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1.
Food Chem ; 308: 125584, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654976

RESUMO

The influence of cropping systems on nutrition and food safety is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an organic cropping system (OCS) on wheat nutrition and food safety at the molecular level by using a comprehensive research method. Nutrient deviation in samples from an OCS and a conventional cropping system (CCS) were detected, and 58 biomarkers were selected through multivariate statistical analysis and were further qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The health risk of heavy metal(loid)s (HMs) for different populations was assessed based on the estimated average daily dose and recommended ingestion reference dose, which indicated that populations ingesting grains from OCSs had higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. Additionally, HMs posed greater non-carcinogenic risks to children under five years old and greater carcinogenic risks to adults.This study highlights the need to consider the potential risk from HMs and nutritive ingredient differences in organic food.

2.
Indoor Air ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755597

RESUMO

Stunting adversely affects physical and mental outcomes of children. It has not been examined whether household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is a risk factor for stunting in children. In a total of 41,439 children aged 6-17 across China, height was measured using a unified protocol. Multivariable linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of solid fuel use for cooking/heating with stunting in children. Adjusted for covariates, cooking/heating with solid fuel was significantly associated with a lower z-score for height-for-age and sex (ß=-0.21 [-0.32~-0.09] and -0.17 [-0.31~-0.03], respectively) and an increased risk of stunting with an estimated ORs of 1.34 [1.07~1.68] and 1.37 [1.02~1.83], respectively. The risk of stunting associated with solid fuel use was statistically significant in high-age children. And the effect was greater on girls than on boys, though the difference was not statistically significant. Our study suggested that Chinese children living in households using solid fuel had a significantly higher risk of stunting than those living in households using cleaner fuel.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538290

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely present in multiple environmental media even long after the phaseout, posing a health risk to the general population. Dietary intake is the major exposure route of PCBs; however, information is limited regarding PCBs in food that people directly consume. This study aims to measure personal exposure to indicator PCBs, evaluate the health risks, and identify their sources in a typical metropolitan city in China. Multi-day food samples were collected from 21 subjects in Lanzhou, Gansu Province, in two seasons using the duplicate plate method. Samples were extracted and analyzed for seven indicator PCBs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Average daily doses (ADDs) of ∑7PCBs were estimated using Monte Carlo analysis with food intake information. Results show that PCB-118 and PCB-180 were the major congeners in food samples with average concentrations of 1.42 and 1.11 ng/g, respectively. The average (± SD) ADD of ∑7PCBs was 26.47 ± 22.10 ng/kg day among adults aged 18-69 years and displayed small variation across age groups. Comparing with the chronic RfD of 7 ng/kg day, 67% of people had their ADDs exceeding this threshold. The median cancer risk was 5.52 × 10-5, and 51% of residents had risks exceeding the action level of 10-4. The principal component analysis identified waste incineration, gasoline engine production, and leakage of #1 PCBs as the major PCBs sources. In conclusion, a large portion of Lanzhou residents has high non-cancer and cancer risks from dietary exposure to PCBs, which warrants control actions targeting these major sources.

