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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39719-39729, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392680

RESUMO

In this work, cucurbiturils (CBs), a class of macrocyclic supramolecules, were observed to have an interesting peroxidase-like activity, which is metal-free, substrate-specific, thermophilic, acidophilic, and insensitive to ionic strength. By coating CBs on enzyme-encapsulated zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), a composite nanozyme was constructed, which retains the catalytic ability of CBs and enzymes and makes them cascade. On addition of the substrate, i.e., the detection target, a highly efficient cascade catalysis can be launched in all the spatial directions to generate sensitive and visible signals. Convenient detection of glucose and cholesterol as models is thereby achieved. More importantly, we have also successfully constructed a composite nanozyme-based sensor array (6 × 8 wells) and thereby achieved simultaneous colorimetric analysis of multiple samples. The concept and successful practice of the construction of the unique core-shell supramolecule/biomolecule@nanomaterial architecture provide the possibility to fabricate next-generation multifunctional materials and create new applications by integrating their unique functions.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Imidazóis/química , Nanocompostos/química , Peroxidases/química , Zeolitas/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/metabolismo , Catálise , Colorimetria , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxirredução , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Impressão Tridimensional
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4399-4405, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414739

RESUMO

Actual domestic sewage has a complex composition and relatively low carbon and nitrogen content. Anaerobic plug-flow influent can enhance the utilization of COD by aerobic granular sludge by providing a locally high concentration of substrate. In this study, intermittent aeration was used to cultivate aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and actual domestic sewage was used as the feed water to inoculate the sewage plant sludge. In the R1 experiment, rapid anaerobic feeding was adopted, while in R2, anaerobic plug-flow feeding was adopted, to explore the impact of different feeding modes on the aerobic granular sludge system of domestic sewage. Under rapid anaerobic feeding in R1, the particle structure appeared earlier, but particle breakage occurred after 71 days of operation; the particle structure generated in R2 was denser than that of R1, the particle surfaces were smoother, and the denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms (DPAO) had a more enriching effect. In the final R1 and R2 reactors, the proportion of DPAO to phosphorous accumulating organisms (PAO) was 14.17% and 22.07%, respectively. The results show that the anaerobic plug-flow feeding mode can enhance the use of influent COD by granular sludge, which is conducive to enriching DPAO, generating denser and more stable particles, realizing "one carbon dual purpose" operation, and removing more nitrogen and phosphorus.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Fósforo
3.
Oncol Rep ; 45(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655340

RESUMO

Subsequently to the publication of the above paper, the authors have drawn to our attention that the middle panel in Fig. 3B, representing the migration of PIPKIγ­depleted cells (PIPKIγ­1), was inadvertently mixed up with the left panel of control cells (siRNA Ctrl). The results presented in Fig. 3D, however, were quantified based on the original images from three independent experiments, each containing five randomly picked micro-scopic fields. The authors were able to re­examine the original data files and retrieve the correct data panels. The revised version of Fig. 3, featuring the correct data for the 'PIPKIγ­1' panel in Fig. 3B, is shown below. Note that the error made inadvertently with the selection of the representative image for PIPKIγ­1 in Fig. 3B did not affect the overall conclusions reported for this experiment. The authors are grateful to the Editor of Oncology Reports for allowing them the opportunity to publish this Corrigendum, and apologize to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in Oncology Reports 38: 253­262, 2017; DOI: 10.3892/or.2017.5670].

4.
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520959490, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967501

RESUMO

Primary multiple obturator nerve schwannomas originate from Schwann cells and are extremely rare. Patients with schwannomas are asymptomatic and a retroperitoneal schwannoma is often misdiagnosed as an adnexal mass. In the present study, we describe a 58-year-old woman in whom a right adnexal mass accompanied by endometrial polyp was found incidentally through transvaginal ultrasound. The mass was diagnosed as multiple obturator nerve schwannomas after laparoscopy. Immunohistochemical assay confirmed the schwannomas to be positive for SOX10. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate a case of multiple schwannomas originating from the obturator nerve and treated by laparoscopic resection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Anexos , Laparoscopia , Neurilemoma , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Nervo Obturador/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Obturador/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(3): 1409-1417, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608643

