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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1468-1473, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal granulocytic sarcoma derived from chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). METHODS: The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of 1 case of esophageal granulocytic sarcoma secondary from chronic myelocytic leukemia were retrospectively analyzed and the related literature was reviewed. RESULTS: The patient was a 72-year-old woman with poststernal pain accompanied by general weakness. Gastroscopy was performed in a local hospital. At the same time, the increase of peripheral blood leucocytes was obvious. Under gastroscopy, 1.0 cm×0.5 cm irregular protuberance was found at 28 cm from the esophagus to the incisor teeth, and the surface was covered with erosion and a small amount of blood. Pathological results showed that heterotypic lymphoid cell infiltration, cytoplasmic red staining and more neutrophils were seen. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that AE1/AE3, CK5/6 and p63 displayed squamous epithelium (+); atypical lymphoid cells CD20-, CD23-, CD3-, CD5-, CD79a-, MP0+, Ki-67+ (80%) were observed; FISH examination showed positive expression of BCR/ABL. The patient was further examined on myelogran and was diagnosed as chronic myelocytic leukemia with esophageal granulocytic sarcoma. Imatinib was given orally and the patient was followed up in the clinic. CONCLUSION: Esophageal granulocytic sarcoma is rare in clinic, its clinical symptoms are not specific. Gastroscopy should be routinely screened for esophageal discomfort, and the esophageal granulocytic sarcoma derived from CML is treated according to the therapeutic regimen of the acute transformation of chronic myelocytic leukemia.

2.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026384

RESUMO

Oenothein B (OEB) has various biological functions, although few studies have focused on its effect on in vivo metabolic phenotypes. In the present study, the systematic antioxidant activity of OEB was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and the effect of OEB on metabolic pathways related to antioxidant capacity of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was explored. Our findings indicate that OEB exhibits great antioxidant capacity and ability to scavenge free radicals and that OEB treatment can protect RAW 264.7 macrophages from oxidative damage by increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content and the corresponding gene expression (sod2, cat, gpx1), while decreasing malonic dialdehyde (MDA) content. Moreover, OEB treatment significantly reduced ROS accumulation under oxidative stress conditions and increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and decreased MDA content in C. elegans. Metabolomics analysis revealed that sixteen out of forty-two significantly altered metabolites were selected as potential biomarkers related to alterations in the antioxidant status of worms, including metabolic pathways involved in amino acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, lipid metabolism, and purine metabolism. Overall, our results provide new insights into the effects of OEB treatment on antioxidant capacity and metabolism that suggest that OEB could be a potentially good source of natural antioxidants.

3.
Neurosci Lett ; 739: 135399, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious central nervous system condition with no effective clinal treatment. Recently, transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes has been proposed as a potential treatment for SCI. However, whether exosomes have similar functions as transplanted human placenta-derived MSCs(hPMSCs) has remained unclear. METHODS: The hPMSCs-derived exosomes (hPMSCs-Exos) were extracted using a sequential centrifugation approach. Then, the effects of hPMSCs-Exos on angiogenesis were analysis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the sensory and locomotor functions of mice after SCI were also analyzed. RESULTS: The administration of hPMSCs-Exos promote the tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs). Furthermore, vessel numbers, vessel volume fraction and vessel connectivity in spinal cords significantly increased after exosomes were intrathecally injected in the SCI model. In addition, the locomotor and sensory function, also significantly improved in the exosome treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study demonstrated that hPMSCs-Exos have proangiogenic effects on endothelial cells and enhanced angiogenesis in SCI model. Thus, this treatment strategy demonstrates great potential for the treatment of SCI.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10709-10718, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880448

RESUMO

Nobiletin, one of the prevalent polymethoxyflavones in citrus peels, was reported to possess various health benefits. We conducted the excretion study and pharmacokinetics study of nobiletin via oral administration and intravenous injection and 15 day consecutive dosing study using the high fat diet-induced obese rats and their lean counterparts. By comparing the demethylated metabolite profiles in the urine and feces, gut microbiota demonstrated greater biotransformation activity on nobiletin than the host. The absolute oral bioavailability of nobiletin in lean (22.37% ± 4.52%) and obese (18.67% ± 4.80%) rats has a negligible statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). However, a higher extent of demethylated metabolites was found in the feces and plasma of obese rats than lean rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, the consecutive dosing of nobiletin might lead to a higher extent of demethylated metabolites in the plasma and in feces. These results suggested that gut microbiota played important roles in nobiletin metabolism.

