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1.
BMC Immunol ; 22(1): 6, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430765

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: It is important to expound the opposite clinical outcomes between children and adulthood for eradicate malaria. There remains unknown about the correlation between adaptive immune response and age-related in malaria. METHODS: 4 and 8-week-old mice were used to mimic children and adulthood, respectively. Parasitemia and the survival rate were monitored. The proportion and function of Th1 and Th2 cells were detected by FACS. The levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and Plasmodium yoelii MSP-1-specific IgG were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The adult group showed greater resistance to P. yoelii 17XL infection, with lower parasitemia. Compared with 4-week-old mice, the percentage of CD4+T-bet+IFN-γ+ Th1 cells as well as IFN-γ production were significantly increased on day 5 p.i. in the 8-week-old mice after P. yoelii 17XNL infection. The percentage of CD4+GATA3+IL-4+ Th2 cells and CD4+CXCR5+ Tfh cells, and IL-4 production in the 8-week-old mice significantly increased on day 5 and day 10 after P. yoelii 17XNL infection. Notably, the levels of total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and P. yoelii MSP-1-specific IgG were also significantly increased in the 8-week-old mice. PD-1, a marker of exhaustion, was up-regulated on CD4+ or activated CD4+ T cells in the 8-week-old mice as compared to the 4-week-old group. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we consider that enhanced cellular and humoral adaptive immunity might contribute to rapid clearance of malaria among adults, likely in a PD-1-dependent manner due to induction of CD4+ T cells exhaustion in P. yoelii 17XNL infected 8-week-old mice.

2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 6, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite major reductions in malaria burden across Myanmar, clusters of the disease continue to persist in specific subregions. This study aimed to assess the predictors of test positivity among people living in Paletwa Township of Chin State, an area of persistently high malaria burden. METHODS: Four villages with the highest malaria incidence from Paletwa Township were purposively selected. The characteristics of 1045 subjects seeking malaria diagnosis from the four assigned village health volunteers from January to December, 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Their household conditions and surroundings were also recorded using a checklist. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were applied to investigate potential associations between individual and household characteristics and malaria diagnosis. RESULTS: In 2017, the Paletwa township presented 20.9% positivity and an annual parasite index of 46.9 cases per 1000 people. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species and accounted for more than 80.0% of all infections. Among 1045 people presenting at a clinic with malaria symptoms, 31.1% were diagnosed with malaria. Predictors for test positivity included living in a hut [adjusted odds ratios (a OR): 2.3, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.2-4.6], owning farm animals (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6), using non-septic type of toilets (aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-8.4), presenting with fever (aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0), having a malaria episode within the last year (aOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4-5.8), traveling outside the village in the previous 14 days (aOR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.5-13.4), and not using bed nets (a OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 2.3-5.1). There were no statistically significant differences by age or gender in this present analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study, including a high proportion of P. falciparum infections, little difference in age, sex, or occupation, suggest that malaria is a major burden for these study villages. Targeted health education campaigns should be introduced to strengthen synchronous diagnosis-seeking behaviors, tighten treatment adherence, receiving a diagnosis after traveling to endemic regions, and using bed nets properly. We suggest increased surveillance, early diagnosis, and treatment efforts to control the disease and then to consider the local elimination.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(3): 1406-1414, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345444

RESUMO

ZCCHC14 is a CCHC-type zinc finger protein which is expressed in tissues in human and mouse. The function of ZCCHC14 in tumours remains unclear. In this research, we explored the expression, function and related molecular mechanisms of ZCCHC14 in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunochemistry staining showed that ZCCHC14 was low-expressed or absent in NSCLC tissues. In NSCLC patients, the low expression of ZCCHC14 in tumour tissues was significantly correlated with TNM stage, differentiation degree and adverse clinical outcome (P < .05). The proliferation and invasion ability of cancer cells transfected with ZCCHC14 CRISPR/Ca9 KO plasmids was significantly enhanced (P < .05). Immunoblotting analysis indicated that the expression of p-P38, cyclinD1 and MMP7 were significantly up-regulated after disabling ZCCHC14 (P < .05). We used MAPK-P38 pathway inhibitor doramapimod (BIRB 796) to inhibit P38 signalling pathway activity and determined that the agent significantly disrupted the function of ZCCHC14 and hindered the proliferation and invasion of the tumour. The finding revealed that ZCCHC14 can regulate proliferation and invasion of NSCLC through the P38 pathway. ZCCHC14 plays a crucial regulatory role in the development of NSCLC and may become a zinc finger target for clinical treatment.

