrition were found in IBD patients, and thereby negatively affect QoL. Disease activity was significantly associated with psychological disorders, risk of malnutrition and impaired QoL. And avoiding certain foods was related to risk of malnutrition.

7.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 86, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeated failure of drug candidates targeting Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical trials likely stems from a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis. Recent research has highlighted synergistic interactions between aggregated amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau proteins in AD, but the molecular details of how these interactions drive AD pathology remain elusive and speculative. METHODS: Here, we test the hypothesis that Aß potentiates intracellular tau aggregation, and show that oligomeric Aß specifically exacerbates proteopathic seeding by tau. Using tau-biosensor cells, we show that treatment with sub-toxic concentrations of Aß oligomers, but not monomers or fibrils, "primes" cells, making them more susceptible to tau seeding. The treatment with Aß oligomers enhances intracellular tau aggregation in a dose-dependent manner when the cells are seeded with either recombinant or brain-derived tau fibrils, whereas little or no aggregation is observed in the absence of Aß-oligomer priming. RESULTS: Priming by Aß oligomers appears to be specific to tau, as α-synuclein seeding is unaffected by this treatment. Aß oligomer-enhanced tau seeding also occurs in primary mouse neurons and human neuroblastoma cells. Using fluorescently labeled tau seeds, we find that treatment with Aß oligomers significantly enhances the cellular uptake of tau seeds, whereas a known tau-uptake inhibitor blocks the effect of Aß on tau uptake. CONCLUSION: The ability of Aß to promote tau seeding suggests a specific and plausible mechanism by which extracellular Aß initiates a deleterious cascade that is unique to AD. These data suggest that the Aß-mediated potentiation of tau uptake into cells should also be taken into account when designing Aß-targeted therapeutics.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 72(1): 97-109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561361

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) is a key component of pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease, and its inhibitors can restore cognitive function as therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. The previous studies showed that acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) could increase the phosphorylation of GSK3ß through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. We found that aFGF14-154 markedly increased the average length of neurites in neurons damaged by amyloid-ß (Aß), and this promoting effect was blocked by GSK3ß inhibitor. It is still unknown which downstream substrates of GSK3ß are related to the neurite growth facilitated by aFGF14-154. The downstream substrates interacting with GSK3ß were screened by co-immunoprecipitation and LTQ-Orbitrap proteomics technology in our study. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) has been identified as a protein interacting with GSK3ß, which is involved in the axon formation and neuron regeneration by regulating microtubule reorganization. aFGF14-154 increased the phosphorylation of GSK3ß (Ser9) to inhibit its activity, then was followed by a low phosphorylation level of CRMP2 (Thr514), which led to the neurite growth. The knockdown of CRMP2 blocked the rescue of aFGF14-154 with broken neurites and shrunken cell bodies in neurons with Aß injury. These results highlight the important role of CRMP2 and its phosphorylation through GSK3ß in the effect that aFGF14-154 promoted the growth of neurite damaged by Aß.

9.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 26(10): 988, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530939

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 46(11): 1569-1581, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302801

RESUMO

To investigate the differences in microbial community structure between mesophilic and thermophilic in situ biogas-upgrading systems by H2 addition, two reactors (35 °C and 55 °C) were run for four stages according to different H2 addition rates (H2/CO2 of 0:1, 1:1, and 4:1) and mixing mode (intermittent and continuous). 16S rRNA gene-sequencing technology was applied to analyze microbial community structure. The results showed that the temperature is a crucial factor in impacting succession of microbial community structure and the H2 utilization pathway. For mesophilic digestion, most of added H2 was consumed indirectly by the combination of homoacetogens and strict aceticlastic methanogens. In the thermophilic system, most of added H2 may be used for microbial cell growth, and part of H2 was utilized directly by strict hydrogenotrophic methanogens and facultative aceticlastic methanogens. Continuous stirring was harmful to the stabilization of mesophilic system, but not to the thermophilic one.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura
12.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 26(7): 619-627, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235914

RESUMO

The DNA and RNA processing protein TDP-43 undergoes both functional and pathogenic aggregation. Functional TDP-43 aggregates form reversible, transient species such as nuclear bodies, stress granules, and myo-granules. Pathogenic, irreversible TDP-43 aggregates form in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative conditions. Here we find the features of TDP-43 fibrils that confer both reversibility and irreversibility by determining structures of two segments reported to be the pathogenic cores of human TDP-43 aggregation: SegA (residues 311-360), which forms three polymorphs, all with dagger-shaped folds; and SegB A315E (residues 286-331 containing the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis hereditary mutation A315E), which forms R-shaped folds. Energetic analysis suggests that the dagger-shaped polymorphs represent irreversible fibril structures, whereas the SegB polymorph may participate in both reversible and irreversible fibrils. Our structures reveal the polymorphic nature of TDP-43 and suggest how the A315E mutation converts the R-shaped polymorph to an irreversible form that enhances pathology.


