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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(3): 101679, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578256

RESUMO

Ticks and tick-borne rickettsial diseases have been gaining greater attention in China over the past decade. However, most published studies to date have occurred in Northern China, with limited investigations occurring in China's southern provinces. As part of larger surveillance efforts, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in six sites at Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan investigating rickettsial infection in ticks. A total of 581 ticks were collected from hosts and screened via PCR, targeting rrs, gltA, ompB, sca4, and ompA gene fragments. Two of 12 Haemaphysalis formosensis ticks were infected with novel Rickettsia strain GD01, which was closest phylogenetically (97.3-98.9 % identity) to Rickettsia tamurae strain AT-1, but not within the same clade. Another detected strain (GD02) shared similar identity, 99-100 % across four gene targets, to recently detected Candidatus Rickettsia longicornii isolate ROK-HL727, with an overall prevalence of 12.5 % (71/569). The presence of such pathogens calls for increased public health attention and active surveillance in patients reporting recent tick bites.

2.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399212

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsiae, mainly maintained and transmitted by ticks, are important etiological agents of (re)emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. It is of great significance to investigate spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in different areas for the prevention and control of rickettsioses. In this study, a total of 305 ticks were collected from wild and domestic animals in Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi provinces of southwestern China during 2017-2019 and examined for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR with primers targeting the partial gltA, ompA, rrs, and htrA genes. Results showed that two spotted fever group rickettsiae species, including the pathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia jingxinensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and a potential novel species Rickettsia sp. sw (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), were identified. The Ca. R. jingxinensis sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks and phylogenetically clustered with previous Ca. R. jingxinensis, Ca. R. longicornii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and Rickettsia sp. XY118 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) strains. Rickettsia sp. sw was detected in Amblyomma geoemydae (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Rh. microplus. Interestingly, as far as we know, this was the first report of Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in A. geoemydae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that this potential novel species was closely related to R. aeschlimannii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with gltA and ompA genes and grouped in a cluster composed of R. montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. raoultii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. aeschlimannii, R. massiliae (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and R. rhipicephali (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with htrA, while formed a separate clade with rrs. The pathogenicity of Rickettsia sp. sw should be further confirmed. These results expand the knowledge of the geographical distribution and vector distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in China and are useful for assessing the potential public health risk.

3.
Trends Genet ; 37(3): 292-293, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353761
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347789

RESUMO

Background: Tick-borne bacteria and protozoa can cause a variety of human and animal diseases in China. It is of great importance to monitor the prevalence and dynamic variation of these pathogens in ticks in ever-changing natural and social environment. Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of northeastern China during 2018-2019 followed by morphological identification. The presence of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. was examined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The obtained sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis through Mega 7.0. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0. Results: A total of 250 ticks from 5 species of 3 genera were collected. Ixodes and Haemaphysalis ticks carried more species of pathogens than Dermacentor, and the pathogens detected in Haemaphysalis japonica varied significantly among different sampling sites. The infection rates of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. were 41.2%, 0, 2.0%, 7.2%, 1.2%, and 7.2%, respectively. Twelve pathogens were identified, among which Rickettsia raoultii (29.6%), Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae (9.2%), and Theileria equi (4.4%) were the three most common ones. Rickettsia had its dominant vector, that is, R. raoultii had high infection rates in Dermacentor nuttalli and Dermacentor silvarum, Ca. R. tarasevichiae in Ixodes persulcatus, and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis in H. japonica. Interestingly, unclassified species were observed, including a Rickettsia sp., an Ehrlichia sp., a Borrelia sp., and a Babesia sp. Coinfections with different pathogens were identified in 9.2% of all tested ticks, with I. persulcatus most likely to be coinfected (23.8%) and Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. as the most common combination (16.7%). Conclusions: The results of this study reflect high diversity and complexity of pathogens in ticks, which are useful for designing more targeted and effective control measures for tick-borne diseases in China.