5.
Med Ultrason ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905558

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to evaluate and validate a simple quantitative ultrasound (US) method for determining the hepatic fat content (HFC) based on the combination of quantitative US hepatic/renal ratio (US-HRR) and quantitative US hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate (US-HAR) as compared with [1H]-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were a total of 242 subjects recruited in the present study. All subjects were examined for HFC by quantitative US and 1H-MRS methods. The QUS-HRR and QUS-HAR were calculated from ordinary ultrasound images of liver and kidney with a triple modality 3D abdominal phantom using the Image J software. RESULTS: The results found that US-HRR and US-HAR correlated with 1H-MRS HFC (US-HRR: r=0.946, p<0.001; US-HAR: r=0.936, p<0.001). The equation for HFC prediction by using quantitative US was: HFC (%) = 28.965 × US-HRR + 218.045 × US-HAR - 8.892. Subgroup analysis in study subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥28 showed that quantitative US HFC was associated with 1H-MRS HFC (R2=0.953, p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis observed that the cut-off value of fatty liver diagnosis was 6.71% in using the quantitative US model; the sensitivity and specificity for fatty liver diagnosis were 94.15% and 96.30%, respectively. Variability analysis indicated that there was a relative high degree of consistency in the measurement of HFC with different operators or ultrasonic apparatus. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative US measurement could be regarded as a simple, sensitive tool to accurately assess HFC. It provides a valid alternative to 1H-MRS as an easy, non-invasive option for the precise estimation of HFC in clinical practice.

6.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3045-3054, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of aspirin in unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) growth remains largely unknown. We aim to identify whether aspirin is associated with a lower rate of UIA growth in patients with UIA <7 mm. METHODS: This prospective cohort study consecutively enrolled patients with UIAs <7 mm with ischemic cerebrovascular disease between January 2016 and December 2019. Baseline and follow-up patient information, including the use of aspirin and blood pressure level, were recorded. Patients were considered aspirin users if they took aspirin, including standard- and low-dose aspirin, ≥3× per week. The primary end point was aneurysm growth in any direction or an indisputable change in aneurysm shape. RESULTS: Among the 315 enrolled patients, 272 patients (86.3%) underwent imaging examinations during follow-up (mean follow-up time, 19.6±12.7 months). A total of 113 patients were continuously treated with aspirin. UIA growth occurred in 31 (11.4%) patients. In the multivariate Cox analysis, specific aneurysm locations (anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery, or middle cerebral artery; hazard ratio, 2.89 [95% CI, 1.22-6.88]; P=0.016) and a UIA size of 5 to <7 mm (hazard ratio, 7.61 [95% CI, 3.02-19.22]; P<0.001) were associated with a high risk of UIA growth, whereas aspirin and well-controlled blood pressure were associated with a low risk of UIA growth (hazard ratio, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.11-0.77]; P=0.013 and hazard ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.10-0.66]; P=0.005, respectively). The cumulative annual growth rates were as high as 40.0 and 53.3 per 100 person-years in the high-risk patients (>1 risk factor) with and without aspirin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin therapy and well-controlled blood pressure are associated with a low risk of UIA growth; the incidence of UIA growth in high-risk patients in the first year is high, warranting intensive surveillance in this patient group. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02846259.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924214

