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1.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834033

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in Eastern Asia (Wuhan, China) in December 2019. The virus then spread to Europe and across all continents where it has led to higher mortality and morbidity, and was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. Recently, different vaccines have been produced and seem to be more or less effective in protecting from COVID-19. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), an essential enzymatic cascade involved in maintaining blood pressure and electrolyte balance, is involved in the pathogenicity of COVID-19, since the angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) acts as the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in many human tissues and organs. In fact, the viral entrance promotes a downregulation of ACE2 followed by RAS balance dysregulation and an overactivation of the angiotensin II (Ang II)-angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) axis, which is characterized by a strong vasoconstriction and the induction of the profibrotic, proapoptotic and proinflammatory signalizations in the lungs and other organs. This mechanism features a massive cytokine storm, hypercoagulation, an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and subsequent multiple organ damage. While all individuals are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2, the disease outcome and severity differ among people and countries and depend on a dual interaction between the virus and the affected host. Many studies have already pointed out the importance of host genetic polymorphisms (especially in the RAS) as well as other related factors such age, gender, lifestyle and habits and underlying pathologies or comorbidities (diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) that could render individuals at higher risk of infection and pathogenicity. In this review, we explore the correlation between all these risk factors as well as how and why they could account for severe post-COVID-19 complications.

2.
Antiviral Res ; 195: 105193, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687820

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential mucolipin 2 and 3 (TRPML2 and TRPML3), as key channels in the endosomal-lysosomal system, are associated with many different cellular processes, including ion release, membrane trafficking and autophagy. In particular, they can also facilitate viral entry into host cells and enhance viral infection. We previously identified that two selective TRPML agonists, ML-SA1 and SN-2, that showed antiviral activities against dengue virus type 2 (DENV2) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in vitro, but their antiviral mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we reported that ML-SA1 could inhibit DENV2 replication by downregulating the expression of both TRPML2 and TRPML3, while the other TRPML activator, SN-2, suppressed DENV2 infection by reducing only TRPML3 expression. Consistently, the channel activities of both TRPML2 and TRPML3 were also found to be associated with the antiviral activity of ML-SA1 on DENV2 and ZIKV, but SN-2 relied only on TRPML3 channel activity. Further mechanistic experiments revealed that ML-SA1 and SN-2 decreased the expression of the late endosomal marker Rab7, dependent on TRPML2 and TRPML3, indicating that these two compounds likely inhibit viral infection by promoting vesicular trafficking from late endosomes to lysosomes and then accelerating lysosomal degradation of the virus. As expected, neither ML-SA1 nor SN-2 inhibited herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1), whose entry is independent of the endolysosomal network. Together, our work reveals the antiviral mechanisms of ML-SA1 and SN-2 in targeting TRPML channels, possibly leading to the discovery of new drug candidates to inhibit endocytosed viruses.

4.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564614

RESUMO

Thermally processed Buthus martensii Karsch scorpions are a traditional Chinese medical material for treating various diseases. However, their pharmacological foundation remains unclear. Here, a new degraded peptide of scorpion toxin was identified in Chinese scorpion medicinal material by proteomics. It was named BmK86-P1 and has six conserved cysteine residues. Homology modeling and circular dichroism spectra experiments revealed that BmK86-P1 not only contained representative disulfide bond-stabilized α-helical and ß-sheet motifs but also showed remarkable stability at test temperatures from 20-95 °C. Electrophysiology experiments indicated that BmK86-P1 was a highly potent and selective inhibitor of the hKv1.2 channel with IC50 values of 28.5 ± 6.3 nM. Structural and functional dissection revealed that two residues of BmK86-P1 (i.e., Lys19 and Ile21) were the key residues that interacted with the hKv1.2 channel. In addition, channel chimeras and mutagenesis experiments revealed that three amino acids (i.e., Gln357, Val381 and Thr383) of the hKv1.2 channel were responsible for BmK86-P1 selectivity. This research uncovered a new bioactive peptide from traditional Chinese scorpion medicinal material that has desirable thermostability and Kv1.2 channel-specific activity, which strongly suggests that thermally processed scorpions are novel peptide resources for new drug discovery for the Kv1.2 channel-related ataxia and epilepsy diseases.