RESUMO

SBR reactors R1 and R2 were used to inoculate activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant, and domestic sewage was used as the influent. The operation was carried out using a single and multiple influent-aeration operation strategy, respectively, and the particle size change and removal effect during the operation was studied. The results show that R1 and R2 successfully achieved sludge granulation after 56 days and 39 days of operation, respectively. The concentrations (mg·L-1) of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent of R1 and R2 after stable operation were 29.7, 13.7, 0.31, 19.2, 8.1, and 0.37, respectively. The removal rates were respectively 87.7%, 75.6%, 95.1%, and 90.1%, 85.6%, and 94.2%, and the average particle size of the particles reached 740 µm for R1 and 791 µm for R2. The results showed that for the same running time, the effluent NO3--N concentration and TP concentration in R2 were lower than those in R1. In the later stage of operation, the ratio of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAO) to total phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in R1 and R2 increased from an initial 11.17% to 25.47% and 34.08%, respectively. Compared with the one influent-aeration operation strategy, the multiple influent-aeration operation strategy had a lower concentration of NO3--N in the initial stage of the startup, the PAOs received less impact, the DPAO enrichment was better, the phosphorus removal performance was better, and it helped to form aerobic granular sludge.

6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 856-866, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608747

RESUMO

To initiate the domestic sewage aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process, the experiment is operated by intermittent influent-effluent aeration to reduce the concentration of nitrate and the inhibition of PAO, and realize granulation by phosphate precipitation and positive electricity particles generated during phosphorus removal. The sludge from a sewage treatment plant is inoculated into the SBR reactors R1, R2, R3, and R4, for durations of 30, 60, 90, and 120 min total anaerobic time. This was used to study the effect of anaerobic time on the aerobic granular sludge system in domestic sewage. The experiment shows that reactors R1, R2, R3, and R4 are started successfully with 56, 48, 39, and 35 days, respectively. After 105 days of the operation, the respective average particle sizes reached 750, 764, 791, and 650 µm. During the operational period, at the 43rd and 47th day, phosphorus removal performance deteriorated in R1 and R2, and it recovered after the anaerobic time was extended to 90 min. The effect of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in R3 is good; at the 63-77 day the granular sludge in R4 disintegrates, and the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus removal and DPAO enrichment is decreased. During the later stage of operation, the effluent in R1, R2, R3, and R4 reaches the IA standard of the discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant. The results show that a long anaerobic time can quickly achieve granulation, however the particles easily disintegrate during a long-term operation. Longer anaerobic time can reduce the inhibition of phosphorus accumulating organisms release phosphorus by nitrate, help enrich DPAO, and obtain a better nitrogen and phosphorus removal effect.

7.
Food Chem ; 331: 127359, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580128

RESUMO

Cyanide is a highly toxic anion. Nonetheless, many food plants could produce endogenous cyanide, which causes great danger to human health. Thus, monitoring cyanide in food samples is critically significant. Herein, we rationally developed the first ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe for sensing cyanide in food samples. The probe displayed noticeable fluorescence in near-infrared region. Moreover, upon treatment with cyanide, the probe exhibited highly selective and sensitive ratiometric fluorescence response, with limit of detection determined to be 0.075 µM and limit of quantification determined to be 0.25 µM. The ratios of fluorescent intensities at 519 and 688 nm (I519/I688) was linear with added cyanide concentrations from 0 to 80 µM. The relative standard deviations for repeatability and reproducibility varied from 0.55 to 8.94 and from 1.17 to 9.46, respectively. Significantly, probe Hy has been successfully applied for monitoring cyanide in various food samples, such as almonds, sprouting potatoes, and bamboo shoots.


