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1.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 54: 101995, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844153

RESUMO

Methanol poisoning is responsible for high morbidity and mortality, and the elevated concentration of methanol in the body is the major criteria for forensic diagnosis of methanol poisoning. However, in cases with lower methanol concentrations, diagnosis is mainly dependent on highly variable postmortem manifestations.Herein, we report a fatal methanol poisoning cases that two subjects ingested the same amount of methanol simultaneously, yet the subject one presented only non-specific gastrointestinal and mild central nervous system symptoms, while the other subject exhibited typical toxic manifestations with the exception of visual compromise. In autopsy, subject number 1 did not show typical pathological changes caused by methanol poisoning, except for the elevated levels of methanol in body fluids. On the contrary, bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and necrosis caused by methanol-induced brain lesion was observed in case number 2. Due to the complex and multifactorial process of methanol intoxication, many factors, including comprehensive autopsy, quantitative detection of methanol and formic acid, and genotype analysis, participate in its metabolism and toxicity, and can impact the clinical symptoms, prognosis and postmortem manifestations. Therefore, a combination of multiple diagnosis methods may more accurately contribute to the forensic diagnosis of methanol poisoning and should be tailored on an individual basis. This case report also reviews forensic diagnosis literature on methanol poisoning to provide a reference for forensic pathologists.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724146

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) are organic pollutants that are of concern because of their environmental toxicity. Adsorption is a promising process for the removal of Nap and Phe from water and soil. The riparian zone between a river and a riparian aquifer, which is rich in adsorption medium, may be important for PAH remediation. Nap and Phe may be removed from the surface water through adsorption by the media in the riparian zone. However, there is still a lack of the removal patterns and mechanisms of media in the riparian zone to remediate water contaminated by Nap and Phe simultaneously. In this study, focusing on the typical PAHs (Nap and Phe) as target pollutants, batch static adsorption and desorption experiments of Nap and Phe were carried out to explore the competitive adsorption mechanisms of Nap and Phe in the binary system. Batch dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to ascertain the adsorption regulation of Nap and Phe in sediments during the recharge of groundwater by river water in a riparian zone. The static adsorption experiment results showed that competitive adsorption of Nap and Phe occurred, and a mutual inhibitory effect of Nap and Phe adsorption was observed in the binary system. Phe had a stronger inhibitory effect on Nap, Phe was preferentially adsorbed on the medium in binary adsorption. The results of batch dynamic experiments showed that, in terms of adsorption, the riparian zone in the study area showed stronger performance for removal of Phe than Nap. The results of this paper could be useful for alleviating Nap and Phe pollution of groundwater and developing treatment protocols for groundwater exposed to Nap and Phe.

3.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(4): 700-705, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665394

RESUMO

Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH), an organic cyanide, is mainly used in the production of methyl methacrylate (MMA), and it also exists in cassava roots, the main calorie source in some tropical countries. ACH can decompose spontaneously or enzymatically into acetone and highly toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and be potentially toxic to its contacts. Given that limited forensic studies and case reports on fatal ACH poisoning are available, herein, we present a report of two fatal cases of ACH poisoning in which the two victims, with postmortem cyanide blood concentrations of 4.22 µg/ml and 4.07 µg/ml, suffered from acute poisoning of ACH due to a traffic accident. Furthermore, a literature review of cyanide poisoning case reports from 2000 to 2020 was carried out, and 28 subjects with cyanide poisoning were presented, including the age, sex, cause of poisoning, autopsy findings and the cyanide concentration in the blood. ACH poisoning lacks specific and reliable autopsy findings for diagnosis, and relevant toxicological studies are necessary. Due to the chemical properties of ACH that allow it to easily decompose, the toxicological analysis of acetone and cyanide in biological samples is essential for the diagnosis of ACH poisoning.

4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 697837, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368254

RESUMO

Biomarkers such as B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin (cTn), and CK-MB contribute significantly to the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have demonstrated that suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) is associated with CVD, but a meta-analysis of ST2 levels in different CVDs has yet to be conducted. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate soluble ST2 (sST2) levels in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure (HF). A total of 1,425 studies were searched across four databases, of which 16 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) values of all 16 studies were ≥7. The meta-analysis results indicated that the sST2 level was not correlated with IHD (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.00 to 1.16, p = 0.05) or MI (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 0.17, 95% CI = -0.22 to 0.55, p = 0.40) but was significantly associated with HF (WMD = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.38, p = 0.02; I 2 = 99%, p < 0.00001). sST2 levels did not differ significantly between patients with IHD or MI and healthy individuals; however, we believe that ST2 could be used as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker of HF.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 4899688, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457113

