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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e018869, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506689

RESUMO

Background Previous studies have suggested a strong association of liver fibrosis scores (LFSs) with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with different cardiovascular diseases. Nonetheless, it is basically blank regarding the prognostic significance of LFSs in patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study sought to examine the potential role of LFSs in predicting long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease after elective PCI. Methods and Results In this multicenter, prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 4003 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing PCI. Eight currently available noninvasive LFSs were assessed for each subject. All patients were followed up for the occurrence of cardiovascular events including cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. During an average follow-up of 5.0±1.6 years, 315 (7.87%) major cardiovascular events were recorded. Subjects who developed cardiovascular events were more likely to have intermediate or high LFSs, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score; fibrosis-4 score; body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes mellitus score (BARD); and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio. Furthermore, compared with subjects with low scores, those with intermediate plus high score levels had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratios ranging 1.57-1.92). Moreover, the addition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score; fibrosis-4 score; or body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes mellitus score into a model with established cardiovascular risk factors significantly improved the prediction ability. Conclusions High LFSs levels might be useful for predicting adverse prognosis in patients with stable coronary artery disease following PCI, suggesting the possibility of the application of LFSs in the risk stratification before elective PCI.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e037340, 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impacts of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) dyslipidaemia on prognosis in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different glucose metabolism status. DESIGN: An observational cohort study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3057 patients with stable CAD were consecutively enrolled and divided into three groups according to different glucose metabolism status. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD) was defined as TG ≥1.7 mmol/L and HDL-C <1.0 mmol/L for men or <1.3 mmol/L for women. The patients were further classified into six subgroups by status of AD. All subjects were followed up for the cardiovascular events (CVEs). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 308 (10.1%) CVEs occurred. No significant difference in the occurrence of CVEs was observed between normal glucose regulation (NGR) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) groups (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.76) while DM group presented 1.45-fold higher risk of CVEs (HR: 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.05). When the participants were categorised according to combined status of two parameters, the cardiovascular risk was significantly elevated in pre-DM or DM plus AD group compared with the NGR plus non-AD group (HR: 1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.80 and HR: 1.87, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.98). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that the presence of AD might affect the prognosis in patients with DM or pre-DM and stable CAD.

3.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver fibrosis score (LFS) has been used for predicting the cardiovascular outcomes (CVOs) in diverse populations. However, the association of LFS with CVOs in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) remains undetermined. We aimed to examine the prognostic value of LFS in patients with prior MI in a prospective cohort. METHODS: A total of 3718 patients with previous MI were consecutively enrolled from March 2009 to January 2019. Five LFSs including the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, non-alcohol fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), Forns score, HUI score and BARD score were used. The CVOs covered major adverse cardiac event (MACEs), cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 47.4 ± 24.8 months, 431 (11.6%) MACEs occurred. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that higher LFSs resulted in a significantly higher probability of CVOs. Compared to the lowest score group, multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of the highest group of FIB-4, NFS, Forns score, HUI score and BARD score were 1.75 (1.32-2.33), 2.37 (1.70-3.33), 2.44 (1.61-3.73), 1.58 (1.16-2.14) and 1.27 (1.03-1.57) respectively. These LFSs were also independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Similar results were observed across subgroups analysis. The addition of LFSs to a prediction model significantly increased the C-statistic for CVOs. CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly demonstrated that LFS could be used as a risk stratification tool for predicting CVOs in patients with previous MI, which should be evaluated further.

4.
Coron Artery Dis ; 32(1): 78-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been emerged as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), but there is currently insufficient data on the relationship between Lp(a) and premature CAD (PCAD). Thus, this study aimed to examine the association between Lp(a) and PCAD in a Chinese cohort. METHODS: Data on 2433 individuals (male <55 years old and female <65 years old) who underwent coronary angiography from March 2016 to February 2019 were included in this study and were divided into the PCAD group (n = 1751) and non-CAD group (n = 682) according to the angiography results. Their clinical and laboratory parameters were collected, and plasma Lp(a) level was measured by immunoturbidimetry. The severity of CAD was evaluated using Gensini score (GS) and divided into three subgroups. The relationship between plasma Lp(a) levels and the presence and severity of PCAD was analyzed. RESULTS: The level of plasma Lp(a) in the PCAD group was significantly higher than that in the non-CAD group (P < 0.001). The plasma Lp(a) concentration in the highest GS group was significantly higher than that in the lowest GS group (P < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that elevated plasma Lp(a) levels were correlated with higher GS (b = 0.41, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that elevated plasma Lp(a) levels were independently associated with PCAD (odds ratio = 2.91, P < 0.001). Moreover, elevated plasma Lp(a) levels correlated with higher GS (b = 0.41, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, Lp(a) concentration was associated with the presence and severity of PCAD, suggesting that Lp(a) may be a marker or target for patients with PCAD.