RESUMO

Low-cost, non-toxic, abundant organic thermoelectric materials are currently under investigation for use as potential alternatives for the production of electricity from waste heat. While organic conductors reach electrical conductivities as high as their inorganic counterparts, they suffer from an overall low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) due to their small Seebeck coefficient. Moreover, the lack of efficient n-type organic materials still represents a major challenge when trying to fabricate efficient organic thermoelectric modules. Here, a novel strategy is proposed both to increase the Seebeck coefficient and achieve the highest thermoelectric efficiency for n-type organic thermoelectrics to date. An organic mixed ion-electron n-type conductor based on highly crystalline and reduced perylene bisimide is developed. Quasi-frozen ionic carriers yield a large ionic Seebeck coefficient of -3021 µV K-1 , while the electronic carriers dominate the electrical conductivity which is as high as 0.18 S cm-1 at 60% relative humidity. The overall power factor is remarkably high (165 µW m-1 K-2 ), with a ZT = 0.23 at room temperature. The resulting single leg thermoelectric generators display a high quasi-constant power output. This work paves the way for the design and development of efficient organic thermoelectrics by the rational control of the mobility of the electronic and ionic carriers.

8.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 8141-8149, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870226

RESUMO

Carnosic acid (CA) represents one of the most effective antioxidants that can be applied for the prevention of degenerative and chronic diseases. However, the intrinsic hydrophobic nature of CA results in low solubility and poor dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which limits its applications in a variety of functional food systems. In order to address these issues, we encapsulated CA in a lecithin-based nanoemulsion (CA-NE) to improve its bioaccessibility and bioavailability which are evaluated using in vitro and in vivo digestion models. The CA-NE demonstrated a loading capacity of 2.6-3.0%, an average particle size of 165 nm, a ζ-potential value of -57.2 mV, and good stability during 4-weeks of storage at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The in vitro static pH-stat lipolysis model and dynamic TNO gastrointestinal (TIM-1) model demonstrated a 12.6 and 5.6 fold increase in the total bioaccessibility of CA encapsulated in nanoemulsion, respectively, as opposed to CA in suspension form. Moreover, the in vivo pharmacokinetics study on a rat model (Male Sprague Dawley) confirmed that the bioavailability of CA in nanoemulsion showed a 2.2 fold increase, as compared to that of CA in suspension form. In conclusion, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of CA were remarkably improved by encapsulation of CA in a lecithin-based nanoemulsion. Moreover, the combined in vitro and in vivo study could serve as a useful approach for the comprehensive evaluation of oral lipid-based delivery systems.

9.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 7651-7660, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896846

RESUMO

Ceramide (CER) is a novel food-grade organogelator with beneficial health effects. Lecithin (LEC) is not an effective gelator; however, it may alter the crystal morphology of the host gelator in a multicomponent system. In this paper, LEC and CER were mixed at various molar ratios in sunflower oil leading to different gelation behaviors. It was interesting since in this multicomponent system, gels formed when there was more less-effective gelator (LEC), while gels hardly formed when there was more effective gelator (CER). This drew our attention since there might not be only one kind of assembly mode between the LEC and the CER. A comprehensive rheological investigation was conducted. It was found that at specific ratios (6L4C and 5L5C), strong gels (G' > 1.0 × 105 Pa) formed with superior oil binding capacity (up to 99.84%). Meanwhile, these gels exhibited higher tolerance level to permanent deformation than the monocomponent gel. However, weak gels were observed off the optimal ratio (8L2C, 7L3C, 4L6C and 3L7C). The crystal morphology of gels drastically changed with change in gelator proportion. Short needle-like crystals and small rosette crystals were observed in 6L4C and 5L5C, respectively, while other samples exhibited spherulite-shaped crystals (8L2C, 7L3C, 4L6C, and 3L7C), which differed from any of the monocomponent gel structures (10L0C and 0L10C). Results from differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy suggested that the macroscopic properties are determined by the morphology and distribution of crystals rather than the crystallinity of the matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated the presence of van der Waals forces and the formation of hydrogen bonding between the phosphate of the LEC and the amide group of the CER. The above results indicated that the LEC and CER co-assembled at approximately equal molar ratio, and the redundant LEC or CER at other ratios self-sorted to combine with the co-assembled fibers by lateral association, leading to potentially different underlying microstructures. These multicomponent supramolecular oleogels with high tunability may further broaden their applicability in various healthy lipid-based product formats.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966440

RESUMO

Correction for 'Optical and electrical effects of plasmonic nanoparticles in high-efficiency hybrid solar cells' by Wei-Fei Fu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 17105-17111, DOI: 10.1039/C3CP52723A.