5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020513, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312506

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is challenging the public health response system worldwide, especially in poverty-stricken, war-torn, and least developed countries (LDCs). Methods: We characterized the epidemiological features and spread dynamics of COVID-19 in Niger, quantified the effective reproduction number (Rt ), evaluated the impact of public health control measures, and estimated the disease burden. Results: As of 4 July 2020, COVID-19 has affected 29 communes of Niger with 1093 confirmed cases, among whom 741 (67.8%) were males. Of them 89 cases died, resulting in a case fatality rate (CFR) of 8.1%. Both attack rates and CFRs were increased with age (P < 0.0001). Health care workers accounted for 12.8% cases. Among the reported cases, 39.3% were isolated and treated at home, and 42.3% were asymptomatic. 74.6% cases were clustered in Niamey, the capital of Niger. The Rt fluctuated in correlation to control measures at different outbreak stages. After the authorities initiated the national response and implemented the strictest control measures, Rt quickly dropped to below the epidemic threshold (<1), and maintained low level afterward. The national disability-adjusted life years attributable to COVID-19 was 1267.38 years in total, of which years of life lost accounted for over 99.1%. Conclusions: Classic public health control measures such as prohibition of public gatherings, travelling ban, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine at home, are proved to be effective to contain the outbreak in Niger, and provide guidance for controlling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in LDCs.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níger/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e043411, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics in relation to interventions against the COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in mainland China. DESIGN: Comparative study based on a unique data set of COVID-19 and SARS. SETTING: Outbreak in mainland China. PARTICIPANTS: The final database included 82 858 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 5327 cases of SARS. METHODS: We brought together all existing data sources and integrated them into a comprehensive data set. Individual information on age, sex, occupation, residence location, date of illness onset, date of diagnosis and clinical outcome was extracted. Control measures deployed in mainland China were collected. We compared the epidemiological and spatial characteristics of COVID-19 and SARS. We estimated the effective reproduction number to explore differences in transmission dynamics and intervention effects. RESULTS: Compared with SARS, COVID-19 affected more extensive areas (1668 vs 230 counties) within a shorter time (101 vs 193 days) and had higher attack rate (61.8 vs 4.0 per million persons). The COVID-19 outbreak had only one epidemic peak and one epicentre (Hubei Province), while the SARS outbreak resulted in two peaks and two epicentres (Guangdong Province and Beijing). SARS-CoV-2 was more likely to infect older people (median age of 52 years), while SARS-CoV tended to infect young adults (median age of 34 years). The case fatality rate (CFR) of either disease increased with age, but the CFR of COVID-19 was significantly lower than that of SARS (5.6% vs 6.4%). The trajectory of effective reproduction number dynamically changed in relation to interventions, which fell below 1 within 2 months for COVID-19 and within 5.5 months for SARS. CONCLUSIONS: China has taken more prompt and effective responses to combat COVID-19 by learning lessons from SARS, providing us with some epidemiological clues to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003634

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide are putting themselves at high risks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by treating a large number of patients while lacking protective equipment. We aim to provide a scientific basis for preventing and controlling the COVID-19 infection among HCWs. We used data on COVID-19 cases in the city of Wuhan to compare epidemiological characteristics between HCWs and non-HCWs and explored the risk factors for infection and deterioration among HCWs based on hospital settings. The attack rate (AR) of HCWs in the hospital can reach up to 11.9% in Wuhan. The time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis in HCWs and non-HCWs dropped rapidly over time. From mid-January, the median time interval of HCW cases was significantly shorter than in non-HCW cases. Cases of HCWs and non-HCWs both clustered in northwestern urban districts rather than in rural districts. HCWs working in county-level hospitals in high-risk areas were more vulnerable to COVID-19. HCW cases working in general, ophthalmology, and respiratory departments were prone to deteriorate compared with cases working in the infection department. The AR of COVID-19 in HCWs are higher than in non-HCWs. Multiple factors in hospital settings may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19. Effective measures should be enhanced to prevent HCWs from COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113610, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896785

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is challenging global public health response system. We aim to identify the risk factors for the transmission of COVID-19 using data on mainland China. We estimated attack rate (AR) at county level. Logistic regression was used to explore the role of transportation in the nationwide spread. Generalized additive model and stratified linear mixed-effects model were developed to identify the effects of multiple meteorological factors on local transmission. The ARs in affected counties ranged from 0.6 to 9750.4 per million persons, with a median of 8.8. The counties being intersected by railways, freeways, national highways or having airports had significantly higher risk for COVID-19 with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.40 (p = 0.001), 2.07 (p < 0.001), 1.31 (p = 0.04), and 1.70 (p < 0.001), respectively. The higher AR of COVID-19 was significantly associated with lower average temperature, moderate cumulative precipitation and higher wind speed. Significant pairwise interactions were found among above three meteorological factors with higher risk of COVID-19 under low temperature and moderate precipitation. Warm areas can also be in higher risk of the disease with the increasing wind speed. In conclusion, transportation and meteorological factors may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19 in mainland China, and could be integrated in consideration by public health alarm systems to better prevent the disease.