5.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339063

RESUMO

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been documented to be associated with atherothrombotic diseases. However, the prognostic impact of Lp(a) on long-term clinical outcomes among patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) remains unclear. In this prospective cohort study, we consecutively enrolled 3,864 post-MI patients to assess the cardiovascular events (CVEs), including MI, ischemic stroke, and cardiac mortality. Lp(a) levels were determined using an immunoturbidimetry assay and the participants were categorized according to Lp(a) quartiles. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 331 (8.6%) CVEs were identified. Lp(a) was significantly higher in patients with CVEs (25.17 [11.13-47.83] vs. 18.18 [7.90-40.30] mg/dL, p = 0.001). The cumulative rates of CVEs and cardiac mortality were significantly higher in patients with high Lp(a) levels (both log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a significant correlation between Lp (a) levels treated as a natural logarithm-transformed continuous variable and increased CVEs (adjusted HR:1.22, 95% CI:1.09-1.35, p = 0.001) or cardiac mortality (HR:1.30, 95% CI:1.14-1.48, p < 0.001). The addition of Lp(a) to a prognostic model revealed a significant improvement in C-statistic, net reclassification, and integrated discrimination. In conclusion, elevated levels of Lp(a) were indeed associated with long-term worse outcomes in patients with prior MI, suggesting a novel hint that the measurement of Lp(a) might help in risk stratification and future management in those high-risk individuals.

6.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that small dense LDL-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) is related to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its prognostic role in hypertensive patients with CAD has been undetermined. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between sdLDL-C with disease severity, hypertensive status and clinical outcome in patients with CAD. METHODS: A total of 4594 patients with angiography-proven CAD were consecutively enrolled and categorized into subgroups according to blood pressure status. Serum sdLDL-C levels were measured by direct quantitative measurement using automated chemistry analyzers. The severity of coronary artery lesions were determined by Gensini score, Syntax score and the number of lesion vessels. The associations of sdLDL-C with disease severity, hypertensive status and cardiovascular events (CVEs) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients with hypertension had higher sdLDL-C levels than ones without (P = 0.010). In hypertensive patients, sdLDL-C was positively associated with the severity of CAD (P < 0.05). In addition, hypertensive patients with poorly controlled hypertension had higher sdLDL-C levels than those with well controlled (P < 0.05). Moreover, 149 CVEs occurred in patients with poorly controlled hypertension and Cox regression analysis indicated that elevated sdLDL-C levels were independently associated with CVEs in hypertensive patients with poorly controlled hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.673, 95% confidence interval: 1.105-2.535, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: The current data, for the first time, showed that serum sdLDL-C levels were correlated with hypertension control, disease severity and worse outcomes in hypertensive patients with CAD, suggesting that paying more attention on sdLDL-C in these patients were warranted.

7.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 156, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have higher prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are a useful marker for predicting ASCVD. We hypothesized that FFAs could predict both coronary and carotid lesions in an individual with type 2 DM (T2DM). The present study, hence, was to investigate the relation of plasma FFA level to the presence and severity of coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Three hundred and two consecutive individuals with T2DM who have received carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography due to chest pain were enrolled in this study. Plasma FFAs were measured using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Coronary and carotid severity was evaluated by Gensini score and Crouse score respectively. Subsequently, the relation of FFA levels to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) in whole individuals were also assessed. RESULTS: Increased plasma FFA levels were found in the groups either CAD or CAP compared to those without. Patients with higher level of FFAs had a higher CAD (89.9%) and elevated prevalence of CAP (69.7%). And also, patients with higher level of FFAs had a higher Gensini and Crouse scores. Multivariate regression analysis showed that FFA levels were independently associated with the presence of CAD and CAP (OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.27-2.65, P = 0.001; OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.22-2.14, P = 0.001, respectively). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.68 and 0.65 for predicting the presence of CAD and CAP in patients with DM respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly indicated that elevated FFA levels appeared associated with both the presence and severity of CAD and CAP in patients with T2DM, suggesting that plasma FFA levels may be a useful biomarker for improving management of patients with T2DM.