Assuntos
Cianetos/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Prunus dulcis/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sasa/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Solanum tuberosum/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
8.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720908495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223314

RESUMO

As a refractory fibrosis disease, intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) is defined as fibrosis of the physiological endometrium. Although hysteroscopic adhesiolysis is widely recommended as an effective treatment, prognosis and recurrence remain poor in severe cases. Recently, stem cell therapy has been promoted as a promising treatment for IUAs. The ability of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), emerging as a new candidate for stem cell therapy, to treat IUAs has not been demonstrated. To study the potential effects of hAECs on IUAs, we created an IUA rat model using mechanical injury and injected cultured primary hAECs into the rats' uteri. Next, we observed the morphological structure of endometrial thickness and glands using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and we detected extracellular-matrix collagen deposition using Masson staining. In addition, we performed immunohistochemical staining and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to investigate potential fibrosis molecules and angiogenesis factors 7 d after hAECs transplantation. Finally, we detected estrogen receptor (ER) and growth factors via RT-PCR to verify the molecular mechanism underlying cell therapy. In the IUA rat models, endometrial thickness and endometrial glands proliferated and collagen deposition decreased significantly after hAEC transplantation. We found that during the recovery of injured endometrium, the crucial fibrosis marker transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) was regulated and angiogenesis occurred in the endometrial tissue with the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, hAECs were shown to promote ER expression in the endometrium and regulate the inflammatory reaction in the uterine microenvironment. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that hAEC transplantation could inhibit the progression of fibrosis and promote proliferation and angiogenesis in IUA rat models. The current study suggests hAECs as a novel stem cell candidate in the treatment of severe IUA.


Assuntos
Âmnio/citologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Animais , Adesão Celular/genética , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endométrio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo
9.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 8583-8586, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802894

RESUMO

Background: Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in women. Uterine sarcoma, though with very low incidence, has a high malignant degree and poor prognosis. It has difficulties in preoperative diagnosis, frozen pathological examination and postoperative treatment. Case report: A 49-year-old woman presented with menstrual disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge uterine mass. The patient underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy and part of the uterine tissue looked like fish. Specimens were sent to frozen pathological examination for four times, but none of the results showed malignancy certainly. Considering all abnormalities, we removed the uterine through vagina completely rather than morcellation and did pelvic lymph node biopsy. Postoperative pathological examination revealed uterine leiomyosarcoma and one pelvic lymph node had metastasized. Conclusion: Uterine sarcoma is difficult to be diagnosed even frozen pathological examination has been performed. Unexpected uterine sarcoma should always be considered, and precautions should be taken if we find anything suspicious. Fortunately, the patient has avoided second operation.

10.
Discov Med ; 27(150): 267-279, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421695

RESUMO

Fibrosis diseases result from excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins which lead to normal tissue being replaced by fibrotic tissue or scar and eventually cause organ failure. Endometrial fibrosis is defined as the physiological endometrium becoming fibrosed, also known as intrauterine adhesions (IUA) or Asherman's syndrome, which progressively impairs endometrial function. On the basis of the fibrosis pathology, prevention of endometrial fibrosis is fundamental for IUA treatment, and elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying endometrial fibrosis is imperative. Myofibroblasts play a crucial role in fibrosis formation. Thus, understanding the myofibroblasts' proliferation and the key signaling pathways is essential for implementing novel therapies of fibrosis diseases. Stem cell therapy is an emerging and potentially powerful therapeutic modality for refractory severe IUA patients in recent years. In this review, we discuss the role of myofibroblasts, summarize the key cellular and molecular mechanisms participating in the endometrial fibrosis process, and attempt to explain the anti-fibrosis mechanism under stem cell therapy.


Assuntos
Endométrio/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Miofibroblastos/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
11.
ACS Omega ; 4(6): 10784-10790, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460176

RESUMO

Monitoring cyanide levels in water and food samples is crucial. Herein, we rationally developed a simple and efficient fluorescent probe for cyanide determination. The probe displayed selective ratiometric fluorescent response to cyanide. In addition, after treatment with cyanide, the fluorescence ratios (I 509/I 466) exhibited a good linearity with cyanide concentration in the range of 0-60 µM, and the detection limit was determined to be 0.23 µM (S/N = 3). Significantly, the practical application demonstrated that the probe was able to quantitatively detect cyanide concentration in natural water samples. Monitoring of endogenous cyanide in cherry nut by the probe was also successfully conducted. Notably, upon fabrication of test strips, the probe could be conveniently utilized for field measurement of cyanide in bitter almond without relying on sophistical instruments. Furthermore, the cyanide in potato tissues was determined for the first time by means of fluorescence imaging.