4.
Cell Microbiol ; : e13294, 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222390

RESUMO

Gametogenesis, the formation of gametes from gametocytes, an essential step for malaria parasite transmission, is targeted by transmission-blocking drugs and vaccines. We identified a conserved protein (PBANKA_0305900) in Plasmodium berghei, which encodes a protein of 22 kDa (thus named Pb22) and is expressed in both asexual stages and gametocytes. Its homologues are present in all Plasmodium species and its closely related, Hepatocystis, but not in other apicomplexans. Pb22 protein was localised in the cytosols of schizonts, as well as male and female gametocytes. During gamete-to-ookinete development, Pb22 became localised on the plasma membranes of gametes and ookinetes. Compared to the wild-type (WT) parasites, P. berghei with pb22 knockout (KO) showed a significant reduction in exflagellation (~89%) of male gametocytes and ookinete number (~97%) during in vitro ookinete culture. Mosquito feeding assays showed that ookinete and oocyst formation of the pb22-KO line in mosquito midguts was almost completely abolished. These defects were rescued in parasites where pb22 was restored. Cross-fertilisation experiments with parasite lines defective in either male or female gametes confirmed that the defects in the pb22-KO line were restricted to the male gametes, whereas female gametes in the pb22-KO line were fertile at the WT level. Detailed analysis of male gametogenesis showed that 30% of the male gametocytes in the pb22-KO line failed to assemble the axonemes, whereas ~48.9% of the male gametocytes formed flagella but failed to egress from the host erythrocyte. To explore its transmission-blocking potential, recombinant Pb22 (rPb22) was expressed and used to immunise mice. in vitro assays showed that the rPb22-antisera significantly inhibited exflagellation by ~64.8% and ookinete formation by ~93.4%. Mosquitoes after feeding on rPb22-immunised mice also showed significant decreases in infection prevalence (83.3-93.3%) and oocyst density (93.5-99.6%). Further studies of the Pb22 orthologues in human malaria parasites are warranted.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt B): 107096, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals play vital roles during the blood-stage of malaria infections. However, the roles of TLR agonists in the regulation of immune responses and the development of protective immunity to malaria remain poorly understood. METHOD: BALB/c mice were pre-treated with TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 agonists, followed by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi. After infection, splenic dendritic cells (DCs), Th1 cells and programmed death-1 (PD-1) expressed on Th1 cells, as well as regulatory T cells (Tregs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-ß and IL-10 in splenocytes and IgG1 and IgG2a in serum were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Administration of TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 agonists prior to infection improved disease outcomes. All TLR agonists promoted DC activation, and the proportions of Th1 cells increased. In TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 agonist treated groups the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated, and IgG1 and IgG2a serum levels were also significantly increased. TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 agonists diminished the activation of Tregs and down-regulated the anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-ß and IL-10. Finally, PD-1 expressed on Th1 cells were decreased in TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 agonist treated groups compared with control groups. CONCLUSION: TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 agonists activated DC-mediated innate immune responses and adaptive immune response, which against the blood-stage of Plasmodium and might be applied to malaria protection and treatment.

6.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 8843146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062072

RESUMO

The expression of PD-L1 could be a novel biomarker which predicts that patients are more likely to respond to immunotherapy. Our study investigated the relationship among clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, PD-L1 expression levels, and FOXP3+ Treg infiltration. In addition, the relationship among clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, PD-L1 expression levels, and FOXP3+ Treg infiltration was explored. Furthermore, the relationship between PD-L1 expression and FOXP3+ Treg infiltration was examined. We found that 41.3% of pancreatic cancer patients had PD-L1-positive staining; both PD-L1 expression levels and FOXP3+ Treg infiltration were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and pTNM. In addition, PD-L1 expression and FOXP3+ Treg infiltration also could be prognostic biomarkers for pancreatic cancer.