5.
Toxicon ; 200: 198-202, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390711

RESUMO

The scorpion venom system plays a critical role in capturing prey and defending against predators. In this study, the rapid developmental process of the first instar telson was first presented. The small amount of venom in the first instar could be stored well by the distorted and blocked venom ducts, which disappeared in the older scorpions. This special developmental process of the first instar telson revealed the notable survival ability of scorpions.


Assuntos
Venenos de Escorpião , Escorpiões , Animais , Venenos de Escorpião/toxicidade
6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438946

RESUMO

Scorpion venom is a mixture of bioactive peptides, among which neurotoxins and antimicrobial peptides serve especially vital functions. Scorpion venom peptides in Buthidae species have been well described, but toxic peptides from non-Buthidae species have been under-investigated. Here, an antimicrobial peptide gene, Ctri9594, was cloned and functionally identified from the venom of the scorpion Chaerilus tricostatus. The precursor nucleotide sequence of Ctri9594 is 199 nt in length, including a 43 nt 5' UTR, 115 nt 3' UTR and 210 nt ORF. The ORF encodes 69 amino acid residues, containing a 21 aa signal peptide, 14 aa mature peptide, 3 aa C-terminal posttranslational processing signal and 31 aa propeptide. Multiple sequence alignment and evolutionary analyses show that Ctri9594 is an antimicrobial peptide in scorpion venom. The mature peptide of Ctri9594 was chemically synthesized with a purity greater than 95% and a molecular mass of 1484.4 Da. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) indicate that the synthesized mature peptide of Ctri9594 has inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus thuringensis, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) but not Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) or a fungus (Candida albicans). The antimicrobial mechanism of Ctri9594 is inferred to be related to its amphiphilic α-helix structure.

7.
Pain ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326297

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Human NaV1.9 (hNaV1.9), encoded by SCN11A, is preferentially expressed in nociceptors, and its mutations have been linked to pain disorders. NaV1.9 could be a promising drug target for pain relief. However, the modulation of NaV1.9 activity has remained elusive. Here, we identified a new candidate NaV1.9-interacting partner, protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7). Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that coelectroporation of human SCN11A and PRMT7 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of Scn11a-/- mice increased the hNaV1.9 current density. By contrast, a PRMT7 inhibitor (DS-437) reduced mNaV1.9 currents in Scn11a+/+ mice. Using the reporter molecule CD4, we observed an increased distribution of hLoop1 on the cell surface of PRMT7-overexpressing HKE293T cells. Furthermore, we found that PRMT7 mainly binds to residues 563 to 566 within the first intracellular loop of hNaV1.9 (hLoop1) and methylates hLoop1 at arginine residue 519. Moreover, overexpression of PRMT7 increased the number of action potential fired in DRG neurons of Scn11a+/+ mice but not Scn11a-/- mice. However, DS-437 significantly inhibited the action potential frequency of DRG neurons and relieved pain hypersensitivity in Scn11aA796G/A796G mice. In summary, our observations revealed that PRMT7 modulates neuronal excitability by regulating NaV1.9 currents, which may provide a potential method for pain treatment.