4.
Chemosphere ; 226: 381-387, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947047

RESUMO

With the rapid development of the industrialization and urbanization, the urban environment was heavily contaminated by metals. Therefore, studies on health risk assessment of exposure to metals for urban population is necessary and urgent, especially for children, who are more susceptible to environmental pollution due to their undeveloped immune system. Moreover, ingestion has been proved to be the most important pathway of human metals exposure. Therefore, typical metals, including Lead(Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Arsenic(As), Chromium(Cr), and Manganese(Mn), were analyzed in duplicated diet, drinking water, and soil in this study. The integrated risks of oral exposure to these metals for the local children were then evaluated on a field sampling and measured child-specific exposure factors basis. Results showed that the studied urban environments were polluted by metals to a certain degree. Food ingestion was the largest, which accounted for 66.7%-98.4%. Furthermore, soil ingestion was also a non-negligible exposure route, which accounted for 29.7% for Pb. The combined oral non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks all exceeding the corresponding maximum acceptable levels. The non-carcinogenic risk was mainly attributed to the food ingestion of As and Cr, and the soil ingestion of As, while, the carcinogenic risk was mainly attributed to the food ingestion of As and Cr, and the soil ingestion of Cr. This study emphasizes attentions should be paid to children in urban areas due to the potential adverse health risk associated with metals via oral exposure pathway.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/química , Medição de Risco/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , População Urbana
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate data on water and beverage intakes are essential for assessing hydration adequacy and setting proper guidelines. The objective of this study is to identify the patterns and sociodemographic determinants of water intake and to assess the intake adequacy for children in China. METHODS: The study team recruited 41,439 children aged 6-17 years using a multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Daily water and beverage intakes were investigated with the standard questionnaires and measuring containers in face-to-face interviews. Each participant was assigned an adjustment weight to obtain a nationally representative sample. Sociodemographic factors influencing water intake were identified using multi-variable regressions. Water intake adequacy was evaluated by comparing with the recommended water intake (RWI). RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of total water intake (TWI) was 1603 ± 731 mL/day for boys and 1487 ± 661 mL/day for girls. Plain water, food moisture, and other beverages contributed 51%, 20%, and 29% of the TWI. Multi-variable analyses showed that TWI of children increased with age, in urban areas and day schools, and with parents' economic and educational levels. The majority (82%) of children had TWI not meeting the corresponding RWI, and the percentage increased with age except for 14-17-year-old boys. CONCLUSIONS: Plain water is still the major source of daily water intake by children in China. Unfortunately, the majority of children do not have sufficient water intake, which warrants future actions and guidelines targeting adequate hydration.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 622-623: 1499-1508, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054646

RESUMO

Heavy metal(loid)s (HMs) in organic fertilizer have become a primary source of HMs pollution of farmlands, which could cause deleterious health effects in people exposed through soil-plant systems via multi-pathways. This study investigated China's main grain production area (Henan Province) to evaluate the accumulation and transport characteristics of HMs (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) in a soil-wheat system and conduct a health risk assessment for wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain under different nitrogenous fertilizer treatments. The results indicated that the Cr, Cu, As and Cd contents in soil were 56.21-113.66, 13.97-58.72, 5.79-22.62 and 0.04-0.23mg·kg-1, and the mean contents of Cr and As contents in wheat grains were 0.78±0.31 and 0.49±0.18mg·kg-1, respectively, which exceeded the corresponding standards. The bio-concentration factor and transfer factor were lowest in response to N-fertilization with N8-N15. Health risk assessment showed that the local population who ingested grain from culture condition of N15 experienced the lowest non-cancer and cancer risks. Among different population groups, HMs posed relatively higher non-cancer and cancer risks to children aged 0-5years. Furthermore, Cr and As exposure was the greatest contributor to Hazard Index (HI), accounting for 74.72-83.11%, while Cr exposure accounted for >90% of the total potential cancer risk. Concluding, this study indicated that, to protect human health, the current application of nitrogenous fertilizer should be controlled to an appropriate level.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/metabolismo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
7.
Chemosphere ; 184: 866-878, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646769

RESUMO

The metal(loid) pollution still is a great concern due to the effects from urbanization and industrialization. While, the health risks from the toxic metal(loid)s could decrease if strict pollution control measures were adopted. However, few studies to date investigate the health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in a systematic river basin for the dependent residents, after taking pollution control measures. Thus, the contents of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, As) in surface water along a typical river basin were investigated in this study, and the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed to the residents were assessed. Although the soluble contents of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd exceeded the respective thresholds in two sites located downstream the mine area, they were greatly decreased in comparison with previous contamination levels, and the soluble concentrations of all the metal(loid)s were within the relevant thresholds in the sites far away from the mining area. Moreover, the closer to the mining area, the higher the pollution levels of metal(loid)s. The total hazard index for non-carcinogenic risks of metal(loid)s were basically lower than the threshold (1) for the local population. Whereas, although the content of metal(loid)s were low (such as As), they could pose relative higher non-carcinogenic health risks. The result illustrated that pollution levels, toxicity of the contaminants and exposure behavior patterns all could contribute to the potential detrimental health risks. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from ingestion exposure were ∼2-∼4 orders of magnitude higher than those from dermal contact. The total carcinogenic risks were basically lower than the maximum tolerable levels (1.0 × 10-4), indicating carcinogenic risks from most areas of the river could also be accepted. Among different population groups, heavy metal(loid)s posed relative higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the children in 0-5 years old. Fortunately, the surface water in most area of this basin is safe in usage for the local population and the health risks were basically acceptable in case exposed to the target metal(loid)s, after the river basin was in the charge of strict pollution control measures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração , Criança , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Metaloides , Metais Pesados/análise , Envenenamento , Medição de Risco , Rios
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 188(6): 325, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147238