7.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735420946823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735179

RESUMO

Background: Lentinan (LNT), an isolated traditional Chinese herbal component, has antitumor potential. In the current study, the intrinsic mechanism of LNT-induced immunity against bladder cancer was explored in a mouse model. Methods: In the mouse model of bladder cancer, we used flow cytometry to detect the LNT caused population changes of T cells, macrophages, MDSC cells, and Treg cells. ELISA was used to evaluate cytokines expression in the supernatant of splenocytes. Results: We found that the administration of LNT increased the proportions of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cell subsets as well as CD11b+F480+ macrophages, whereas it diminished the subpopulations of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). LNT also upregulated the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-12, accompanied by a significant reduction in IL-10 and tumor growth factor (TGF)-ß (P < .05). Our research further confirmed the synergy between LNT and gemcitabine (GEM) to activate immunity and inhibit the growth of bladder tumors in mouse model. Conclusions: LNT induced macrophage activation, followed by the enhanced proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and the upregulated expression of IFN-γ and IL-2. Meanwhile, the proportions of MDSCs and Tregs were downregulated, leading to a reduced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß. The synergy between LNT and GEM provides additional evidence supporting the application of this traditional Chinese herbal component for bladder cancer therapy.

8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008506, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745103

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant malaria parasite and a major challenge for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Yet, our knowledge about the evolution of P. vivax populations in the GMS is fragmental. We performed whole genome sequencing on 23 P. vivax samples from the China-Myanmar border (CMB) and used 21 high-coverage samples to compare to over 200 samples from the rest of the GMS. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we analyzed population differentiation, genetic structure, migration and potential selection using an array of methods. The CMB parasites displayed a higher proportion of monoclonal infections, and 52% shared over 90% of their genomes in identity-by-descent segments with at least one other sample from the CMB, suggesting preferential expansion of certain parasite strains in this region, likely resulting from the P. vivax outbreaks occurring during this study period. Principal component, admixture, fixation index and phylogenetic analyses all identified that parasites from the CMB were genetically distinct from parasites from eastern parts of the GMS (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Thailand), whereas the eastern GMS parasite populations were largely undifferentiated. Such a genetic differentiation pattern of the P. vivax populations from the GMS parasite was largely explainable through geographic distance. Using the genome-wide SNPs, we narrowed down to a set of 36 SNPs for differentiating parasites from different areas of the GMS. Genome-wide scans to determine selection in the genome with two statistical methods identified genes potentially under drug selection, including genes associated with antifolate resistance and genes linked to chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , China , Surtos de Doenças , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Genômica , Humanos , Mianmar , Filogenia , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849480

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax is increasingly the dominant species of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which is pursuing regional malaria elimination. P. vivax lineages in the GMS are poorly characterized. Currently, P. vivax reference genomes are scarce due to difficulties in culturing the parasite and lack of high-quality samples. In addition, P. vivax is incredibly diverse, necessitating the procurement of reference genomes from different geographical regions. Here we present four new P. vivax draft genomes assembled de novo from clinical samples collected in the China-Myanmar border area. We demonstrate comparable length and content to existing genomes, with the majority of structural variation occurring around subtelomeric regions and exported proteins, which we corroborated with detection of copy number variations in these regions. We predicted peptides from all PIR gene subfamilies, except for PIR D. We confirmed that proteins classically labeled as PIR D family members are not identifiable by PIR motifs, and actually bear stronger resemblance to DUF (domain of unknown function) family DUF3671, potentially pointing to a new, closely related gene family. Further, phylogenetic analyses of MSP7 genes showed high variability within the MSP7-B family compared to MSP7-A and -C families, and the result was comparable to that from whole genome analyses. The new genome assemblies serve as a resource for studying P. vivax within the GMS.

