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1.
New Phytol ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909485

RESUMO

Lignin is a major component of cell wall biomass and decisively affects biomass utilisation. Engineering of lignin biosynthesis is extensively studied, while lignin modification often causes growth defects. We developed a strategy for cell-type-specific modification of lignin to achieve improvements in cell wall property without growth penalty. We targeted a lignin-related transcription factor, LTF1, for modification of lignin biosynthesis. LTF1 can be engineered to a nonphosphorylation form which is introduced into Populus under the control of either a vessel-specific or fibre-specific promoter. The transgenics with lignin suppression in vessels showed severe dwarfism and thin-walled vessels, while the transgenics with lignin suppression in fibres displayed vigorous growth with normal vessels under phytotron, glasshouse and field conditions. In-depth lignin structural analyses revealed that such cell-type-specific downregulation of lignin biosynthesis led to the alteration of overall lignin composition in xylem tissues reflecting the population of distinctive lignin polymers produced in vessel and fibre cells. This study demonstrates that fibre-specific suppression of lignin biosynthesis resulted in the improvement of wood biomass quality and saccharification efficiency and presents an effective strategy to precisely regulate lignin biosynthesis with desired growth performance.

2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(1): 195-206, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199056

RESUMO

In trees, lateral growth of the stem occurs through cell divisions in the vascular cambium. Vascular cambium activity is regulated by endogenous developmental programmes and environmental cues. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate cambium activity are largely unknown. Genomic, biochemical and genetic approaches were used here to elucidate the role of PtrCLE20, a CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/embryo surrounding region (ESR)-related peptide gene, in the regulation of lateral growth in Populus. Fifty-two peptides encoded by CLE genes were identified in the genome of Populus trichocarpa. Among them PtrCLE20 transcripts were detected in developing xylem while the PtrCLE20 peptide was mainly localized in vascular cambium cells. PtrCLE20 acted in repressing vascular cambium activity indicated by that upregulation of PtrCLE20 resulted in fewer layers of vascular cambium cells with repressed expression of the genes related to cell dividing activity. PtrCLE20 peptide also showed a repression effect on the root growth of Populus and Arabidopsis, likely through inhibiting meristematic cell dividing activity. Together, the results suggest that PtrCLE20 peptide, produced from developing xylem cells, plays a role in regulating lateral growth by repression of cambium activity in trees.

3.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 28(4): 847-51, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18619313

RESUMO

The object of the present study is the synthetic jadeite jade produced by American General Electric Corporation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Laser Raman spectroscopy were used to test its spectral properties in order to examine the feature of this kind of synthetic jadeite jade by vibrational spectroscopy and to figure out the mark for discriminate synthetic jadeite jade from natural jadeite jade. The study shows that GE synthetic jadeite jade is identical with natural jadeite jade in the main on fingerprint region in FTIR; There are clearly differences in the 2 000 -4 000 cm(-1) functional region in FTIR: a group of frequencies at 3 375, 3 471 and 3 614 cm(-1) indicate vibration absorption of O-H. GE synthetic jadeite jade has proven consistent with natural jadeite jade in the laser Raman spectra by a group of sharp scattering peaks at 376, 700, 989 and 1 039 cm(-1). In addition these scattering peaks show an intact crystal shape. The FTIR peaks and Raman spectral peaks shift to higher frequencies showing GE synthetic jadeite jade lacking isomorphism of heavy positive ions.

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