8.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 373, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and fibrinogen (Fib) are both associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The atherogenicity of Lp(a) can be partly due to the potentially antifibrinolytic categories. We hypothesize that patients with higher Lp(a) and Fib may have worse outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 8,417 Chinese patients with stable CAD from March 2011 to March 2017. All subjects were divided into 9 groups according to Lp(a) (Lp(a)-Low, Lp(a)-Medium, Lp(a)-High) and Fib levels (Fib-Low, Fib-Medium, Fib-High) and followed up for CVEs, including nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression and C-statistic analyses were performed. RESULTS: During a median of 37.1 months' follow-up, 395 (4.7%) CVEs occurred. The occurrence of CVEs increased by Lp(a) (3.5 vs. 5.3 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001) and Fib (4.0 vs. 4.4 vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) categories. When further classified into 9 groups by Lp(a) and Fib levels, the CVEs were highest in the 9th (Lp(a)-High and Fib-High) compared with the 1st (Lp(a)-Low and Fib-Low) group (7.2 vs. 3.3%, p < 0.001). The highest risk of subsequent CVEs was found in the 9th group (HRadjusted 2.656, 95% CI 1.628-4.333, p < 0.001), which was more significant than Lp(a)-High (HRadjusted 1.786, 95% CI 1.315-2.426, p < 0.001) or Fib-High (HRadjusted 1.558, 95% CI 1.162-2.089, p = 0.003) group. Moreover, adding the combined Lp(a) and Fib increased the C-statistic by 0.013. CONCLUSION: Combining Fib and Lp(a) enhance the prognostic value for incident CVEs beyond Lp(a) or Fib alone.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 167, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels is a predictor for cardiovascular outcomes has currently been controversial. No data is currently available regarding the relation of PCSK9 to cardiovascular metabolic markers (CVMMs) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes or without diabetes. METHODS: A total 1225 untreated patients with stable CAD were consecutively enrolled and their baseline plasma PCSK9 levels were determined by ELISA. Patients were divided into high and low PCSK9 groups according to PCSK9 median. All patients followed up for the occurrence of MACEs and received standard therapy after admission. The associations of PCSK9 with CVMMs and MACEs were evaluated. RESULTS: PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with multiple CVMMs including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c at baseline (all p < 0.05). During a median follow-up of 3.3 years, 103 (8.4%) events occurred. PCSK9 levels were higher in patients with events compared to those without (p < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier analysis displayed that patients in high PCSK9 group had lower event-free survival than that in low group (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that PCSK9 levels were independently associated with MACEs in diabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.361, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.037-1.785, p < 0.05). When added the combination of PCSK9 levels and diabetic status to stratifying factors, patients in high PCSK9 group appeared to have extremely high risk of subsequent MACEs with diabetes (adjusted HR: 5.233, 95% CI: 2.546-10.757, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly showed that elevated PCSK9 levels were related to multiple CVMMs and MACEs in stable CAD with diabetes, suggesting that plasma PCSK9 measurement could help to identify diabetic patients with CAD at higher cardiovascular risk. More studies may be needed to confirm our findings.

10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 152, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines highlighted the association between atherosclerosis and triglyceride-enriched lipoproteins in patients with impaired glucose metabolism. However, evidence from prospective studies for long-term prognostic utility of low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (LDL-TG) in real-world patients with prediabetes (Pre-DM) or diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of LDL-TG on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with stable CAD under different glucose metabolism status. METHODS: A total of 4381 patients with CAD were consecutively enrolled and plasma LDL-TG level was measured by an automated homogeneous assay. They were categorized according to both status of glucose metabolism [DM, Pre-DM, normal glycaemia regulation (NGR)] and tertiles of LDL-TG. All subjects were followed up for the occurrence of MACEs. RESULTS: During a median of 5.1 (interquartile range 3.9 to 5.9) years' follow-up, 507 (11.6%) MACEs occurred. Cubic spline models showed a significant association between LDL-TG and MACEs in DM and Pre-DM but not in NGR. When the combined effect of elevated LDL-TG and glucose disorders was considered for risk stratification, the medium tertile of LDL-TG plus DM, and the highest tertile of LDL-TG plus Pre-DM or plus DM subgroups were associated with significantly higher risk of MACEs after adjustment of confounders including triglyceride [hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.843 (1.149-2.955), 1.828 (1.165-2.867), 2.212 (1.396-3.507), all p < 0.05]. Moreover, adding LDL-TG into the original model increased the C-statistic from 0.687 to 0.704 (∆C-statistic = 0.016, p = 0.028) and from 0.734 to 0.749 (∆C-statistic = 0.014, p = 0.002) in Pre-DM and DM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal cohort study on real-world practice, higher LDL-TG was associated with worse outcomes among Pre-DM and DM patients with stable CAD.