10.
Malar J ; 19(1): 281, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Greater Mekong sub-region, Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant species and imposes a major challenge for regional malaria elimination. This study aimed to investigate the variations in genes potentially related to drug resistance in P. vivax populations from the China-Myanmar border area. In addition, this study also wanted to determine whether divergence existed between parasite populations associated with asymptomatic and acute infections. METHODS: A total of 66 P. vivax isolates were obtained from patients with acute malaria who attended clinics at the Laiza area, Kachin State, Myanmar in 2015. In addition, 102 P. vivax isolates associated with asymptomatic infections were identified by screening of volunteers without signs or symptoms from surrounding villages. Slide-positive samples were verified with nested PCR detecting the 18S rRNA gene. Multiclonal infections were further excluded by genotyping at msp-3α and msp-3ß genes. Parasite DNA from 60 symptomatic cases and 81 asymptomatic infections was used to amplify and sequence genes potentially associated with drug resistance, including pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, pvdhfr, pvdhps, and pvk12. RESULTS: The pvmdr1 Y976F and F1076L mutations were present in 3/113 (2.7%) and 97/113 (85.5%) P. vivax isolates, respectively. The K10 insertion in pvcrt-o gene was found in 28.2% of the parasites. Four mutations in the two antifolate resistance genes reached relatively high levels of prevalence: pvdhfr S58R (53.4%), S117N/T (50.8%), pvdhps A383G (75.0%), and A553G (36.3%). Haplotypes with wild-type pvmdr1 (976Y/997K/1076F) and quadruple mutations in pvdhfr (13I/57L/58R/61M/99H/117T/173I) were significantly more prevalent in symptomatic than asymptomatic infections, whereas the pvmdr1 mutant haplotype 976Y/997K/1076L was significantly more prevalent in asymptomatic than symptomatic infections. In addition, quadruple mutations at codons 57, 58, 61 and 117 of pvdhfr and double mutations at codons 383 and 553 of pvdhps were found both in asymptomatic and symptomatic infections with similar frequencies. No mutations were found in the pvk12 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in pvdhfr and pvdhps were prevalent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic P. vivax infections, suggestive of resistance to antifolate drugs. Asymptomatic carriers may act as a silent reservoir sustaining drug-resistant parasite transmission necessitating a rational strategy for malaria elimination in this region.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670896

RESUMO

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX), present in a wide variety of eukaryotic species, catalyzes the insertion of disulfide bonds into unfolded, reduced proteins. Here we characterized the QSOX protein from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei (PbQSOX), which is conserved in all sequenced malaria parasite species. The PbQSOX protein was not expressed in asexual erythrocytic stages, but was most abundantly expressed in ookinetes. Indirect immunofluorescence assays revealed PbQSOX was not only localized in cytoplasm of gametocytes, gametes and ookinetes, but also expressed on the surface of gametes and ookinetes. Western blot identified extracellular presence of PbQSOX in the culture medium of ookinetes suggestive of secretion. Pbqsox deletion (Δpbqsox) did not affect asexual intraerythrocytic development, but reduced exflagellation of male gametocytes as well as formation and maturation of ookinetes. Pbqsox deletion also led to a significant increase in the reduced thiol groups of ookinete surface proteins, suggesting that it may play a role in maintaining the integrity of disulfide bonds of surface proteins, which might be needed for ookinete development. Mosquitoes that fed on Δpbqsox-infected mice showed a significant reduction in ookinete and oocyst numbers compared to those fed on wild-type parasite-infected mice. Further, both polyclonal mouse antisera and a monoclonal antibody against the recombinant PbQSOX exhibited substantial transmission-blocking activities in in vitro and mosquito feeding assays, suggesting QSOX is a potential target for blocking parasite transmission.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic antimalarial drug that is both effective for protection and improves compliance is in high demand. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, phase-3 trial to evaluate the 1:1 fixed-dose combination of naphthoquine-azithromycin (NQAZ) for safety and protection against Plasmodium infections in villages along the China-Myanmar border. A total of 631 residents, 5-65 years old, were randomized into the drug group (319) and the placebo group (312) to receive NZAQ and placebo, respectively, as a single-dose monthly treatment. Follow-ups were conducted weekly to monitor for adverse events and malaria infections. RESULTS: Of the 531 subjects completing the trial, there were 46 and 3 blood smear-positive Plasmodium infections in the placebo and treatment groups, respectively. For the intent-to-treat analysis, the single-dose monthly NQAZ treatment had 93.62% protective efficacy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.72-95.52%). For the per-protocol analysis, NQAZ treatment provided a 93.04% protective efficacy (95% CI: 90.98-95.1%). Three smear-positive cases in the NQAZ group were all due to acute falciparum malaria. In comparison, NQAZ treatment provided 100% protection against the relapsing malaria Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. The treatment group had 5.6% of participants experiencing transient elevation of liver transaminases as compared to 2.2% in the placebo group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Monthly prophylaxis with NQAZ tablets was well tolerated and highly effective for preventing Plasmodium infections. It may prove useful for eliminating P. vivax in areas with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the population.