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the metal compositions in indoor PM2.5 and the potential health risks they pose to residents of an urban area in China. A total of 41 and 54 households were surveyed in February and September 2013, respectively. The results showed that the indoor concentrations of metals varied depending on the types of cooking fuels used. All measured concentrations of metals were highest among households using coal for cooking. In the majority of households, non-carcinogenic risks were posed by the use of coal. The carcinogenic risks posed by chromium (VI) and arsenic were generally higher among households using coal for cooking than among those using gas or electricity. The multivariate linear regression model suggested a potential adverse effect from arsenic and cadmium on birth weight and gestational weeks. This study also found that cooking fuel was the most significant factor that contributed to the differences in concentrations of metals in indoor PM2.5 and highlighted the importance of using clean energy for cooking and heating.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Resultado da Gravidez , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Carvão Mineral , Culinária , Características da Família , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 548-549: 6-12, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799802

RESUMO

Exposure to PM2.5 is a leading environmental risk factor for many diseases and premature deaths, arousing growing public concerns. In this study, indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were investigated during the heating and non-heating seasons in an urban area in northwest China. Personal inhalation exposure levels among different age groups were evaluated, and the difference attributable to different cooking fuels including coal, gas and electricity, was discussed. The average concentrations of PM2.5 in the kitchen and the bedroom were 125±51 and 119±64µg/m(3) during the heating season, and 80±67 and 80±50µg/m(3) during the non-heating season, respectively. Indoor PM2.5, from indoor combustion sources but also outdoor penetration, contributed to about 75% of the total PM2.5 exposure. Much higher indoor concentrations and inhalation exposure levels were found in households using coal for cooking compared to those using gas and electricity. Changing from coal to gas or electricity for cooking could result in a reduction of PM2.5 in the kitchen by 40-70% and consequently lower inhalation exposure levels, especially for children and women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária/métodos , Características da Família , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
10.
Chemosphere ; 147: 404-11, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774306

RESUMO

Rapid development of industrialization and urbanization results in serious environmental contamination by metal(loid)s, which would consequently cause deleterious health effects to the exposed people through multi-pathways. Therefore, total health risk assessment for the population in urban environment is very important. Unfortunately, few studies to date investigate the cumulative health risks of metal(loid)s through aggregative pathways in Children who are often susceptible population. 12 metal(loid)s including Lead(Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Arsenic(As), Chromium(Cr), Zinc(Zn), Copper(Cu), Nickel(Ni), Manganese(Mn), Cobalt(Co), Selenium(Se), Antimony(Se) and Vanadium(V), were analyzed in PM10, drinking water, food, soil and indoor dust in this study. The cumulative and aggregative risks of these metal(loid)s among the local children were then evaluated on a field sampling and questionnaire-survey basis. The results showed that the environments were heavily polluted by metal(loid)s. For most metal(loid)s, food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total daily exposure dose. The non-cancer risks were up to 30 times higher than the acceptable level due to the food ingestion via Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Sb, and the PM10 inhalation via Cr and Mn. While, the cancer risks were mainly attributed to Cr via food ingestion and As via food and dust ingestion, and approximately 100 times of the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10(-4). The study highlights the cumulative and aggregative exposure assessment, instead of pollutant investigation to evaluate the potential health risks and emphasizes concerns to improve indoor hygienic and environmental quality and to decrease the potential harmful health effects of children living in urban area.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Água Potável/análise , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Environ Pollut ; 200: 16-23, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686884

RESUMO

Manufacture of lead-acid batteries is of widespread interest because of its emissions of heavy metals and metalloids into environment, harming environmental quality and consequently causing detrimental effects on human health. In this study, exposure pathways and health risks of children to heavy metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, As, etc) were investigated based on field sampling and questionnaire. Pb was one of the most abundant elements in children's blood, with an elevated blood lead level of 12.45 µg dL(-1). Soil/dust and food were heavily polluted by targeted metal(loid)s. Food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total exposure for most metal(loid)s. The non-cancer risks to children were 3-10 times higher than the acceptable level of 1, while the cancer risks were 5-200 times higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10(-4). The study emphasized the significance of effective environmental management, particularly to ensure food security near battery facilities.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metaloides/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Criança , China , Poeira/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Chumbo , Metais/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo
12.
Environ Pollut ; 199: 18-25, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25617855

