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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765754

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that pollen and its preparation are ideal herbal remedies for the treatment of prostate diseases. Our previous study found that pollen polysaccharides from Chinese wolfberry (WPPs) can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer DU145 cells. But the antitumor mechanism of WPPs was not clearly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we further investigated the antitumor mechanism of WPPs in DU145 cells and a xenograft mice model. The results showed that WPPs decreased the levels of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT and Bcl-2 proteins, and increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 in DU145 cells (P < 0.05). The in vivo data demonstrated that WPPs resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in the number of apoptotic cells in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the activated PI3K, AKT, p-AKT and Bcl-2 levels were decreased and the level of caspase-3 was increased in DU145 xenografts mice model. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of WPPs on DU145 cells may involve regulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which eventually promotes apoptosis. This study provided the experimental basis for further studied of WPPs as a possible functional food or adjuvant agent for prevention or treatment of prostate cancer.

2.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661883

RESUMO

The yield and quality of goji (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit are heavily dependent on fertilizer, especially the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N, P, and K, respectively). In this study, we performed a metabolomic analysis of the response of goji berry to nitrogen fertilizer levels using an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. There was no significant difference in the fruit yield or the commodity grade between N0 (42.5 g/plant), N1 (85 g/plant), and N2 (127.5 g/plant). The primary nutrients of the goji berry changed with an increasing nitrogen fertilization. Comparative metabolomic profiling of three nitrogen levels resulted in the identification of 612 metabolites, including amino acids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and lipids/alcohols, among others, of which 53 metabolites (lipids, fatty acids, organic acids, and phenolamides) demonstrated significant changes. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between yield and quality of goji berry and nitrogen fertilizer.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11408-11419, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556290

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of 2-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2ßG), a natural ascorbic acid derivative from the fruits of Lycium barbarum, on treating the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice were investigated. The results revealed that AA-2ßG had palliating effects on DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in terms of slowing down the trends of body weight and solid fecal mass loss, reducing colitis disease activity index, improving serum physiological and biochemical indicators, increasing colon length, blocking proinflammatory cytokines, and increasing tight junction proteins. Additionally, AA-2ßG treatment could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. The key bacteria related to IBD were found to be Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Parasutterella, Parabacteroides, and Clostridium. The results indicated that AA-2ßG might treat IBD through the regulation of gut microbiota, suggesting that AA-2ßG has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of IBD.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Colite/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
4.
Anticancer Drugs ; 30(8): 803-811, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419217

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most common malignant tumors and the second most common leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is a biologically heterogeneous disease accompanied by various genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease are complex and not completely understood. Increasing studies have shown that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is associated with GC tumorigenesis and growth. MiR-1297 has been confirmed to be a cancer suppressor in diverse tumors in humans. However, to date, the function and mechanism of miR-1297 in GC have not been determined. Here, we found that the expression of miR-1297 was significantly reduced in GC tissues or GC cell lines compared with paracarcinoma normal tissue or normal cell lines. Exogenic overexpression of miR-1297 in GC cell lines can inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation and induce apoptosis, and inhibition of miR-1297 in GC cell lines can promote cell proliferation and colony formation, and reduce apoptosis in vitro. We further confirmed that miR-1297 acted as a tumor suppressor through targeting cell division control protein 6 (CDC6) in GC. Moreover, the inverse relationship between miR-1297 and CDC6 was verified in GC cell lines. Our results indicated that miR-1297 is a potent tumor suppressor in GC, and its antiproliferative and gene-regulatory effects are, in part, mediated through its downstream target gene, CDC6. These findings implied that miR-1297 might be used as a novel therapeutic target of GC.

5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins, which are colored pigments, have long been used as food and pharmaceutical ingredients due to their potential health benefits, but the intermediate signals through which environmental or developmental cues regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis remains poorly understood. Fleshy fruits have become a good system for studying the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and exploring the mechanism underlying pigment metabolism is valuable for controlling fruit ripening. RESULTS: The present study revealed that ABA accumulated during Lycium fruit ripening, and this accumulation was positively correlated with the anthocyanin contents and the LbNCED1 transcript levels. The application of exogenous ABA and of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridon increased and decreased the content of anthocyanins in Lycium fruit, respectively. This is the first report to show that ABA promotes the accumulation of anthocyanins in Lycium fruits. The variations in the anthocyanin content were consistent with the variations in the expression of the genes encoding the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex or anthocyanin biosynthesis-related enzymes. Virus-induced LbNCED1 gene silencing significantly slowed fruit coloration and decreased both anthocyanin and ABA accumulation during Lycium fruit ripening. An qRT-PCR analysis showed that LbNCED1 gene silencing clearly reduced the transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, a model of ABA-mediated development-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration during Lycium fruit maturation was proposed. In this model, the developmental cues transcriptionally activates LbNCED1 and thus enhances accumulation of the phytohormone ABA, and the accumulated ABA stimulates transcription of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex to upregulate the expression of structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and thereby promoting anthocyanin production and fruit coloration. Our results provide a valuable strategy that could be used in practice to regulate the ripening and quality of fresh fruit in medicinal and edible plants by modifying the phytohormone ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Lycium/genética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3671-3683, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168539

RESUMO

In the present study, the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPS) on immunoregulation and gut microbiota dysbiosis in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced mice were investigated to elucidate whether the attenuation of immunosuppression is related to the modulation of the gut microbiota. The results showed that administration of LBPS could protect immune organs (enhancing immune organ indexes and alleviating immune organ damage), enhance the production of immune-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and prevent the hepatotoxicity in CTX-induced mice. Additionally, LBPS treatment could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, increasing the relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae, which were positively associated with immune traits. The present results indicated that LBPS might regulate the immune response depending on the modulation of the gut microbiota, suggesting that LBPS could be developed as special ingredients for immunoregulation in association with the modulation of the gut microbiota.

