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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
2.
Front Genet ; 12: 670582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093663

RESUMO

Copy number variations (CNVs) are a major source of structural variation in mammalian genomes. Here, we characterized the genome-wide CNV in 2059 sheep from 67 populations all over the world using the Ovine Infinium HD (600K) SNP BeadChip. We tested their associations with distinct phenotypic traits by conducting multiple independent genome-wide tests. In total, we detected 7547 unique CNVs and 18,152 CNV events in 1217 non-redundant CNV regions (CNVRs), covering 245 Mb (∼10%) of the whole sheep genome. We identified seven CNVRs with frequencies correlating to geographical origins and 107 CNVRs overlapping 53 known quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses of CNV-overlapping genes revealed their common involvement in energy metabolism, endocrine regulation, nervous system development, cell proliferation, immune, and reproduction. For the phenotypic traits, we detected significantly associated (adjusted P < 0.05) CNVRs harboring functional candidate genes, such as SBNO2 for polycerate; PPP1R11 and GABBR1 for tail weight; AKT1 for supernumerary nipple; CSRP1, WNT7B, HMX1, and FGFR3 for ear size; and NOS3 and FILIP1 in Wadi sheep; SNRPD3, KHDRBS2, and SDCCAG3 in Hu sheep; NOS3, BMP1, and SLC19A1 in Icelandic; CDK2 in Finnsheep; MICA in Romanov; and REEP4 in Texel sheep for litter size. These CNVs and associated genes are important markers for molecular breeding of sheep and other livestock species.

3.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
4.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(2): 283-303, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445533

RESUMO

Tibetan sheep are the most common and widespread domesticated animals on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and have played an essential role in the permanent human occupation of this high-altitude region. However, the precise timing, route, and process of sheep pastoralism in the QTP region remain poorly established, and little is known about the underlying genomic changes that occurred during the process. Here, we investigate the genomic variation in Tibetan sheep using whole-genome sequences, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-chromosomal variants in 986 samples throughout their distribution range. We detect strong signatures of selection in genes involved in the hypoxia and ultraviolet signaling pathways (e.g., HIF-1 pathway and HBB and MITF genes) and in genes associated with morphological traits such as horn size and shape (e.g., RXFP2). We identify clear signals of argali (Ovis ammon) introgression into sympatric Tibetan sheep, covering 5.23-5.79% of their genomes. The introgressed genomic regions are enriched in genes related to oxygen transportation system, sensory perception, and morphological phenotypes, in particular the genes HBB and RXFP2 with strong signs of adaptive introgression. The spatial distribution of genomic diversity and demographic reconstruction of the history of Tibetan sheep show a stepwise pattern of colonization with their initial spread onto the QTP from its northeastern part ∼3,100 years ago, followed by further southwest expansion to the central QTP ∼1,300 years ago. Together with archeological evidence, the date and route reveal the history of human expansions on the QTP by the Tang-Bo Ancient Road during the late Holocene. Our findings contribute to a depth understanding of early pastoralism and the local adaptation of Tibetan sheep as well as the late-Holocene human occupation of the QTP.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genoma , Migração Humana , Hibridização Genética , Ovinos/genética , Altitude , Animais , Ecótipo , Humanos , Seleção Genética , Tibet
5.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 122(2): 172-186, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784930

RESUMO

Prolific breeds of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are important genetic resources due to their reproductive performance, which is characterized by multiple lambs per birth and out-of-season breeding. However, the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the important reproductive traits, particularly from the evolutionary genomics perspective, has impeded the efficient advancement of sheep breeding. Here, for the first time, by performing RNA-sequencing we built a de novo transcriptome assembly of ovarian and endometrial tissues in European mouflon (Ovis musimon) and performed an mRNA-miRNA integrated expression profiling analysis of the wild species and a highly prolific domestic sheep breed, the Finnsheep. We identified several novel genes with differentially expressed mRNAs (e.g., EREG, INHBA, SPP1, AMH, TDRD5, and ZP2) between the wild and domestic sheep, which are functionally involved in oocyte and follicle development and fertilization, and are significantly (adjusted P-value < 0.05) enriched in the Gene Ontology (GO) terms of various reproductive process, including the regulation of fertilization, oogenesis, ovarian follicle development, and sperm-egg recognition. Additionally, we characterized 58 differentially expressed miRNAs and 210 associated target genes that are essential for the regulation of female reproduction cycles through specific regulatory networks [e.g., (miR-136, miR-374a, miR-9-5p)-(EREG, INHBA)]. Furthermore, our integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiling analysis elucidated novel direct and indirect miRNA/mRNA causal regulatory relationships related to the reproductive traits of the Ovis species. This study provides in-depth insights into the genomic evolution underlying the reproductive traits of the Ovis species and valuable resources for ovine genomics.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reprodução , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ovinos/classificação , Ovinos/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
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