RESUMO

The functions of the brain and heart, which are the two main supporting organs of human life, are closely linked. Numerous studies have expounded the mechanisms of the brain-heart axis and its related clinical applications. However, the effect of heart disease on brain function, defined as the heart-brain axis, is less studied even though cognitive dysfunction after heart disease is one of its most frequently reported manifestations. Hypoperfusion caused by heart failure appears to be an important risk factor for cognitive decline. Blood perfusion, the immune response, and oxidative stress are the possible main mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction, indicating that the blood-brain barrier, glial cells, and amyloid-ß may play active roles in these mechanisms. Clinicians should pay more attention to the cognitive function of patients with heart disease, especially those with heart failure. In addition, further research elucidating the associated mechanisms would help discover new therapeutic targets to intervene in the process of cognitive dysfunction after heart disease. This review discusses cognitive dysfunction in relation to heart disease and its potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Cardiopatias/complicações , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Humanos
6.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105106, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311015

RESUMO

This study was ascertained to investigate the adverse effects of pathogenic E. coli on gut microbiota of Tibetan piglets with history of yellow and white dysentery. For this purpose, a total of 18 fecal samples were collected from infected and healthy Tibetan piglets for 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing of V3-V4 region. Results showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidia Fusobacteriota, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota were the predominant bacteria in Tibetan piglets at the level of phylum classification. Results on classification at family level showed that Lactobacillus, Bacteroidota, Fusobacteriota and Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant bacteria. Results on classification of bacteria at phylum level compared with normal piglets indicated that Bacteroidota, Actinobacteriota, Euryarchaota and Spirochaetota in fecal microbial community in Tibetan piglets showing yellow dysenteric and diarrhea group were significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05). Compared with the feces of healthy Tibetan piglets, the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus increased significantly in feces of Tibetan piglets having yellow dysentery and white dysentery. Moreover, results exhibited that the Proteobacteria and Fusobacteriota were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) suggesting dominant microbial community. Results revealed that E. coli induced different pathological alterations in intestine including damage to intestinal epithelial cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, presence of red blood cells in spaces of tissues, hemorrhages and necrosis of intestinal villi in piglets with history of yellow dysentery. This study for the first time reported the composition, characteristics, and differences of the fecal microflora diversity of Tibetan piglets with yellow and white dysentery in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which can provide a suitable support for effective control of diarrhoeal disease in these animals.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Microbiota , Animais , Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Suínos , Tibet
7.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(3): 1472-1481, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934406

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A new regularizer is proposed for the magnitude least-squares optimization algorithm, to ensure robust parallel transmit RF shimming and small-tip-angle multispoke pulse designs for ultrahigh-field MRI. METHODS: A finite-difference regularization term is activated as an additional regularizer in the iterative magnitude-least-squares based pulse design algorithm when an unwanted flip angle null distribution is detected. Both simulated and experimental B 1 + maps from different transmit arrays and different human subjects at 7 T were used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The algorithm was further demonstrated in experiment with dynamic multislice RF shimming for a single-shot gradient-echo EPI for human functional MRI at 7 T. RESULTS: The proposed finite-difference regularizer effectively prevented excitation null to be formed for RF shimming and small-tip-angle multispoke pulses, and improved the latter with a monotonic trade-off relationship between flip angle error and RF power. The proposed algorithm was demonstrated to be effective with several head-array geometries by simulation and with a commercial head array with 12 healthy human subjects by experiment. During a functional MRI scan at 7 T with dynamic RF shimming, the proposed algorithm ensured high image SNR throughout the human brain, compared with near-complete local signal loss by the conventional magnitude-least-squares algorithm. CONCLUSION: Using finite-difference regularization to avoid unwanted solutions, the robustness of RF shimming and small-tip-angle multispoke pulse design algorithms are improved, with better flip angle homogeneity and a monotonic trade-off relationship between flip angle error and RF power.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ondas de Rádio
8.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804713

RESUMO

Nutmeg is a traditional spice and medicinal plant with a variety of pharmacological activities. However, nutmeg abuse due to its hallucinogenic characteristics and poisoning cases are frequently reported. Our previous metabolomics study proved the hepatotoxicity of nutmeg and demonstrated that high-dose nutmeg can affect the synthesis and secretion of bile acids and cause oxidative stress. In order to further investigate the hepatotoxicity of nutmeg, normal saline, 1 g/kg, 4 g/kg nutmeg were administrated to male Kunming mice by intragastrical gavage for 7 days. Histopathological investigation of liver tissue, proteomics and biochemical analysis were employed to explore the mechanism of liver damage caused by nutmeg. The results showed that a high-dose (4 g/kg) of nutmeg can cause significant increased level of CYP450s and depletion of antioxidants, resulting in obvious oxidative stress damage and lipid metabolism disorders; but this change was not observed in low-dose group (1 g/kg). In addition, the increased level of malondialdehyde and decreased level of glutathione peroxidase were found after nutmeg exposure. Therefore, the present study reasonably speculates that nutmeg exposure may lead to liver injury through oxidative stress and the degree of this damage is related to the exposure dose.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Myristica/toxicidade , Proteômica , Sementes/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918931