11.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 1535370220955139, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883110

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: Baicalein exhibits anti-cancer roles in several cancers. However, the factors influencing the antitumorigenic efficiencies of baicalein in CC remain largely unclear. Here, we provide convincing evidences that lncRNA SNHG1 attenuates the tumor-suppressive roles of baicalein in CC cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and CC tumor growth. This study further demonstrates that the influences of SNHG1 in the antitumorigenic process of baicalein are achieved through modulating the miR-3127-5p/FZD4Wnt/ß-catenin axis. SNHG1 attenuates the repressive role of baicalein on Wnt/ß-catenin. Therefore, SNHG1 is a novel modulator of the tumor-suppressive roles of baicalein and SNHG1 represents a therapeutic intervention target to reinforce the tumor-suppressive roles of baicalein in CC.

12.
Food Funct ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955534

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of self-assembled microstructure on lipid digestibility in phytosterol (γ-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol) oleogels. Different molar ratios of γ-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol yielded a variety of crystal morphologies; the resulting gels were tested for their lipid emulsification efficiency, release rate of free fatty acids (FFAs) during lipolysis, and their effect on lipase behavior. Results indicated that oleogels were harder to emulsify when compared to oil samples. The emulsification efficiencly was affected by both the gel strength and crystal morphology of the self-assembled structures within phytosterol oleogels. In oil emulsions, intestinal digestion resulted in more extensive lipid droplet coalescence with increased particle size when compared to oleogel emulsions. The FFA release rate suggested that the extent of lipid digestion was correlated to the emulsification efficiency. The interfacial binding of lipase indicated that the amount of lipase adsorption was positively correlated to the interface area created during the emulsification process. Finally, isothermal titration calorimetry results indicated that self-assembled structures within these oleogels physically obstructed the interaction between lipase and lipid. Ultimately, this led to lower reaction rate during gastrointestinal digestion. Collectively, these results may have important implications in designing oleogel systems with controlled lipid digestibility as well as controlling the bioavailability of delivered lipid-soluble bioactive compounds.

13.
J Neurotrauma ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977735

RESUMO

Neural stem cells play vital roles in neuro functional homeostasis. UTX have emerged as important regulators of stem cell phenotypes. In our current study, we aim to investigate whether the conditional knockout of UTX on NSC that alter macrophage assemble in response to spinal cord injury (SCI). We were sued conditional knockout Utx of NSC (Utx-KO) mice and generated SCI models by modified Allen s method. Reported that neurological function and scar hyperplasia significantly improved in Utx-KO mice after SCI, and macrophage assemble could significantly inhibited by Utx-KO NSCs. With 45cignal pathway array to screening pathway change and confirmed by Western blot in Utx-KO NSCs, we found that Utx-KO inhibited NFκ B signaling activation and promoted the synthesis and secretion in NSCs; with the administration of selective NFκ B p65 activator Betulinic acid and selective MIF inhibitor ISO-1, we found activate NFκ B p65 phosphorylation and inhibited MIF could eliminated the benefits of Utx-KO in SCI, such as inhibition of macrophage aggregation and reduction of scar proliferation. In conclusion, this study confirmed that UTX in NSC could alter the macrophage migration and avail to neurological function recovery after SCI in mice.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914617