11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 104, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The atherogenicity of remnant cholesterol (RC) has been underlined by recent guidelines, which was linked to coronary artery disease (CAD), especially for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of plasma RC in the patients with CAD under different glucose metabolism status. METHODS: Fasting plasma RC were directly calculated or measured in 4331 patients with CAD. Patients were followed for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and categorized according to both glucose metabolism status [DM, pre-DM, normoglycemia (NG)] and RC levels. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.1 years, 541 (12.5%) MACEs occurred. The risk for MACEs was significantly higher in patients with elevated RC levels after adjustment for potential confounders. No significant difference in MACEs was observed between pre-DM and NG groups (p > 0.05). When stratified by combined status of glucose metabolism and RC, highest levels of calculated and measured RC were significant and independent predictors of developing MACEs in pre-DM (HR: 1.64 and 1.98; both p < 0.05) and DM (HR: 1.62 and 2.05; both p < 0.05). High RC levels were also positively associated with MACEs in patients with uncontrolled DM. . CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale and long-term follow-up cohort study, data firstly demonstrated that higher RC levels were significantly associated with the worse prognosis in DM and pre-DM patients with CAD, suggesting that RC may be a target for patients with impaired glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Remanescentes de Quilomícrons/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 111, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Merging studies have reported the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] with poor outcomes of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the prognostic importance of Lp(a) for recurrent cardiovascular events (CVEs) is currently undetermined in patients with T2DM and prior CVEs. METHODS: From April 2011 to March 2017, we consecutively recruited 2284 T2DM patients with prior CVEs. Patients were categorized into low, medium, and high groups by Lp(a) levels and followed up for recurrent CVEs, including nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression and C-statistic analyses were performed. RESULTS: During 7613 patient-years' follow-up, 153 recurrent CVEs occurred. Lp(a) levels were significantly higher in patients with recurrent CVEs than counterparts (20.44 vs. 14.71 mg/dL, p = 0.002). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the event-free survival rate was dramatically lower in high and medium Lp(a) groups than that in low group irrespective of HBA1c status (< 7.0%; ≥ 7.0%, both p < 0.05). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression models indicated that Lp(a) was independently associated with high risk of recurrent CVEs [HR(95% CI): 2.049 (1.308-3.212)], such data remains in different HBA1c status (HR(95% CI): < 7.0%, 2.009 (1.051-3.840); ≥ 7.0%, 2.162 (1.148-4.073)). Moreover, the results of C-statistic were significantly improved by 0.029 when added Lp(a) to the Cox model. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, for the first time, confirmed that Lp(a) was an independent predictor for recurrent CVEs in T2DM patients with prior CVEs, suggesting that Lp(a) measurement may help to further risk stratification for T2DM patients after they suffered a first CVE.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Lipid Res ; 61(9): 1254-1262, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641433

RESUMO

TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-related biomarkers, including TRL-cholesterol (TRL-C), remnant-like lipoprotein particle-cholesterol (RLP-C), and apoC-III have been associated with atherosclerosis. However, their prognostic values have not been fully determined, especially in patients with previous CAD. This study aimed to examine the associations of TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III with incident cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the setting of secondary prevention of CAD. Plasma TRL-C, RLP-C, and total apoC-III were directly measured. A total of 4,355 participants with angiographically confirmed CAD were followed up for the occurrence of CVEs. During a median follow-up period of 5.1 years (interquartile range: 3.9-6.4 years), 543 (12.5%) events occurred. Patients with incident CVEs had significantly higher levels of TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III than those without events. Multivariable Cox analysis indicated that a log unit increase in TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III increased the risk of CVEs by 49% (95% CI: 1.16-1.93), 21% (95% CI: 1.09-1.35), and 40% (95% CI: 1.11-1.77), respectively. High TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III were also independent predictors of CVEs in individuals with LDL-C levels ≤1.8 mmol/l (n = 1,068). The addition of RLP-C level to a prediction model resulted in a significant increase in discrimination, and all three TRL biomarkers improved risk reclassification. Thus, TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III levels were independently associated with incident CVEs in Chinese CAD patients undergoing statin therapy.