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption leads to myocardial injury, ventricle dilation, and cardiac dysfunction, which is defined as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). To explore the induced myocardial injury and underlying mechanism of ACM, the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet was used to establish an animal model of ACM and histopathology, echocardiography, molecular biology, and metabolomics were employed. Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining revealed disordered myocardial structure and local fibrosis in the ACM group. Echocardiography revealed thinning wall and dilation of the left ventricle and decreased cardiac function in the ACM group, with increased serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and expression of myocardial BNP mRNA measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Through metabolomic analysis of myocardium specimens, 297 differentially expressed metabolites were identified which were involved in KEGG pathways related to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin digestion and absorption, oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate, and purine and pyrimidine metabolism. The present study demonstrated chronic alcohol consumption caused disordered cardiomyocyte structure, thinning and dilation of the left ventricle, and decreased cardiac function. Metabolomic analysis of myocardium specimens and KEGG enrichment analysis further demonstrated that several differentially expressed metabolites and pathways were involved in the ACM group, which suggests potential causes of myocardial injury due to chronic alcohol exposure and provides insight for further research elucidating the underlying mechanisms of ACM.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Análise Discriminante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrocardiografia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Metaboloma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Componente Principal , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925872

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia is a common condition in many cancer patients, particularly those with advanced disease. Cancer cachexia patients are generally less tolerant to chemotherapies and radiotherapies, largely limiting their treatment options. While the search for treatments of this condition are ongoing, standards for the efficacy of treatments have yet to be developed. Current diagnostic criteria for cancer cachexia are primarily based on loss of body mass and muscle function. However, these criteria are rather limiting, and in time, when weight loss is noticeable, it may be too late for treatment. Consequently, biomarkers for cancer cachexia would be valuable adjuncts to current diagnostic criteria, and for assessing potential treatments. Using high throughput methods such as "omics approaches", a plethora of potential biomarkers have been identified. This article reviews and summarizes current studies of biomarkers for cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Caquexia , Neoplasias/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Caquexia/diagnóstico , Caquexia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Peso
11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6653790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815656

RESUMO

Mn(III) ortho-N-alkyl- and N-alkoxyalkyl porphyrins (MnPs) were initially developed as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics. These compounds were later shown to react with numerous reactive species (such as ONOO-, H2O2, H2S, CO3 •-, ascorbate, and GSH). Moreover, the ability of MnPs to oxidatively modify activities of numerous proteins has emerged as their major mechanism of action both in normal and in cancer cells. Among those proteins are transcription factors (NF-κB and Nrf2), mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs, antiapoptotic bcl-2, and endogenous antioxidative defenses. The lead Mn porphyrins, namely, MnTE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-010, AEOL10113), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BMX-001), and MnTnHex-2-PyP5+, were tested in numerous injuries of normal tissue and cellular and animal cancer models. The wealth of the data led to the progression of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ into four Phase II clinical trials on glioma, head and neck cancer, anal cancer, and multiple brain metastases, while MnTE-2-PyP5+ is in Phase II clinical trial on atopic dermatitis and itch.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Manganês/farmacologia , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Porfirinas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670057

RESUMO

The prevention and diagnosis of sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the most important keystones and challenges in clinical and forensic practice. However, the diagnostic value of the current biomarkers remains unresolved issues. Therefore, novel diagnostic biomarkers are urgently required to identify patients with early-stage cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and to assist in the postmortem diagnosis of SCD cases without typical cardiac damage. An increasing number of studies show that circular RNAs (circRNAs) have stable expressions in myocardial tissue, and their time- and tissue-specific expression levels might reflect the pathophysiological status of the heart, which makes them potential CVD biomarkers. In this article, we briefly introduced the biogenesis and functional characteristics of circRNAs. Moreover, we described the roles of circRNAs in multiple SCD-related diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial ischemia or infarction, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, and discussed the application prospects and challenges of circRNAs as a novel biomarker in the clinical and forensic diagnosis of SCD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Medicina Legal , RNA Circular/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Humanos , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo
13.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(4): 1661-1668, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783602