12.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(29): 6200-6211, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259553

RESUMO

Amyloid fibrillation by hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) under the influences of two common surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX-100), was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Detailed AFM investigations indicated that both SDS and TX-100 were able to induce some significant morphological changes of HEWL amyloid fibrils. Both SDS and TX-100 could induce a morphological change which was characterized with alternating fibril regions with increased thicknesses along the fibril axis. In addition, TX-100 was also able to induce a morphological change which was characterized with fibril branching. In contrast, the positively charged cetyltrimethylammonium bromide displayed no such effect as compared with the negatively charged SDS and the nonionic TX-100. These intriguing modulation effects of SDS and TX-100 on amyloid fibrillation were hypothesized to be due to surfactant-induced surface-catalyzed secondary nucleation owing to the noncovalent interaction between the surfactants and HEWL. The proposed hypothesis was further supported by FTIR spectroscopic investigation, which demonstrated the formation of a SDS-amyloid fibril complex and TX-100-amyloid fibril complex. Detailed FTIR analysis suggested that the tail group of SDS associated with amyloid fibrils is more disordered similar to that of SDS in aqueous solution, while the headgroup of SDS appears to interact with amyloid fibrils strongly similar to that of SDS in the solid state, and the ether groups of TX-100 associated with amyloid fibrils experienced a different microenvironment as compared with that of neat TX-100. Additional control experiments with FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the interactions of SDS/TX-100 with HEWL amyloid fibrils were different from those of SDS/TX-100 with HEWL amorphous aggregates. In addition, the ß-sheet structures of the HEWL amyloid fibrils were found to be increased due to the influences of SDS and TX-100. Our work provides new insight into the modulation effects of surfactants on amyloid fibrillation.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Biocatálise , Muramidase/química , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Amiloide/metabolismo , Muramidase/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/farmacologia
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(58): 8462-8465, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264675

RESUMO

A novel fluorescent probe XQ-1 for selectively detecting 1O2 on the basis of a two-step cascade reaction has been rationally constructed. The probe responded to 1O2 not only showing a high sensitivity, but also displaying a large concentration range, which means that the probe can be used as a powerful tool to monitor the efficacy of PDT toward cancer and concurrently track the adverse effects on healthy cells.

15.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(2): 81-102, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797423

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC), a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the colon, has a rising incidence worldwide. The known pathogenesis is multifactorial and involves genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulated immune responses, and environmental factors. Nowadays, the drugs for UC include 5-aminosalicylic acid, steroids, and immunosuppressants. Long-term use of these drugs, however, may cause several side effects, such as hepatic and renal toxicity, drug resistance and allergic reactions. Moreover, the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of UC shows significantly positive effects, low recurrence rate, few side effects and other obvious advantages. This paper summarizes several kinds of active compounds used in the experimental research of anti-UC effects extracted from TCM, mainly including flavonoids, acids, terpenoids, phenols, alkaloids, quinones, and bile acids from some animal medicines. It is found that the anti-UC activities are mainly focused on targeting inflammation or oxidative stress, which is associated with increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4, IL-10, SOD), suppressing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-23, NF-κB, NO), reducing the activity of MPO, MDA, IFN-γ, and iNOS. This review may offer valuable reference for UC-related studies on the compounds from natural medicines.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
16.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 3, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607636

RESUMO

Theoretical analysis and two-dimensional simulation of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and single-photon APDs (SPADs) are reported. The electric-field distribution and tunneling effect of InGaAs/InAlAs APDs and SPADs are studied. When the InGaAs/InAlAs SPADs are operated under the Geiger mode, the electric field increases linearly in the absorption layer and deviate down from its linear relations in the multiplication layer. Considering the tunneling threshold electric field in multiplication layer, the thickness of the multiplication layer should be larger than 300 nm. Moreover, SPADs can work under a large bias voltage to avoid tunneling in absorption layer with high doping concentrations in the charge layer.