13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 175, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antigens expressed in sexual stages of the malaria parasites are targets of transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). HAP2/GCS1, a TBV candidate, is critical for fertilization in Plasmodium. Here, the genetic diversity of PvHAP2 was studied in Plasmodium vivax parasite populations from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). METHODS: Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates were collected in clinics from the China-Myanmar border region (135 samples), western Thailand (41 samples) and western Myanmar (51 samples). Near full-length Pvhap2 (nucleotides 13-2574) was amplified and sequenced from these isolates. Molecular evolution studies were conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity, selection and population differentiation. RESULTS: Sequencing of the pvhap2 gene for a total of 227 samples from the three P. vivax populations revealed limited genetic diversity of this gene in the GMS (π = 0.00036 ± 0.00003), with the highest π value observed in Myanmar (0.00053 ± 0.00009). Y133S was the dominant mutation in the China-Myanmar border (99.26%), Myanmar (100%) and Thailand (95.12%). Results of all neutrality tests were negative for all the three populations, suggesting the possible action of purifying selection. Codon-based tests identified specific codons which are under purifying or positive selections. Wright's fixation index showed low to moderate genetic differentiation of P. vivax populations in the GMS, with FST ranging from 0.04077 to 0.24833, whereas high levels of genetic differentiation were detected between the China-Myanmar border and Iran populations (FST = 0.60266), and between Thailand and Iran populations (FST = 0.44161). A total of 20 haplotypes were identified, with H2 being the abundant haplotype in China-Myanmar border, Myanmar and Thailand populations. Epitope mapping prediction of Pvhap2 antigen showed that high-score B-cell epitopes are located in the S307-G324, L429-P453 and V623-D637 regions. The E317K and D637N mutations located within S307-G324 and V623-D637 epitopes slightly reduced the predicted score for potential epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed a very low level of genetic diversity of pvhap2 gene among P. vivax populations in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The relative conservation of pvhap2 supports further evaluation of a Pvhap2-based TBV.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , China , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Humanos , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Mianmar , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
14.
Malar J ; 19(1): 145, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Countries within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) of Southeast Asia have committed to eliminating malaria by 2030. Although the malaria situation has greatly improved, malaria transmission remains at international border regions. In some areas, Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant parasite. To gain a better understanding of transmission dynamics, knowledge on the changes of P. vivax populations after the scale-up of control interventions will guide more effective targeted control efforts. METHODS: This study investigated genetic diversity and population structures in 206 P. vivax clinical samples collected at two time points in two international border areas: the China-Myanmar border (CMB) (n = 50 in 2004 and n = 52 in 2016) and Thailand-Myanmar border (TMB) (n = 50 in 2012 and n = 54 in 2015). Parasites were genotyped using 10 microsatellite markers. RESULTS: Despite intensified control efforts, genetic diversity remained high (HE = 0.66-0.86) and was not significantly different among the four populations (P > 0.05). Specifically, HE slightly decreased from 0.76 in 2004 to 0.66 in 2016 at the CMB and increased from 0.80 in 2012 to 0.86 in 2015 at the TMB. The proportions of polyclonal infections varied significantly among the four populations (P < 0.05), and showed substantial decreases from 48.0% in 2004 to 23.7 at the CMB and from 40.0% in 2012 to 30.7% in 2015 at the TMB, with corresponding decreases in the multiplicity of infection. Consistent with the continuous decline of malaria incidence in the GMS over time, there were also increases in multilocus linkage disequilibrium, suggesting more fragmented and increasingly inbred parasite populations. There were considerable genetic differentiation and sub-division among the four tested populations. Temporal genetic differentiation was observed at each site (FST = 0.081 at the CMB and FST = 0.133 at the TMB). Various degrees of clustering were evident between the older parasite samples collected in 2004 at the CMB and the 2016 CMB and 2012 TMB populations, suggesting some of these parasites had shared ancestry. In contrast, the 2015 TMB population was genetically distinctive, which may reflect a process of population replacement. Whereas the effective population size (Ne) at the CMB showed a decrease from 4979 in 2004 to 3052 in 2016 with the infinite allele model, the Ne at the TMB experienced an increase from 6289 to 10,259. CONCLUSIONS: With enhanced control efforts on malaria, P. vivax at the TMB and CMB showed considerable spatial and temporal differentiation, but the presence of large P. vivax reservoirs still sustained genetic diversity and transmission. These findings provide new insights into P. vivax transmission dynamics and population structure in these border areas of the GMS. Coordinated and integrated control efforts on both sides of international borders are essential to reach the goal of regional malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Variação Genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Tailândia/epidemiologia
15.
Sci Adv ; 6(9): eaay9269, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133407