14.
Heart ; 106(16): 1228-1235, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a predictor for recurrent cardiovascular events (RCVEs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been established. This study, hence, aimed to examine the potential impact of Lp(a) on RCVEs in a real-world, large cohort of patients with the first cardiovascular event (CVE). METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective study, 7562 patients with angiography-diagnosed CAD who had experienced a first CVE were consecutively enrolled. Lp(a) concentrations of all subjects were measured at admission and the participants were categorised according to Lp(a) tertiles. All patients were followed-up for the occurrence of RCVEs including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 61.45±19.57 months, 680 (9.0%) RCVEs occurred. The results showed that events group had significantly higher Lp(a) levels than non-events group (20.58 vs 14.95 mg/dL, p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that Lp(a) tertile 2 (p=0.001) and tertile 3 (p<0.001) groups had significantly lower cumulative event-free survival rates compared with tertile 1 group. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis further revealed that Lp(a) was independently associated with RCVEs risk (HR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.80, p<0.001). Moreover, adding Lp(a) to the SMART risk score model led to a slight but significant improvement in C-statistic (∆C-statistic: 0.018 (95% CI: 0.011 to 0.034), p=0.002), net reclassification (6.8%, 95% CI: 0.5% to 10.9%, p=0.040) and integrated discrimination (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.1% to 0.7%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating Lp(a) concentration was indeed a useful predictor for the risk of RCVEs in real-world treated patients with CAD, providing additional information concerning the future clinical application of Lp(a).

15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 45, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevation in small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) is common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), which has already been reported to be associated with incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of plasma sdLDL level in patients with stable CAD and DM. METHODS: A total of 4148 consecutive patients with stable CAD were prospectively enrolled into the study and followed up for major cardiovascular events (MACEs) up to 8.5 years. Plasma sdLDL level was measured in each patient by a direct method using automated chemistry analyzer. The patients were subsequently divided into four groups by the quartiles of sdLDL and the association of sdLDL level with MACEs in different status of glucose metabolism [DM, Pre-DM, normal glycaemia regulation (NGR)] was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 464 MACEs were documented. Both Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis indicated that the patients in quartile 4 but not quartile 2 or 3 of sdLDL level had significantly higher rate of MACEs than that in lowest quartile. When the prognostic value of high sdLDL was assessed in different glucose metabolism status, the results showed that the high sdLDL plus DM was associated with worse outcome after adjustment of confounding risk factors (hazard ratio: 1.83, 95% confident interval: 1.24-2.70, p < 0.05). However, no significant association was observed for high sdLDL plus Pre-DM or NGR. CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly indicated that elevated levels of plasma sdLDL were associated with increased risk of MACEs among DM patients with proven CAD, suggesting that sdLDL may be useful for CAD risk stratification in DM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014581, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013705

RESUMO

Background Although several studies have indicated that lipoprotein(a) is a useful prognostic predictor for patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), previous observations have somewhat been limited by either small sample size or short-term follow-up. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of lipoprotein(a) on long-term outcomes in a large cohort of stable coronary artery disease patients after PCI. Methods and Results In this multicenter and prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 4078 stable coronary artery disease patients undergoing PCI from March 2011 to March 2016. They were categorized according to both the median of lipoprotein(a) levels and lipoprotein(a) values of <15 (low), 15 to 30 (medium), and ≥30 mg/dL (high). All patients were followed up for occurrence of cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. During an average of 4.9 years of follow-up, 315 (7.7%) cardiovascular events occurred. The events group had significantly higher lipoprotein(a) levels than the nonevents group. Compared with the low lipoprotein(a) group, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the high lipoprotein(a) group had a significantly lower cumulative event-free survival rate, and multivariate Cox regression analysis further revealed that the high lipoprotein(a) group had significantly increased cardiovascular events risk. Moreover, adding continuous or categorical lipoprotein(a) to the Cox model led to a significant improvement in C-statistic, net reclassification, and integrated discrimination. Conclusions With a large sample size and long-term follow-up, our data confirmed that high lipoprotein(a) levels could be associated with a poor prognosis after PCI in stable coronary artery disease patients, suggesting that lipoprotein(a) measurements may be useful for patient risk stratification before selective PCI.