7.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 136: 96-108, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959170

RESUMO

In the present study, the therapeutic effects of crude anthocyanins (ACN) from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murray and the main monomer of ACN, petunidin 3-O-[rhamnopyranosyl-(trans-p-coumaroyl)]-5-O-[ß-d-glucopyranoside] (P3G), on the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice were investigated. Both ACN and P3G showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effects, evidenced by restoration of various physical signs (body weight, feed quantity, solid fecal weight and colon length were increased, and DAI score was decreased), reduction of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and related mRNA (such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß and IFN-γ), and promotion of the intestinal barrier function by histological and immunofluorescence analysis (proteins such as ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 were increased). Furthermore, the effects on gut microbiota community of DSS-induced colitis in mice have been investigated. It was found that Porphyromonadaceae, Helicobacter, Parasutterella, Parabacteroides, Oscillibacter and Lachnospiraceae were the key bacteria associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Taken together, P3G and ACN ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in mice through three aspects including blocking proinflammatory cytokines, increasing tight junction protein and modulating gut microbiota. What's more, P3G showed better anti-inflammatory effects than ACN.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 751-760, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552927

RESUMO

In the present study, the digestion under simulated saliva, gastric and small intestinal conditions and in vitro fermentation by human gut microbiota of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPS) were investigated. As a result, LBPS contained carbohydrates, uronic acids, protein and polyphenols of 60.96 ±â€¯5.58, 20.98 ±â€¯2.49, 5.30 ±â€¯0.12 and 1.04 ±â€¯0.06%, respectively. Furthermore, LBPS was mainly consisted of glucuronic acid (5.12 mol%), galacturonic acid (12.40 mol%), glucose (2.15 mol%), galactose (39.67 mol%) and arabinose (40.66 mol%). Under simulated saliva, gastric and small intestinal conditions, LBPS was not affected. Whereas, LBPS could be utilized by gut microbiota based on the consumption of monosaccharides, decreased molecular weight and lower content of total carbohydrates after fermentation in vitro. With the proceeding of fermentation, LBPS significantly promoted the production of short-chain fatty acids. Meanwhile, LBPS could alter the microbial community after 24 h fermentation, especially enhancing the relative abundances of genera Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Phascolarctobacterium, Clostridium XlVb, Prevotella and Collinsella. All the results suggested that LBPS could be developed as special ingredients for modulating gut microbiota composition and promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria like Bifidobacterium.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248961

RESUMO

Modern studies have shown that pollen has a certain role in the treatment of prostate-related diseases. In the present study, pollen polysaccharides from Chinese wolfberry (WPPs) were extracted by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation, further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column and Sephadex G-100 column. Homogeneous polysaccharide CF1 of WPPS was obtained, the molecular weight of which was estimated to be 1540.10 ± 48.78 kDa by HPGPC-ELSD. HPLC with PMP derivatization analysis indicated that the monosaccharide compositions of CF1 were mannose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, xylose, galactose, arabinose, and trehalose, in a molar ratio of 0.68:0.59:0.27:0.24:0.22:0.67:0.08. The antitumor effects of CF1 upon MTT, Tunel assay and flow cytometry assay were investigated in vitro. The results showed that CF1 exhibited a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 374.11 µg/mL against DU145 prostate cancer cells. Tunel assay and flow cytometry assay showed that the antitumor activity of CF1 was related to apoptosis in vitro. The present study suggested that the CF1 of WPPs might be a potential source of antitumor functional food or agent.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(4): 898-907, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313353

RESUMO

Digestion and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from bee collected pollen of Chinese wolfberry (WBPPS) were investigated in the present study. It was found that WBPPS mainly consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 0.38:0.09:0.17:0.64:0.22:0.67:0.08:1.03, respectively. WBPPS was not affected by human saliva. The fraction A (molecular weight 1340 kDa) of WBPPS was not broken down in simulated gastric and small intestinal juices, while the small fraction B (molecular weight 523 kDa) of WBPPS was degraded. Moreover, fermentation in vitro revealed that WBPPS could significantly enhance the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate gut microbiota composition via increasing the relative abundances of genera Prevotella, Dialister, Megamonas, Faecalibacterium, and Alloprevotella and decreasing the numbers of genera Bacteroides, Clostridium XlVa, Parabacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, Phascolarctobacterium, Parasutterella, Clostridium sensu stricto, and Fusobacterium.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Digestão , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Lycium , Pólen/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Saliva/enzimologia
11.
Food Chem ; 173: 718-24, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25466081

RESUMO

Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Frutas/química , Lycium/química , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Frutose/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucose/análise , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/análise , Ácido Quínico/análise , Sacarose/análise , Tartaratos/análise
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