8.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(9): 2348-2355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239361

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has led to more than 150 million infections and about 3.1 million deaths up to date. Currently, drugs screened are urgently aiming to block the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we explored the interaction networks of kinase and COVID-19 crosstalk, and identified phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway as the most important kinase signal pathway involving COVID-19. Further, we found a PI3K/AKT signal pathway inhibitor capivasertib restricted the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Lastly, the signal axis PI3K/AKT/FYVE finger-containing phosphoinositide kinase (PIKfyve)/PtdIns(3,5)P2 was revealed to play a key role during the cellular entry of viruses including SARS-CoV-2, possibly providing potential antiviral targets. Altogether, our study suggests that the PI3K/AKT kinase inhibitor drugs may be a promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategy for clinical application, especially for managing cancer patients with COVID-19 in the pandemic era.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , COVID-19/enzimologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptor Cross-Talk , Células Vero
9.
Cancer Med ; 10(13): 4240-4249, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether preoperative histogram parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can assess the expression of Ki-67 in prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 76 patients with pathology-proven PCa who underwent routine DCE-MRI scans were retrospectively recruited. Quantitative parameters including the volume transfer constant (Ktrans ), rate contrast (Kep ), extracellular-extravascular volume fraction (Ve ), and plasma volume (Vp ) by outlining the three-dimensional volume of interest (VOI) of all lesions were processed. Then, the histogram analyses of these quantitative parameters were performed. The Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of these parameters and Ki-67 expression of PCa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was adopted to evaluate the efficacy of these quantitative histogram parameters in identifying high Ki-67 expression from low Ki-67 expression of PCa. RESULTS: Eighty-eight PCa lesions were enrolled in this study, including 31 lesions with high Ki-67 expression and 57 lesions with low Ki-67 expression. The median, mean, 75th percentile, and 90th percentile derived from Ktrans and Kep had a moderately positive correlation with Ki-67 expression (r = 0.361-0.450, p < 0.05), in which both the median and mean of Ktrans had the highest positive correlation (r = 0.450, p < 0.05). The diagnostic efficacy of the Ktrans median, mean, 75th percentile, and 90th percentile, along with the Kep -based median and mean was assessed by the ROC curve. The area under the curve (AUC) of the mean for Ktrans was the highest (0.826). When the cut-off of the mean for Ktrans was ≥0.47/min, its Youden index, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.625, 0.871, and 0.754, respectively. The AUC of the median of Kep was the lowest (0.772). CONCLUSION: The histogram of DCE-MRI quantitative parameters is correlated with Ki-67 expression, which has the potential to noninvasively assess the expression of Ki-67 with patients of PCa.

11.
Front Neurol ; 12: 656349, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093404

RESUMO

Background: Although there have been many magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of migraine, few have focused on migraines during an attack. Here, we aimed to assess metabolite changes in the brain of patients with migraine, both during an attack and in the interictal phase. Methods: Six patients (one man and five women, mean age: 39 ± 10 years) with migraine without aura during the attack (MWoA-DA), 13 patients (three men and 10 women, mean age: 31 ± 9 years) with migraine without aura during the interictal period (MWoA-DI), and 13 healthy controls (HC) (four men and nine women, mean age: 31 ± 9 years) were studied. All subjects underwent an MRS examination focusing on the occipital lobe. Metabolite changes were investigated among three groups. Results: The MWoA-DA patients had lower glutathione/total creatine ratio (GSH/tCr) than the MWoA-DI patients and HC. Furthermore, MWoA-DI patients showed lower total choline/total creatine ratio (tCho/tCr) than those in the other two groups. The GSH/tCr ratio was positively correlated with attack frequency in the MWoA-DI group. The tCho/tCr ratio was positively correlated with attack frequency and Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) scores in the MWoA-DA group. Conclusion: The present study suggests the existence of distinct pathophysiological states between the MWoA-DA and MWoA-DI groups. Neuronal dysfunction is a possible predisposing factor for migraine attack onset, along with oxidative stress and inflammation.

12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 9(5): e1670, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare inheritable neurodegenerative disease characterized by bilateral calcification in different brain regions and by a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Six causative genes of PFBC (SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, XPR1, MYORG, and JAM2) have been identified. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was used to identify the causative genes associated with PFBC in this study. RESULTS: We describe the first PFBC case with both SLC20A2 and PDGFRB heterozygous mutations. Notably, this patient with the digenic mutation (who was only 5 years old) showed severe brain calcification and migraine, whereas the patient's parents, who each carried a heterozygous mutation in SLC20A2 or PDGFRB, exhibited varying degrees of brain calcification but were clinically asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the digenic influences on the characteristics of PFBC patients.