9.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(11): 817-824, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749919

RESUMO

Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in China. A few systematic reports on Babesia spp. was involved with ticks, especially in the human babesiosis endemic areas in Northeastern China. Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from 30 individual waypoints along 2.0 km transects in two recreational forests. Babesia spp. infection in ticks was screened by amplifying the partial 18s rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between tick infection and related environmental risk factors. Cluster analyses were performed using SaTScan v6.0 software to identify any geographical cluster of infected ticks. Results: A total of 2380 Ixodes persulcatus and 461 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks were collected. Of the 0.97% of I. persulcatus ticks that tested positive, five Babesia species were identified, including B. bigemina (n = 6), B. divergens (n = 2), B. microti (n = 3), B. venatorum (n = 11), and one novel strain HLJ-8. Thirteen (2.92%) H. concinna ticks tested positive for B. bigemina (n = 1), B. divergens (n = 1), three genetic variants of Babesia represented by HLJ-874, which was closely related to Babesia sp.MA#361-1, and eight other Babesia variants represented by HLJ242, which were similar to B. crassa. Each study site had 5-6 different Babesia spp. One waypoint was more likely to yield B. venatorum (relative risk = 15.36, p = 0.045) than all other waypoints. Conclusions: There exists a high genetic diversity of Babesia spp. across a relatively small sampled region. Further study is needed to understand the risks these variants pose to human health.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008450, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) disease outbreaks have been occurring in South America since 2015, and has spread to North America. Because birth defects and cases of Guillain Barré have been associated with infection with ZIKV, this has drawn global attention. ZIKV is generally considered an Aedes-transmitted pathogen. The transmission of ZIKV through blood by Aedes mosquito bites has been recognized as the major transmission route. However, it is not clear whether there are other transmission routes that can cause viral infection in mosquitos. The aim of the present study is to describe the susceptibility of Armigeres subalbatus, which often develop in human waste lagoons, to ZIKV, through oral infection in adult mosquitoes and urine infection in larvae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five-day-old female Ar. subalbatus ingested infectious blood meals containing ZIKV. After 4, 7, and 10 days of ingesting infectious blood meals, ZIKV could be detected in the midguts, salivary glands, ovaries, and collected saliva of mosquitoes. The ZIKV infection rate (IR) on day 10 reached 40% in salivary glands and 13% in saliva, indicating that these mosquitoes were able to transmit ZIKV. In addition, ZIKV infection was also discovered in mosquito ovaries, suggesting the possibility of vertical transmission of virus. Moreover, Ar. subalbatus transmitted ZIKV to infant mice bitten by infectious mosquitoes. In a second experiment, 1st-instar larvae of Ar. subalbatus were reared in water containing ZIKV and human urine. After pupation, pupae were placed in clean water and transferred to a mosquito cage for emergence. Although ZIKV RNA was detected in all of the larvae tested, ZIKV was not detected in the saliva of any adult Ar. subalbatus. Considering that there are more uncontrollable factors in nature than in the laboratory environment, the possibility that the virus is transmitted to adult mosquitoes via larvae is very small period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adult Ar. subalbatus could be infected with ZIKV and transmit ZIKV through mosquito bites. Therefore, in many rural areas in China and in undeveloped areas of other Asian countries, the management of human waste lagoons in the prevention and control of Zika disease should be considered. Corresponding adjustments and modifications should also be made in prevention and control strategies against ZIKV.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culicidae/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/virologia , Camundongos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Saliva/virologia , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/urina , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
11.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(10): 755-762, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679008