RESUMO

The anode interlayer plays a critical role in the performance of organic photodetectors, which requires sufficient electron-blocking ability to simultaneously attain a high photocurrent and low dark current. Here, we developed two cross-linkable polymers, which can be deposited on the top of the widely used poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and form a robust layer that can effectively suppress the electron injection from the anode under reverse bias. The optimized device with the resulting cross-linkable XP2 exhibited the lowest dark current density of 5.81 × 10-9 A cm-2 at -0.1 V, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the control devices. A remarkable responsivity of 0.5 A W-1 and a detectivity of >1 × 1013 Jones at a near-infrared wavelength of 800 nm were achieved. Of particular importance is that the resulting device exhibited a linear dynamic range of >135 dB associated with a high working frequency that is shorter than typical commercial digital imagers. The planar heterojunction devices demonstrate that the dark current is closely correlated to the charge generation, which relied on the highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the developed cross-linked interlays. The Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that the optimized cross-linked interlayer increased the depletion width of the devices.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(41): 11412-11420, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935545

RESUMO

Nobiletin has received much attention for its promising biological activities. Owing to its limited solubility, various encapsulation strategies have been developed to enhance nobiletin bioavailability. However, the understanding of the bioavailability and biotransformation of nobiletin in vivo and the correlation between in vitro and in vivo data remains limited. This study developed a high-loading nobiletin (1%) emulsion. The in vitro models, which combined pH-stat lipolysis with a Franz cell, showed very good correlation with in vivo data for the relative bioavailability. Rat studies showed that nobiletin had a high absolute bioavailability (≈20% for oil suspension). Besides, the emulsification improved the amount of bioavailable nobiletin and its major metabolite in the blood by about two times, as compared to an oil suspension. This work provides scientific insights into a rapid screening method for delivery systems and a better understanding of the biological fate of nobiletin in vivo.

16.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109302, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846514

RESUMO

While eucalyptus leaf polyphenols extract (EPE) has been evaluated for its various bioactivities, few studies thus far have focused on its systemic antioxidant activity or its effects in chickens in relation to meat quality or the intestinal microbiome. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of EPE in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate its effect on chicken meat quality and cecum microbiota. In this study, EPE scavenged DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical, and superoxide radical, and showed strong reducing power in chemical-based assay. EPE protected RAW264.7 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damage by improving total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content, decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Additionally, EPE dietary supplementation was found to increase chicken meat antioxidant levels and quality. Furthermore, chickens fed a diet supplemented with EPE had differentially changed cecal microbial compositions when compared to controls. EPE supplementation notably improved the α-diversity of the cecum. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia at the phylum level were clearly enhanced in the cecum with EPE supplementation (p < 0.05), with the relative abundance of Subdivision 5 genera incertae sedis and Aminivibrio enriched at genus level (p < 0.05). Therefore, these findings indicate that EPE is a good source of natural antioxidants and could be used as antioxidant supplements in animal feed and other foods, contributing to gut health improvement.

17.
Eur Food Res Technol ; : 1-15, 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32837313

RESUMO

Natural biologically active substances have received continuous attention for the potentially beneficial health properties against chronic diseases. In this study, bacteriostatic active substance from Camellia oleifera meal, which is a major by-product of the Camellia oil processing industry, were extracted with continuous phase change extraction (CPCE) method and separated by HSCCC. Compared with traditional extraction methods, CPCE possessed higher extraction efficiency. Two main substances were separated and purified (above 90.0%). The structure of them were further identified by UV, LC-ESI-MS-MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR as flavonoids F2 kaempferol 3-O-[ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-ß-d-glucopyranoside and J2 kaempferol 3-O-[ß-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-ß-d-glucopyranoside for the first time in C. Oleifera meal. The results of antibacterial activity measurement showed that both compounds have excellent antibacterial activity. And the antibacterial stability of F2 were finally confirmed: F2 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteriditis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus nigricans. Besides, F2 exhibited relatively high stable property even at high temperature, acid and metal ion solutions. The findings of this work suggest the possibility of employing C. oleifera meal as an attractive source of health-promoting compounds, and at the same time facilitate its high-value reuse and reduction of environmental burden.