13.
J Neuroradiol ; 48(4): 236-242, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic itch is one of the most common irritating sensations, yet its mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Although some studies have revealed relationships between itching and brain function, the structural changes in the brain induced by chronic itching, such as those accompanying chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential changes in brain structure and the associated functional circuitry in CSU patients to generate insights to aid chronic itch management. METHODS: Forty CSU patients and forty healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Seven-day urticaria activity score (UAS7) values were collected to evaluate clinical symptoms. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) analysis were used to assess structural changes in the brain and associated changes in functional circuitry. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, CSU patients had significantly increased grey matter (GM) volume in the right premotor cortex, left fusiform cortex, and cerebellum. UAS7 values were positively associated with GM volume in the left fusiform cortex. In CSU patients relative to HCs, the left fusiform cortex as extracted by VBM analysis demonstrated decreased functional connectivity with the right orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), premotor cortex, primary motor cortex (MI), and cerebellum and increased functional connectivity with the right posterior insular cortex, primary somatosensory cortex (SI), and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII). The left cerebellum as extracted from VBM analysis demonstrated decreased functional connectivity with the right supplementary motor area (SMA) and MI in CSU patients relative to HCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that patients suffering from chronic itching conditions, such as CSU, are likely to demonstrate altered GM volume in some brain regions. These changes may affect not only the sensorimotor area but also brain regions associated with cognitive function.


Assuntos
Urticária Crônica , Substância Cinzenta , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 178: 143-153, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636268

RESUMO

Novel degraded potassium channel-modulatory peptides were recently found in thermally processed scorpions, but their pharmacological properties remain unclear. Here, we identified a full-length scorpion toxin (i.e., BmKcug2) and its four truncated analogs (i.e., BmKcug2-P1, BmKcug2-P2, BmKcug2-P3 and BmKcug2-P4) with three conserved disulfide bonds in processed scorpion medicinal material by mass spectrometry. The pharmacological experiments revealed that the recombinant BmKcug2 and BmKcug2-P1 could selectively inhibit the human Kv1.2 and human Kv1.3 potassium channels, while the other three analogs showed a much weaker inhibitory effect on potassium channels. BmKcug2 inhibited hKv1.2 and hKv1.3 channels, with IC50 values of 45.6 ± 5.8 nM and 215.2 ± 39.7 nM, respectively, and BmKcug2-P1 inhibited hKv1.2 and hKv1.3, with IC50 values of 89.9 ± 9.6 nM and 1142.4 ± 64.5 nM, respectively. The chromatographic analysis and pharmacological properties of BmKcug2 and BmKcug2-P1 boiled in water for different times further strongly supported their good thermal stability. Structural and functional dissection indicated that one amino acid, i.e., Tyr36, determined the differential affinities of BmKcug2 and four BmKcug2 analogs. Altogether, this research investigated the different pharmacological properties of BmKcug2 and its truncated analogs, and the findings highlighted the diversity of K+ channel blockers from various scorpion species through thermal processing.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio Kv1.2/metabolismo , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Venenos de Escorpião/farmacologia , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Escorpiões
15.
FASEB J ; 35(2): e20995, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910509