RESUMO

As one of the important tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Anaplasma has both veterinary and public health significance. Here, we performed a survey of Anaplasma infection in the goats from a farm in Beijing, China, and found 44.6% (41/92) were infected with Anaplasma capra, and 22.8% (21/92) were infected with Anaplasma sp. This Anaplasma sp. bacterium was close to a recently emerging Anaplasma platys strain based on gltA and groEL gene phylogenetic analysis. As to further understand the characteristics of Anaplasma sp., we raised a couple of positive goats (n = 2) in the laboratory with tick-free settings. We observed inappetence, vomiting, high fever, and weakness of limbs in the goat's offspring (n = 3). In addition, the blood samples from all offspring were all positive of this Anaplasma spp. We did not see any intracellular morulae in neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes, but we identified some in the platelets of the blood smears from the positive goats by light microscopy. We named it A. platys-like and suggested it may infect platelets and be transmitted vertically through the placenta of goats. These findings deserve further evaluation.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 985-988, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310072

RESUMO

In 2015, we evaluated 221 patients with undifferentiated fever and tick bite or animal exposure in Xinyang, China, for Rickettsia infection. Three with mild disease were infected with Candidatus R. xinyangensis, which clustered with R. fournieri and R. vini in phylogenetic analyses. Field investigations suggest Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks might be involved in transmission.

13.
Nature ; 583(7815): 282-285, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218527

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in China and across the world is associated with a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-21. This outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection2. Although bats are probable reservoir hosts for SARS-CoV-2, the identity of any intermediate host that may have facilitated transfer to humans is unknown. Here we report the identification of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Metagenomic sequencing identified pangolin-associated coronaviruses that belong to two sub-lineages of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses, including one that exhibits strong similarity in the receptor-binding domain to SARS-CoV-2. The discovery of multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts in the emergence of new coronaviruses and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Eutérios/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genômica , Humanos , Malásia , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Recombinação Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907196

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) can cause mild to fatal illness. The early interaction between the host and rickettsia in skin is largely unknown, and the pathogenesis of severe rickettsiosis remains an important topic. A surveillance of SFGR infection by PCR of blood and skin biopsy specimens followed by sequencing and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection was performed on patients with a recent tick bite between 2013 and 2016. Humoral and cutaneous immunoprofiles were evaluated in different SFGR cases by serum cytokine and chemokine detection, skin IHC staining, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 111 SFGR cases were identified, including 79 "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," 22 Rickettsia raoultii, 8 Rickettsia sibirica, and 2 Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cases. The sensitivity to detect SFGR in skin biopsy specimens (9/24, 37.5%) was significantly higher than that in blood samples (105/2,671, 3.9%) (P < 0.05). As early as 1 day after the tick bite, rickettsiae could be detected in the skin. R. sibirica infection was more severe than "Ca Rickettsia" and R. raoultii infections. Increased levels of serum interleukin-18 (IL-18), IP10, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) and decreased levels of IL-2 were observed in febrile patients infected with R. sibirica compared to those infected with "Ca Rickettsia." RNA-seq and IHC staining could not discriminate between SFGR-infected and uninfected tick bite skin lesions. However, the type I interferon (IFN) response was differently expressed between R. sibirica and R. raoultii infections at the cutaneous interface. It is concluded that skin biopsy specimens were more reliable for the detection of SFGR infection in human patients although the immunoprofile may be complicated by immunomodulators induced by the tick bite.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/análise , Rickettsia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/patologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Biópsia , Citocinas/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/imunologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(3): 622-629, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is thought to be a hotspot for zoonotic influenza virus emergence, yet there have been few prospective studies examining the occupational risks of such infections. METHODS: We present the first 2 years of data collected from a 5-year, prospective, cohort study of swine-exposed and -unexposed participants at 6 swine farms in China. We conducted serological and virological surveillance to examine evidence for swine influenza A virus infection in humans. RESULTS: Of the 658 participants (521 swine-exposed and 137 swine-unexposed), 207 (31.5%) seroconverted against at least 1 swine influenza virus subtype (swine H1N1 or H3N2). Swine-exposed participants' microneutralization titers, especially those enrolled at confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), were higher against the swine H1N1 virus than were other participants at 12 and 24 months. Despite elevated titers, among the 187 study subjects for whom we had complete follow-up, participants working at swine CAFOs had significantly greater odds of seroconverting against both the swine H1N1 (odds ratio [OR] 19.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.55-358.65) and swine H3N2 (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.16-8.01) viruses, compared to unexposed and non-CAFO swine workers with less intense swine exposure. CONCLUSIONS: While some of the observed increased risk against swine viruses may have been explained by exposure to human influenza strains, study data suggest that even with elevated preexisting antibodies, swine-exposed workers were at high risk of infection with enzootic swine influenza A viruses.