17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 15, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a novel marker of myocardial injury and has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Unfortunately, its prognostic value in patients with CVD and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of H-FABP in CVD patients with IGM. METHODS: A total of 4594 patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled and divided into subgroup according to glucose metabolism status (normal glucose regulation [NGR], pre-DM, and DM). Baseline levels of H-FABP were measured using latex immunoturbidimetric method. The cardiovascular events (CVE) were defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke and coronary revascularization. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate the relations of H-FABP and glucose metabolism status to CVEs. RESULTS: During the follow-up period with up to 7.1 years, 380 CVEs occurred. Patients with CVE had higher levels of H-FABP compared to those without CVE (p < 0.001). Interestingly, H-FABP levels were also elevated in DM and pre-DM groups compared with NGR group (p < 0.001), when combined glucose metabolism status with H-FABP stratification, patients in the highest tertile of H-FABP appeared to have higher risk of CVEs with pre-DM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.855, 95% confidential intervals [CIs] 1.076-3.214; p = 0.033) and DM (adjusted HR: 2.560, 95% CIs 1.409-4.650; p = 0.002). The Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that DM patients with the highest H-FABP levels were associated with the greatest risk of CVEs (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data firstly showed that elevated H-FABP levels were associated with worse outcomes in CAD patients with pre-DM and DM, which provided the novel information that H-FABP might be a prognostic marker for clinical outcomes among patients with CAD and IGM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Proteína 3 Ligante de Ácido Graxo/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Idoso , Pequim , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 27-33, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been considered as a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population and levels vary in different ethnicities. However, no systemic analysis is currently available regarding the relation of plasma Lp(a) levels to cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). METHODS: Three hundred and ninety-three patients with HeFH undergoing Lp(a) measurement at baseline were consecutively enrolled and followed prospectively for an average of 36.5 months. Lp(a) levels were determined using an immunoturbidimetry assay. Cox regression analysis with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value of Lp(a) on CVEs. RESULTS: Thirty-five events occurred during follow-up. Lp(a) was significantly higher in patients with CVEs (53.3 mg/dL versus 31.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with upper tertile of Lp(a) had a significant lower event-free survival (p = 0.004). After adjusting for confounding risk factors, per log unit increase in baseline Lp(a) was independently associated with CVEs [HR: 2.03(1.28-3.21), p = 0.002]. HRs remained unchanged after accounting for hard endpoints and did not vary too much in several relevant subgroups. Adding Lp(a) to the Cox model led to a significant improvement in C-statistic, net reclassification and integrated discrimination. Moreover, HR for upper versus lower tertile of change in Lp(a) was 2.68 (1.11-6.48) for CVEs after one year. CONCLUSIONS: Both baseline and on-statin treatment Lp(a) levels were associated with an increased risk of CVEs in patients with HeFH, suggesting that Lp(a) measurement might clinically help further risk stratification of FH patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Per Med ; 16(6): 467-478, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691639

RESUMO

Aim: To investigated the potential differences between probable and definite heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) patients diagnosed by Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. Methods: Clinical characteristics, lipid profile, severity of coronary artery stenosis and gene mutations were compared. Kaplan-Meier curve was performed to evaluate the cardiovascular events. Results: Overall, 325 participants were included and divided into two groups: probable (n = 233) and definite HeFH (n = 92). Definite HeFH patients had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized-LDL and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 levels, and higher prevalence of tendon xanthomas. The incidence of genetic mutations was statistically higher in definite HeFH than probable HeFH patients. The coronary stenosis calculated by Gensini score was statistically severer in definite HeFH patients. The best LDL-C threshold for predicting mutations was 5.14 mmol/l. Definite HeFH had lower event-free survival rates. Conclusion: Definite HeFH patients had higher severity of phenotype and genotype, and higher risk of cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estenose Coronária/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 367, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) has been proposed as a novel target for coronary artery disease (CAD). Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by high prevalence of CAD and major cardiovascular events (MACEs). However, no data is available on the association between PCSK9 levels and MACEs in FH patients with standard lipid lowering therapy. METHODS: A total of 338 consecutive heterozygous FH (Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score ≥ 6) was enrolled and followed up for the occurrence of MACEs. Multidetector CT and coronary angiography were performed to determine coronary artery calcification score (CACS) and Gensini score (GS). Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: PCSK9 was independently and positively associated CACS and GS at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 3 years, 33 (9.8%) events occurred. Patients with MACEs had higher median PCSK9 compared with those without (332.47 vs. 311.89 ng/mL, p = 0.038). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with higher PCSK9 presented lower event-free survival (p = 0.0017). PCSK9 was statistically correlated with MACEs after adjusting for confounding factors, with the HR per SD being 1.86 (1.31-2.65) and 3.70 (1.16-11.82) for the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile. Adding PCSK9 to Cox prediction model led to a statistical improvement in net reclassification and integrated discrimination. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of PCSK9 were positively associated with the development of CAD and future cardiovascular events, suggesting that measurement of PCSK9 concentration might be useful for cardiovascular risk stratification. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
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