RESUMO

Virus entry into cells is the initial stage of infection and involves multiple steps, and interfering viral entry represents potential antiviral approaches. Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins controlling cellular ion homeostasis and regulating many physiological processes, but their roles during viral infection have rarely been explored. Here, the functional Kv1.3 ion channel was found to be expressed in human hepatic cells and tissues. The Kv1.3 was then revealed to restrict HCV entry via inhibiting endosome acidification-mediated viral membrane fusion. The Kv1.3 was also demonstrated to inhibit DENV and ZIKV with an endosome acidification-dependent entry, but have no effect on SeV with a neutral pH penetration. A Kv1.3 antagonist PAP-1 treatment accelerated animal death in ZIKV-infected Ifnar1-/- mice. Moreover, Kv1.3-deletion was found to promote weight loss and reduce survival rate in ZIKV-infected Kv1.3-/- mice. Altogether, the Kv1.3 ion channel behaves as a host factor restricting viral entry. These findings broaden understanding about ion channel biology.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Dengue/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/metabolismo , Infecções por Respirovirus/metabolismo , Vírus Sendai/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dengue/virologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Ficusina/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/antagonistas & inibidores , Canal de Potássio Kv1.3/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infecções por Respirovirus/virologia , Transfecção , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
16.
Biomater Sci ; 9(3): 826-834, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215618

RESUMO

Increasing number of resistant bacteria have emerged with the overuse of antibiotics, which indicates that the bacterial infection has become a global challenge. Furthermore, the pollution of antibiotics to the environment has become a serious threat to public health. It is known that toxins produced by bacteria are the main cause of bacterial infections. Photothermal therapy is an effective antibacterial approach. However, the photothermal reagents cannot eliminate bacterial toxins, and even some anti-bacterial materials are toxic. Here, we synthesized a biomimetic recycled nanoparticle, red blood cell (RBC) membrane-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (RBC@Fe3O4), as an antibacterial agent. The RBC@Fe3O4 nanoparticles act as nano-sponges to trap toxins and then kill them all with a photothermal effect. We can describe this process simply as a battle between two armies. Our strategy is to disarm the "enemy" so that we can easily kill the "enemy" who has no power, which results in enhancing the bactericidal efficacy. The toxin of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was absorbed by RBC@Fe3O4in vitro. In addition, in vivo studies proved that the RBC@Fe3O4 nanoparticles confer obvious survival benefits against toxin-induced lethality by absorbing the toxin of MRSA. Furthermore, using a mouse model of MRSA wound infection, the RBC@Fe3O4 nanoparticles with laser irradiation were found to have a superior wound-healing effect. Simultaneously, the RBC@Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be recycled in a simple way without affecting the bactericidal efficacy. The highly biocompatible and recyclable RBC@Fe3O4 biomimetic nanoparticles based on photothermal therapy and bacterial toxin adsorption strategy are promising for treating bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Nanopartículas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Biomimética , Humanos
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(6): 2236-2248.e16, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick bites severely threaten human health because they allow the transmission of many deadly pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Pruritus is a leading symptom of tick bites, but its molecular and neural bases remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to discover potent drugs and targets for the specific prevention and treatment of tick bite-induced pruritus and arthropod-related itch. METHODS: We used live-cell calcium imaging, patch-clamp recordings, and genetic ablation and evaluated mouse behavior to investigate the molecular and neural bases of tick bite-induced pruritus. RESULTS: We found that 2 tick salivary peptides, IP defensin 1 (IPDef1) and IR defensin 2 (IRDef2), induced itch in mice. IPDef1 was further revealed to have a stronger pruritogenic potential than IRDef2 and to induce pruritus in a histamine-independent manner. IPDef1 evoked itch by activating mouse MrgprC11 and human MRGPRX1 on dorsal root ganglion neurons. IPDef1-activated MrgprC11/X1 signaling sensitized downstream ion channel TRPV1 on dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, IPDef1 also activated mouse MrgprB2 and its ortholog human MRGPRX2 selectively expressed on mast cells, inducing the release of inflammatory cytokines and driving acute inflammation in mice, although mast cell activation did not contribute to oxidated IPDef1-induced itch. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies tick salivary peptides as a new class of pruritogens that initiate itch through MrgprC11/X1-TRPV1 signaling in pruritoceptors. Our work will provide potential drug targets for the prevention and treatment of pruritus induced by the bites or stings of tick and maybe other arthropods.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/imunologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Carrapatos/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Prurido/imunologia , Prurido/metabolismo
18.
Theranostics ; 10(26): 12223-12240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204339