Assuntos
Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/ultraestrutura , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Amiloide/química , Amiloide/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação Puntual , Agregados Proteicos , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/genética , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/patologia , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica
13.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 863-872, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085472

RESUMO

Microaerobic and hypoxic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (MAME-D and HYME-D) occur in stabilized landfills with leachate recirculation when biological denitrification is limited by lack of organics. To evaluate nitrate denitrification efficiency and culture MAME-D/HYME-D involved bacteria, a leach bed bioreactor semi-continuous experiment was conducted for 60 days in 5 runs, under nitrate concentrations ranging of 20 mg/L-55 mg/L, wherein 5% sterile leachate was added during runs 4 and 5. Although the HYME-D system demonstrated high denitrification efficiency (74.93%) and nitrate removal rate reached 2.62 mmol N/(L⋅d), the MAME-D system exhibited a denitrification efficiency of almost 100% and nitrate removal rate of 4.37 mmol N/(L⋅d). The addition of sterile leachate increased the nitrate removal rate in both systems, but caused the decrease of methane consumption in HYME-D. A stable isotope batch experiment was carried out to investigate the metabolic products by monitoring the 13CO2 and 15N2O production. The production of organic intermediates such as citrate, lactic acid, acetate, and propionic acid were also observed, which exhibited a higher yield in HYME-D. Variations in the microbial communities were analyzed during the semi-continuous experiment. MAME-D was mainly conducted by the association of type Ⅰ methanotroph Methylomonas and the methylotrophic denitrifier Methylotenera. Methane fermentation processed by Methylomonas under hypoxic conditions produced more complex organic intermediates and increased the diversity of related heterotrophic denitrifiers. The addition of sterile real leachate, resulting in increase of COD/N, influenced the microbial community of HYME-D system significantly.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Metano/análise , Methylocystaceae/metabolismo , Methylomonas/metabolismo , Nitratos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Processos Heterotróficos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiota , Nitratos/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(7): 855-862, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073734

RESUMO

Bacillus velezensis strain S3-1 has a broad range of hosts and is used as a biocontrol agent and biofertilizer. However, the interaction of maize root exudates and colonization of the strain S3-1 has not yet been investigated. In our study, strain S3-1 effectively colonized both rhizosphere soil and root tissue. Collected maize root exudates significantly induced the chemotaxis, cluster movement, and biofilm formation of strain S3-1, showing increases of 1.43, 1.6, and 2.08 times, respectively, compared with the control. In addition, the components of root exudates (organic acids: citric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acid; amino acids: glycine, proline and phenylalanine; sugars: glucose, fructose, and sucrose) were tested. Each of these compounds could induce chemotactic response, swarming motility, and biofilm formation significantly. The strongest chemotactic response and swarming motility were found when malic acid was applied, but maximal ability of biofilm formation was stimulated by proline. Furthermore, we found that these compounds of root exudates stimulated the population of S3-1 adhering to the maize root surface, especially in the presence of malic acid. These results indicate that maize root exudates play an important role in the colonization of S3-1, and provide a deeper understanding of the interaction between plants and microorganisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays , Bacillus/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Exsudatos de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 92, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and to further shed light on the underlying mechanisms of the actions of the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction. METHODS: Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) content was determined and liver inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated. Intrahepatocellular malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase contents were determined using commercially available kits Furthermore, α-SMA expression in liver tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry and LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting assays. RESULTS: Mice receiving the Alisma and Rhizoma decoction by gastric lavage had significantly lower plasma ALT content and markedly higher hepatic superoxide dismutase activity than mice receiving the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Furthermore, the decoction aborted MCD-induced increase in liver malondialdehyde content. Immunohistochemistry showed that the decoction suppressed hepatic α-SMA expression. Our transmission electronic microscopy revealed that the decoction markedly reduced the number of autophagosomes and immunoblotting assays showed that the decoction caused a dose-dependent decrease in LC3-II in hepatic tissues. CONCLUSION: The Alisma and Rhizoma decoction lessens NASH-associated liver injuries by modulating oxidative stress and autophagy in hepatocytes of mice fed with MCD.


Assuntos
Alisma/química , Atractylodes/química , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persistent disease activity is associated with a poor prognosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Therefore, monitoring of IBD activity can avoid the poor prognosis. Serum biomarkers reflect a summation of systemic host responses rather than being specific for intestinal inflammation. And endoscopic monitoring is invasive, costly, and time consuming. The objective of our study was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of fecal lactoferrin (FL) in assessing IBD activity. METHODS: We systematically searched the databases from inception to May 2018 that evaluated IBD activity. The methodological quality of each study was assessed according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. The extracted data were pooled using a summary receiver operating characteristic curve model. Random-effects model was used to summarize the diagnostic odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio. RESULTS: Ten studies comprising 773 IBD patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity values for assessing ulcerative colitis (UC) activity were 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.92] and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93), respectively. And the pooled sensitivity and specificity values for assessing Crohn's disease (CD) activity were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.73-0.88) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.63-0.78), respectively. The diagnostic performance of the FL assay in the UC patients appeared to be superior to that in the CD patients. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis has found that FL is an inexpensive, simple, stable, and useful screening marker with high sensitivity and modest specificity for assessing IBD activity, appearing to have greater ability to evaluate UC rather than CD.