RESUMO

As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/urina , Chumbo/urina , Criança , Coque , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Isótopos/análise , Chumbo/análise
13.
Environ Int ; 73: 158-66, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25124751

RESUMO

Lead exposure in the environment is a major hazard affecting human health, particularly for children. The blood lead levels in the local children living around the largest coking area in China were measured, and the source of blood lead and the main pathways of lead exposure were investigated based on lead isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) in blood and in a variety of media, including food, airborne particulate matter, soil, dust and drinking water. The children's blood lead level was 5.25 (1.59 to 34.36 as range) µg dL(-1), lower than the threshold in the current criteria of China defined by the US Centers for Disease Control (10 µg dL(-1)). The isotopic ratios in the blood were 2.111±0.018 for (208)Pb/(206)Pb and 0.864±0.005 for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, similar to those of vegetables, wheat, drinking water, airborne particulate matter, but different from those of vehicle emission and soil/dust, suggesting that the formers were the main pathway of lead exposure among the children. The exposure pathway analysis based on the isotopic ratios and the human health risk assessment showed that dietary intake of food and drinking water contributed 93.67% of total exposed lead. The study further indicated that the coal used in the coking plant is the dominant pollution source of lead in children's blood.


Assuntos
Coque , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Criança , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Isótopos/análise , Isótopos/sangue , Chumbo/análise , Masculino
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 35(4): 1238-44, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24946570

RESUMO

To investigate the sources and health risk of heavy metals in ambient air PM10 from the coking plant, the PM10 in the air around one coking plant was collected in June 2012. Then the heavy metals concentrations in PM10 were tested by the microwave-ICP-MS method. Furthermore, the USEPA's human exposure assessment model was applied to preliminarily evaluate the human health risks of the heavy metals in air particulate matter. The results show that the concentrations of 10 kinds of heavy metals in PM10 from the coking plant vary significantly, ranging from 3.06 x 10(-5) mg x m(-3) to 1.77 x 10(-2) mg x m(-3), of which the concentration of Cr is the highest, while the concentration of Co is the lowest, and the concentration of the carcinogenic substances is higher than that of the non-carcinogenic substances. The coking plant is identified to be the major source of the heavy metals in ambient air PM10, and Ni is the main polluting heavy metal. Moreover, the heavy risk assessment results reveal that the carcinogenic risks for adults are higher than children, while the carcinogenic risks in industrial areas and school relatively large. The non-carcinogenic risks for children are the highest in all the population, and the non-carcinogenic risks in residential area can not be ignored. Among the carcinogenic substances, the potential carcinogenic risks of Cd, Cr and As are comparatively large, Ni and Co have certain potential risks. Whereas, among the non-carcinogenic substances, the non-carcinogenic risks of Mn is great. Consequently, relevant departments should pay close attention to this situation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Coque , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Indústrias , Medição de Risco
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 472: 1001-9, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24345860

RESUMO

Coking influences environmental quality and poses high risks to human health as large amounts of heavy metals and metalloids are emitted into the environment from coal during the coking process. Health risks depend heavily on multi-pathway and element-specific exposures, which have, unfortunately, been rarely studied. In this study, children's health risks and exposure levels to As, Se, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Mn, V and Sb) in the water, soil, dust, air and locally produced food were studied based on field sampling and questionnaire-based surveys around the largest coking area in China. Human blood samples were collected and analyzed to indicate the exposure levels. The non-carcinogenic risks to children mainly resulted from Cr, Mn, Pb, As and Sb, the levels of which were 3 to 10 times higher than the acceptable levels (1.0×10(-6)). The carcinogenic risks to children were 30 to 200 times higher than the safe level (1.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-4)), which could be attributed to Cr, As and Ni pollution. The estimated risks mainly came from the pathway involving the ingestion of locally produced food, accounting for more than 85% in total for most elements. For As, the food ingestion and air inhalation exposure pathways both contributed approximately 50%, respectively. The high risks in this study highlight the attention paid to the health of children who live in the vicinity of coking activities and the importance of site-specific multi-pathway health risk assessments and food safety to protect potentially exposed children.


Assuntos
Coque , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Arsênico/análise , Criança , China , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Selênio/análise , Solo/química
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