RESUMO

Malaria parasites suppress host immune responses to facilitate their survival, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found that blood-stage malaria parasites predominantly induced CD4+Foxp3+CD25+ regulatory T cells to release soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2), which substantially enhanced the infection. This was attributed to the capacity of sFGL2 to inhibit macrophages from releasing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and to sequentially reduce the recruitment of natural killer/natural killer T cells to the spleen and the production of interferon-γ. sFGL2 inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in the Toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway of macrophages dependent on FcγRIIB receptor to release MCP-1. Notably, sFGL2 were markedly elevated in the sera of patients with malaria, and recombinant FGL2 substantially suppressed Plasmodium falciparum from inducing macrophages to release MCP-1. Therefore, we highlight a previously unrecognized immune suppression strategy of malaria parasites and uncover the fundamental mechanism of sFGL2 to suppress host innate immune responses.


Assuntos
Fibrinogênio/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Macrófagos/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/genética , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
17.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098812

RESUMO

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum Kelch 13 (PfK13) protein are associated with artemisinin resistance. PfK13 is essential for asexual erythrocytic development, but its function is not known. We tagged the PfK13 protein with green fluorescent protein in P. falciparum to study its expression and localization in asexual and sexual stages. We used a new antibody against PfK13 to show that the PfK13 protein is expressed ubiquitously in both asexual erythrocytic stages and gametocytes and is localized in punctate structures, partially overlapping an endoplasmic reticulum marker. We introduced into the 3D7 strain four PfK13 mutations (F446I, N458Y, C469Y, and F495L) identified in parasites from the China-Myanmar border area and characterized the in vitro artemisinin response phenotypes of the mutants. We found that all the parasites with the introduced PfK13 mutations showed higher survival rates in the ring-stage survival assay (RSA) than the wild-type (WT) control, but only parasites with N458Y displayed a significantly higher RSA value (26.3%) than the WT control. After these PfK13 mutations were reverted back to the WT in field parasite isolates, all revertant parasites except those with the C469Y mutation showed significantly lower RSA values than their respective parental isolates. Although the 3D7 parasites with introduced F446I, the predominant PfK13 mutation in northern Myanmar, did not show significantly higher RSA values than the WT, they had prolonged ring-stage development and showed very little fitness cost in in vitro culture competition assays. In comparison, parasites with the N458Y mutations also had a prolonged ring stage and showed upregulated resistance pathways in response to artemisinin, but this mutation produced a significant fitness cost, potentially leading to their lower prevalence in the Greater Mekong subregion.IMPORTANCE Artemisinin resistance has emerged in Southeast Asia, endangering the substantial progress in malaria elimination worldwide. It is associated with mutations in the PfK13 protein, but how PfK13 mediates artemisinin resistance is not completely understood. Here we used a new antibody against PfK13 to show that the PfK13 protein is expressed in all stages of the asexual intraerythrocytic cycle as well as in gametocytes and is partially localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. By introducing four PfK13 mutations into the 3D7 strain and reverting these mutations in field parasite isolates, we determined the impacts of these mutations identified in the parasite populations from northern Myanmar on the ring stage using the in vitro ring survival assay. The introduction of the N458Y mutation into the 3D7 background significantly increased the survival rates of the ring-stage parasites but at the cost of the reduced fitness of the parasites. Introduction of the F446I mutation, the most prevalent PfK13 mutation in northern Myanmar, did not result in a significant increase in ring-stage survival after exposure to dihydroartemisinin (DHA), but these parasites showed extended ring-stage development. Further, parasites with the F446I mutation showed only a marginal loss of fitness, partially explaining its high frequency in northern Myanmar. Conversely, reverting all these mutations, except for the C469Y mutation, back to their respective wild types reduced the ring-stage survival of these isolates in response to in vitro DHA treatment.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ásia Sudeste , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Mutação , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 67, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The malaria elimination plan of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is jeopardized by the increasing number of Plasmodium vivax infections and emergence of parasite strains with reduced susceptibility to the frontline drug treatment chloroquine/primaquine. This study aimed to determine the evolution of the P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 (Pvmdr1) gene in P. vivax parasites isolated from the China-Myanmar border area during the major phase of elimination. METHODS: Clinical isolates were collected from 275 P. vivax patients in 2008, 2012-2013 and 2015 in the China-Myanmar border area and from 55 patients in central China. Comparison was made with parasites from three border regions of Thailand. RESULTS: Overall, genetic diversity of the Pvmdr1 was relatively high in all border regions, and over the seven years in the China-Myanmar border, though slight temporal fluctuation was observed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously implicated in reduced chloroquine sensitivity were detected. In particular, M908L approached fixation in the China-Myanmar border area. The Y976F mutation sharply decreased from 18.5% in 2008 to 1.5% in 2012-2013 and disappeared in 2015, whereas F1076L steadily increased from 33.3% in 2008 to 77.8% in 2015. While neutrality tests suggested the action of purifying selection on the pvmdr1 gene, several likelihood-based algorithms detected positive as well as purifying selections operating on specific amino acids including M908L, T958M and F1076L. Fixation and selection of the nonsynonymous mutations are differently distributed across the three border regions and central China. Comparison with the global P. vivax populations clearly indicated clustering of haplotypes according to geographic locations. It is noteworthy that the temperate-zone parasites from central China were completely separated from the parasites from other parts of the GMS. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that P. vivax populations in the China-Myanmar border has experienced major changes in the Pvmdr1 residues proposed to be associated with chloroquine resistance, suggesting that drug selection may play an important role in the evolution of this gene in the parasite populations.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Variação Genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , China , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Haplótipos , Humanos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Mutação , Mianmar , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
19.
Vaccine ; 38(13): 2841-2848, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093983