18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108819, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818765

RESUMO

In a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, bacteria are no longer culturable on standard laboratory media, but still, remain a pathogenic potential and present possible health risks. In this study, we investigated ampicillin's ability, which is commonly used in dairy cattle disease treatment, to induce Cronobacter sakazakii into the VBNC state. After treatment with ampicillin, the counts of culturable cells decreased from 108 CFU/mL to an undetected level 7-30 days post-treatment. Meanwhile, viable cells were still approximately 104-105 cells/mL, and could be resuscitated under appropriate conditions. Fluorescence microscopy showed that VBNC cell maintained apparent cellular integrity, but that the morphology of VBNC cells differed visibly from that of normal cells. Moreover, the respiratory chain activity of VBNC cells were confirmed by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, suggesting that cells in a VBNC state were physiologically active. Finally, transcriptomics analysis and real-time PCR (qPCR) validation were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of VBNC cell formation. Over-expression of relA, lon, ppx, and ppk in the toxin-antitoxin (TA) trigger system contributed to VBNC cell formation. In the TA trigger system, RelA and exopolyphosphatases/guanosine pentaphosphate phosphohydrolases (PPX/GPPA) synthesize ppGpp, which activates polyphosphate kinase (PPK), the cellular enzyme that accumulates plyphosphate (PolyP). PolyP combines with and stimulates Lon to degrade the antitoxins, thereby activating the toxins that induce a VBNC state. The results of our research will facilitate a better understanding of the survival strategies that bacteria develop to deal with ampicillin pressure and the health risks associated with VBNC Cronobacter sakazakii induced by antibiotics.

20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that mitochondrial dysfunction participates in the pathological process of osteoarthritis (OA). However, studies that improve mitochondrial function are rare in OA. Mitochondrial transfer from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to OA chondrocytes might be a cell-based therapy for the improvement of mitochondrial function to prevent cartilage degeneration. This study aimed to determine whether MSCs can donate mitochondria and protect the mitochondrial function and therefore reduce cartilage degeneration. METHODS: Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) were harvested from the marrow cavities of femurs and tibia in young rats. OA chondrocytes were gathered from the femoral and tibial plateau in old OA model rats. BM-MSCs and OA chondrocytes were co-cultured and mitochondrial transfer from BM-MSCs to chondrocytes was identified. Chondrocytes with mitochondria transferred from BM-MSCs were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Mitochondrial function of these cells, including mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content were quantified and compared to OA chondrocytes without mitochondrial transfer. Chondrocytes proliferation, apoptosis, and secretion ability were also analyzed between the two groups. RESULTS: Mitochondrial transfer was found from BM-MSCs to OA chondrocytes. Chondrocytes with mitochondrial from MSCs (MSCs + OA group) showed increased mitochondrial membrane potential compared with OA chondrocytes without mitochondria transfer (OA group) (1.79 ±â€Š0.19 vs. 0.71 ±â€Š0.12, t = 10.42, P < 0.0001). The activity of MRC enzymes, including MRC complex I, II, III, and citrate synthase was also improved (P < 0.05). The content of ATP in MSCs + OA group was significantly higher than that in OA group (161.90 ±â€Š13.49 vs. 87.62 ±â€Š11.07 nmol/mg, t = 8.515, P < 0.0001). Meanwhile, we observed decreased cell apoptosis (7.09% ±â€Š0.68% vs.15.89% ±â€Š1.30%, t = 13.39, P < 0.0001) and increased relative secretion of type II collagen (2.01 ±â€Š0.14 vs.1.06 ±â€Š0.11, t = 9.141, P = 0.0008) and proteoglycan protein (2.08 ±â€Š0.20 vs. 0.97 ±â€Š0.12, t = 8.227, P = 0.0012) in MSCs + OA group, contrasted with OA group. CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial transfer from BM-MSCs provided protection for OA chondrocytes against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration through improving mitochondrial function, cell proliferation, and inhibiting apoptosis in chondrocytes. This finding may offer a new therapeutic direction for OA.

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