17.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 12: 54, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886570

RESUMO

Many human neurodegenerative diseases are associated with amyloid fibril formation. Inhibition of amyloid formation is of importance for therapeutics of the related diseases. However, the development of selective potent amyloid inhibitors remains challenging. Here based on the structures of amyloid ß (Aß) fibrils and their amyloid-forming segments, we designed a series of peptide inhibitors using RosettaDesign. We further utilized a chemical scaffold to constrain the designed peptides into ß-strand conformation, which significantly improves the potency of the inhibitors against Aß aggregation and toxicity. Furthermore, we show that by targeting different Aß segments, the designed peptide inhibitors can selectively recognize different species of Aß. Our study developed an approach that combines the structure-based rational design with chemical modification for the development of amyloid inhibitors, which could be applied to the development of therapeutics for different amyloid-related diseases.

18.
Environ Int ; 127: 114-124, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913456

RESUMO

We investigated remediation of phenol from water using microbe-plant partnerships. Co-introduction of maize seedlings, Pseudomonas fluorescens rifampicin-resistant P13 and P. stutzeri P7 carrying self-transmissible TOL-like plasmids reduced phenol content in water at lower phenol concentrations (25, 50, and 75 mg/L), similar to individual introduction of the bacteria. Co-introduction of plants and bacteria significantly reduced phenol content in water at higher phenol concentrations (100, 125, and 150 mg/L) compared to using individual introduction of the bacteria. Moreover, TOL-like plasmids were transferred from P7 to P13. Addition of plants promoted the growth of both strains, leading to increased plasmid transfer. At higher phenol concentrations, addition of plants resulted in increases of catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase (C23O) activity and reduction in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of bacteria in the degradation experiments. Increased plasmid transfer and C23O activity and reduction in ROS level might be the major reasons why plants promote bacterial degradation of phenol at higher phenol concentrations. Furthermore, root exudate of maize seedlings and artificial root exudate (ARE) constructed using major components of the root exudate had the same effects on bacterial activities. Unlike the ARE, deletion of glucose, arabinose, or fructose or all the monosaccharides from ARE resulted in no increase in numbers of both strains and in plasmid transfer. At the higher phenol concentrations, deletion of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, or glycine or all the amino acids did not stimulate bacterial C23O activity. Deletion of fumaric, oxaloacetic or citric acids still reduced bacterial ROS level as ARE did, but, deletion of all the organic acids or DIMBOA, a hydroxamic acid, did not reduce bacterial ROS level as ARE did. The data showed that each monosaccharide might be important for sufficient numbers of plant-associated bacteria and increased plasmid transfer while each amino acid might be important for maintaining bacterial C23O activity and that DIMBOA might be responsible for the decrease in ROS levels. These results are the basis for efficient remediation of phenol from water by microbe-plant partnerships and further studies on the mechanism of rhizobacterium-plant interaction.


Assuntos
Fenóis/metabolismo , Água/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plasmídeos , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo
19.
Brief Bioinform ; 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895290

RESUMO

Since the 1st discovery of transcriptional enhancers in 1981, their textbook definition has remained largely unchanged in the past 37 years. With the emergence of high-throughput assays and genome editing, which are switching the paradigm from bottom-up discovery and testing of individual enhancers to top-down profiling of enhancer activities genome-wide, it has become increasingly evidenced that this classical definition has left substantial gray areas in different aspects. Here we survey a representative set of recent research articles and report the definitions of enhancers they have adopted. The results reveal that a wide spectrum of definitions is used usually without the definition stated explicitly, which could lead to difficulties in data interpretation and downstream analyses. Based on these findings, we discuss the practical implications and suggestions for future studies.

20.
Panminerva Med ; 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848114

RESUMO

MGRS (monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance) is a group of renal disorders caused by a monoclonal immunoglobulin (MIg) secreted by a dangerous plasmatic/B-cell clone hyperplasia through MIg deposition or dysfunction of complement pathway, with increasing risk of progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the underlying hematologic malignancy. The combination of renal biopsy, complete laboratory examination and bone marrow biopsy is an indispensable diagnostic tool for MGRS to identify accurately and unequivocally the pathogenic monoclonal MIg and provide guidance to treatment. Treatment of MGRS is composed of conventional therapy, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation to target the underlying clone and eliminate the noxious MIg on the basis of clinical data of some retrospective studies and a small amount of prospective trial. In addition, it is worthwhile point out assessment of therapeutic effect is significantly relevant for renal and overall prognosis. Thus, by comprehensively analyzing the clinical manifestations and pathogenic characteristic of MGRS, early recognition and prompt treatment can improve the prognosis and prevent post-translation recurrence with multidisciplinary cooperation.

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