RESUMO

Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy to interfere with the transmission of malaria. To date, only limited TBV candidate antigens have been identified for Plasmodium vivax. HAP2 is a gamete membrane fusion protein, with homology to the class II viral fusion proteins. Herein we reported the characterization of the PvHAP2 for its potential as a TBV candidate for P. vivax. The HAP2/GCS1 domain of PvHAP2 was expressed in the baculovirus expression system and the recombinant protein was used to raise antibodies in rabbits. Indirect immunofluorescence assays showed that anti-PvHAP2 antibodies reacted only with the male gametocytes on blood smears. Direct membrane feeding assays were conducted using four field P. vivax isolates in Anopheles dirus. At a mean infection intensity of 72.4, 70.7, 51.3, and 15.6 oocysts/midgut with the control antibodies, anti-PvHAP2 antibodies significantly reduced the midgut oocyst intensity by 40.3, 44.4, 61.9, and 89.7%. Whereas the anti-PvHAP2 antibodies were not effective in reducing the infection prevalence at higher parasite exposure (51.3-72.4 oocysts/midgut in the control group), the anti-PvHAP2 antibodies reduced infection prevalence by 50% at a low challenge (15.6 oocysts/midgut). Multiple sequence alignment showed 100% identity among these Thai P. vivax isolates, suggesting that polymorphism may not be an impediment for the utilization of PvHAP2 as a TBV antigen. In conclusion, our results suggest that PvHAP2 could serve as a TBV candidate for P. vivax, and further optimization and evaluation are warranted.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 80: 106186, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931371

RESUMO

The establishment of malaria immune memory is slow, incomplete, and short-lived. The mechanisms underpinning the generation and maintenance of anti-malarial immune memory remain unclear. This study evaluated the possible role of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) in the establishment of malaria immune memory. Following infection by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (Pb ANKA) we compared natural immunity, acquired immunity, and immune memory between WT and mice lacking PD-1 via monoclonal antibody treatment. We found that parasitemia levels were significantly lower in the PD-1 knockdown group. After PD-1 elimination, dendritic cells, Th1, and T-follicular helper cells increased significantly. In addition, memory T, long-lived plasma cells, and serum antibody production also increased significantly. Therefore, PD-1 elimination induced stronger natural and acquired immune responses and enhanced immune memory against the parasite.

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