16.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 317-324, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus called Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) was recently identified, variants of which were detected in a non-human primate host and fatal patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. We investigated its infectivity and pathogenicity for humans. METHODS: We obtained skin-biopsy, blood and serum samples from patients with tick bites, and used high-throughput sequencing, in situ hybridisation, and serologic testing to diagnose and ascertain the cases of JMTV infection. FINDINGS: A JMTV strain was isolated from the tick Amblyomma javanense into an embryo-derived tick cell line. We obtained sustained passage of JMTV, and revealed that it was able to accumulate in salivary glands of experimentally infected ticks. Four JMTV-infected patients were identified by high-throughput sequencing of skin biopsies and blood samples. The virus replication in skin tissue was visualised by in situ hybridisation. The four patients all had an itchy or painful eschar at the site of tick bite, with or without lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemical examination revealed remarkable local inflammation manifested as infiltration by neutrophils. Eight patients were identified by serological testing and showed more severe clinical manifestations. Two Ixodes persulcatus ticks detached from patients were positive for JMTV. All JMTV strains identified in this study formed a well-supported sub-lineage, distinct from those previously reported in China. Interpretation The public significance of JMTV should be highly concerning due to its potential pathogenicity for humans and efficient transmission by potential ticks. FUND: China Natural Science Foundation, State Key Research Development Programme, and United Kingdom Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Flavivirus , Biomarcadores , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Flavivirus/classificação , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Flavivirus/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos
17.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 161-167, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066666

RESUMO

Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/sangue , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/sangue , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Picadas de Carrapatos/patologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2771, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524397

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China. We conducted an epizootiologic investigation and phylogeographic and phylodynamic analyses to infer the phylogenetic relationships of hantaviruses in space and time, and gain further insights into their evolutionary dynamics in Shandong Province. Our data indicated that the Seoul virus (SEOV) is distributed throughout Shandong, whereas Hantaan virus (HTNV) co-circulates with SEOV in the eastern and southern areas of Shandong. Their distribution showed strong geographic clustering. In addition, our analyses indicated multiple evolutionary paths, long-distance transmission, and demographic expansion events for SEOV in some areas. Selection pressure analyses revealed that negative selection on hantaviruses acted as the principal evolutionary force, whereas a little evidence of positive selection exists. We found that several positively selected sites were located within major functional regions and indicated the importance of these residues for adaptive evolution of hantaviruses.

19.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(459)2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232226

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by a recently identified bunyavirus, SFTSV, is an emerging infectious disease with extensive geographical distribution and high mortality. Progressive viral replication and severe thrombocytopenia are key features of SFTSV infection and fatal outcome, whereas the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We revealed arginine deficiency in SFTS cases by performing metabolomics analysis on two independent patient cohorts, suggesting that arginine metabolism by nitric oxide synthase and arginase is a key pathway in SFTSV infection and consequential death. Arginine deficiency was associated with decreased intraplatelet nitric oxide (Plt-NO) concentration, platelet activation, and thrombocytopenia. An expansion of arginase-expressing granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells was observed, which was related to T cell CD3-ζ chain down-regulation and virus clearance disturbance, implicating a role of arginase activity and arginine depletion in the impaired anti-SFTSV T cell function. Moreover, a comprehensive measurement of arginine bioavailability, global arginine bioavailability ratio, was shown to be a good prognostic marker for fatal prediction in early infection. A randomized controlled trial demonstrated that arginine administration was correlated with enhanced Plt-NO concentration, suppressed platelet activation, and elevated CD3-ζ chain expression and eventually associated with an accelerated virus clearance and thrombocytopenia recovery. Together, our findings revealed the arginine catabolism pathway-associated regulation of platelet homeostasis and T cell dysregulation after SFTSV infection, which not only provided a functional mechanism underlying SFTS pathogenesis but also offered an alternative therapy choice for SFTS.


Assuntos
Arginina/deficiência , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/complicações , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/imunologia , Imunossupressão , Phlebovirus/fisiologia , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/virologia , Arginina/uso terapêutico , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Imunidade , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
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