17.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(1): 229-240, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of metastasis-directed stereotactic body radiation therapy (mdSBRT) on CD8+ T-cell subpopulations and correlated post-mdSBRT immunophenotypic responses with clinical outcomes in patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer (OPCa). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prospectively isolated from 37 patients with OPCa (≤3 metastases) who were treated with mdSBRT. Immunophenotyping identified circulating CD8+ T-cell subpopulations, including tumor-reactive (TTR), effector memory, central memory (TCM), effector, and naïve T cells from samples collected before and after mdSBRT. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess whether changes in these T-cell subpopulations were potential risk factors for death and/or progression. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival. Cumulative incidence for progression and new distant metastasis weas estimated, considering death as a competing risk. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 39 months (interquartile range, 34-43). Overall survival at 3 years was 78.2%. Cumulative incidence for local progression and new distant metastasis at 3 years was 16.5% and 67.6%, respectively. Between baseline and day 14 after mdSBRT, an increase in the TCM cell subpopulation was associated with the risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.22 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.47]; P = .033), and an increase in the TTR cell subpopulation was protective against the risk of local progression (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.98]; P = .032). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the TTR cell subpopulation was protective against the risk of disease progression, and an increase in the TCM cell subpopulation was associated with the risk of death in patients with OPCa treated with mdSBRT. Disease control may be further improved by better understanding the CD8+ T-cell subpopulations and by enhancing their antitumor effect.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
18.
Analyst ; 143(11): 2555-2562, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721571

RESUMO

Labile Fe2+ has been considered to be a metabolically active and regulatory form of cellular iron. Monitoring the dynamic level of labile Fe2+ in biological systems is vital for evaluating the iron related biological processes and diseases as well as dissecting the exact physiological and pathophysiological functions of the labile Fe2+. Herein, we rationally constructed a coumarin-based fluorescent probe for sensing labile Fe2+ in living systems based on a novel Fe2+ meditated cyclization reaction strategy. The probe showed a highly selective and sensitive response to Fe2+, and the detection limit was determined to be 45 nM. Significantly, the probe displayed fast response to Fe2+, with the sensing reaction completed in 2 min, which is beneficial for real time sensing. The application of the probe for sensing different concentrations of labile Fe2+ in living cells has been conducted. In addition, the basal and endogenous levels of labile Fe2+ in living systems were also successfully monitored.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ferro/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
19.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 158, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785568

RESUMO

In this paper, we provide a detailed insight on InGaAs/InAlAs separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes (SAGCM APDs) and a theoretical model of APDs is built. Through theoretical analysis and two-dimensional (2D) simulation, the influence of charge layer and tunneling effect on the APDs is fully understood. The design of charge layer (including doping level and thickness) can be calculated by our predictive model for different multiplication thickness. We find that as the thickness of charge layer increases, the suitable doping level range in charge layer decreases. Compared to thinner charge layer, performance of APD varies significantly via several percent deviations of doping concentrations in thicker charge layer. Moreover, the generation rate (G btt ) of band-to-band tunnel is calculated, and the influence of tunneling effect on avalanche field was analyzed. We confirm that avalanche field and multiplication factor (M n ) in multiplication will decrease by the tunneling effect. The theoretical model and analysis are based on InGaAs/InAlAs APD; however, they are applicable to other APD material systems as well.

20.
JCI Insight ; 3(8)2018 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669928

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have resulted in durable clinical benefits in a subset of patients with advanced cancer, some patients who did not respond to initial anti-PD-1 therapy have been found to benefit from the addition of salvage chemotherapy. However, the mechanism responsible for the successful chemoimmunotherapy is not completely understood. Here we show that a subset of circulating CD8+ T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are able to withstand the toxicity of chemotherapy and are increased in patients with metastatic melanoma who responded to chemoimmunotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin plus PD-1 blockade). These CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells have effector memory phenotypes and the ability to efflux chemotherapy drugs via the ABCB1 transporter. In line with clinical observation, our preclinical models identified an optimal sequencing of chemoimmunotherapy that resulted in an increase of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells. Taken together, we found a subset of PD-1 therapy-responsive CD8+ T cells that were capable of withstanding chemotherapy and executing tumor rejection with their unique abilities of drug efflux (ABCB1), cytolytic activity (granzyme B and perforin), and migration to and retention (CX3CR1 and CD11a) at tumor sites. Future strategies to monitor and increase the frequency of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells may help to design effective chemoimmunotherapy to overcome cancer resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/imunologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Granzimas/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/secundário , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Perforina/farmacologia
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