RESUMO

Rationale: Many viral infections are known to activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. However, the role of p38 activation in viral infection and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The role of virus-hijacked p38 MAPK activation in viral infection was investigated in this study. Methods: The correlation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and p38 activation was studied in patient tissues and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Coimmunoprecipitation, GST pulldown and confocal microscopy were used to investigate the interaction of p38α and the HCV core protein. In vitro kinase assays and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the phosphorylation of the HCV core protein. Plaque assays, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 were used to determine the effect of p38 activation on viral replication. Results: HCV infection was associated with p38 activation in clinical samples. HCV infection increased p38 phosphorylation by triggering the interaction of p38α and TGF-ß activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 1 (TAB1). TAB1-mediated p38α activation facilitated HCV replication, and pharmaceutical inhibition of p38α activation by SB203580 suppressed HCV infection at the viral assembly step. Activated p38α interacted with the N-terminal region of the HCV core protein and subsequently phosphorylated the HCV core protein, which promoted HCV core protein oligomerization, an essential step for viral assembly. As expected, SB203580 or the HCV core protein N-terminal peptide (CN-peptide) disrupted the p38α-HCV core protein interaction, efficiently impaired HCV assembly and impeded normal HCV replication in both cultured cells and primary human hepatocytes. Similarly, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection also activated p38 MAPK. Most importantly, pharmacological blockage of p38 activation by SB203580 effectively inhibited SFTSV, HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: Our study shows that virus-hijacked p38 activation is a key event for viral replication and that pharmacological blockage of p38 activation is an antiviral strategy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células A549 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ativação Enzimática , Células HEK293 , Hepatite C/patologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosforilação , Piridinas/farmacologia , Células Vero , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
FASEB J ; 34(11): 15093-15107, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918769

RESUMO

Clinical fungal infections always cause a negative impact on human health. Moreover, during the interaction of pathogenic fungi with the environment and host, many biologically active substances are produced. Here, we report a new toxin-like defensin of purlisin derived from a clinical pathogenic isolate of Purpureocillium lilacinum. The analysis of its genomic and mRNA sequences revealed an open reading frame of 444 bp without introns. The deduced precursor peptide was composed of 147 amino acids, and the mature peptide were identified at protein level by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. After posttranslational processing, the precursor peptide of purlisin was split into two independent peptides. The two mature defensins, purlisin-NT and purlisin-CT, are consisting of 36 and 38 amino acid residues, which can form three and four intramolecular disulfide bonds, respectively. The results of circular dichroism and homology modeling revealed that they adopted a representative cysteine-stabilized α-helical and ß-sheet motif. The purlisin-NT showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of immune-related hKv1.3 target channel with IC50 value of 0.2 ± 0.04 µM but no obvious antibacterial activity, while the purlisin-CT displayed antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria as well as clinical isolates of MRSA and low affinities for potassium channels. Our findings suggest that purlisin-NT with immunosuppressive effects and purlisin-CT possessing antibacterial activities are adapted to the survival and pathogenicity of clinical P lilacinumis. Moreover, they can also be used as templates for the design of novel antibacterial peptide and immunosuppressive agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Defensinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hypocreales/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Humanos , Canais de Potássio/química , Homologia de Sequência
20.
Maturitas ; 140: 24-26, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972631

RESUMO

Using Hill's methodology for exploring causality, we aimed to determine in early May 2020 whether evidence supports vitamin D as a biological determinant of COVID-19 outcomes. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone theoretically able to reduce COVID-19 risk through regulation of (i) the renin-angiotensin system, (ii) cellular innate and adaptive immunity, and (iii) physical barriers. Inverse associations were found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Randomized controlled trials testing vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of COVID-19 are in progress. Positive results in such studies would encourage the use of vitamin D supplements as an adjuvant treatment in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Causalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
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