RESUMO

Forensic diagnosis of anaphylactic shock is a challenging task in forensic practice due to the lack of characteristic morphological changes. Postmortem analysis of serum IgE can provide helpful information for determining anaphylaxis. However, postmortem serum always suffers from hemolysis. To investigate the interference of hemolysis on postmortem analysis of total IgE by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) and verify the suitability of the commercially available ECLIA kit for postmortem hemolyzed blood with the dilution-correction method, different levels of hemolyzed serum were prepared to evaluate the interference of hemolysis. A linear regression analysis was then performed on the concentration of total IgE in the completely hemolyzed blood and the corresponding serum. Our results indicated that hemolysis negatively interfered with the total IgE analysis by ECLIA and the interference (|Bias%|) increased with increasing levels of hemolysis. After controlling for |Bias%| by dilution, the test concentration of total IgE in the completely hemolyzed blood was still significantly lower than that in the serum (P < 0.05) and resulted in eight false-negative cases. A strong correlation was observed between the test concentration of total IgE in the completely hemolyzed blood and that in the serum (r = 0.983). After correction by the regression formula, the corrected concentration revealed no significant differences and exhibited the same diagnostic ability, compared with the serum total IgE concentration. These results indicate that the completely hemolyzed blood is not recommended for postmortem analysis of total IgE directly. The dilution-correction method might have potential utility in forensic practice for evaluating serum total IgE concentrations.


Assuntos
Hemólise , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Medições Luminescentes/instrumentação , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Anafilaxia/sangue , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
14.
Addict Biol ; 26(5): e13010, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508888

RESUMO

Brain asymmetry reflects left-right hemispheric differentiation, which is a quantitative brain phenotype that develops with age and can vary with psychiatric diagnoses. Previous studies have shown that substance dependence is associated with altered brain structure and function. However, it is unknown whether structural brain asymmetries are different in individuals with substance dependence compared with nondependent participants. Here, a mega-analysis was performed using a collection of 22 structural brain MRI datasets from the ENIGMA Addiction Working Group. Structural asymmetries of cortical and subcortical regions were compared between individuals who were dependent on alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, or cannabis (n = 1,796) and nondependent participants (n = 996). Substance-general and substance-specific effects on structural asymmetry were examined using separate models. We found that substance dependence was significantly associated with differences in volume asymmetry of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc; less rightward; Cohen's d = 0.15). This effect was driven by differences from controls in individuals with alcohol dependence (less rightward; Cohen's d = 0.10) and nicotine dependence (less rightward; Cohen's d = 0.11). These findings suggest that disrupted structural asymmetry in the NAcc may be a characteristic of substance dependence.

15.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12873, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975507

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest that individuals with substance use disorder have abnormally large responses to unexpected outcomes (reward prediction errors [RPEs]). However, there is much less information on RPE in individuals at risk of alcohol misuse, prior to neurobiological adaptations that might result from sustained alcohol use. Here, participants (mean age 23.77 years, range 18-32 years) performed the electrophysiological monetary incentive delay task. This task involved responding to a target stimulus following reward incentive cues to win, or avoid losing, the cued reward while brain activity was recorded under 64-channel EEG. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to quantify at-risk alcohol use, with high (n = 22, mean AUDIT score: 13.82) and low (n = 22, mean AUDIT score: 5.77) alcohol use groups. Trial-by-trial RPEs were estimated using a Rescorla-Wagner reinforcement model based on behavioral data. A single-trial analysis revealed that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and feedback P3 (fb-P3) event-related potential components were significantly modulated by RPEs. There was increased RPE-related fb-P3 amplitude for those in the high alcohol use group. Next, the mean amplitude of ERPs elicited by positive and negative RPEs were compared between groups. We found that high alcohol use participants had attenuated FRN amplitude in contrast with low alcohol use participants for both positive and negative RPEs but enhanced fb-P3 for both positive and negative RPE. These results, with differences in RPE in an at-risk group, suggest that RPE a potential vulnerability marker for alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110780, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152938

RESUMO

Incidences of abuse and poisoning have been reported for nutmeg, a household spice made from grinding the seed of Myristica fragrans, owing to its hallucinogenic properties. However, there have been no reports on nutmeg hepatotoxicity in relation to dose and duration of exposure. To investigate the hepatotoxicity of different nutmeg exposure durations and doses, male mice were administered daily with normal saline, 1.0 g/kg nutmeg, or 4.0 g/kg nutmeg by intragastrical gavage for either 7 or 14 days (for a total of six treatment groups, n = 6). Body weight of each mouse was monitored daily. Histological analysis of liver tissues was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to investigate the morphological changes in hepatocytes. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate liver function. Metabolomics and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed between treatment groups for identifying differential metabolites. Mice in the nutmeg exposure groups exhibited slow growth trends, hepatocyte damage, and significantly elevated serum AST and ALT levels associated with nutmeg dose and exposure duration. Metabolomics and KEGG enrichment pathway analyses also revealed differential levels of some metabolites related to liver function upon nutmeg exposure. Therefore, the present study reasonably speculates that nutmeg exposure may cause liver damage and affect liver function depending on the dose and duration.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Metabolômica , Myristica/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Camundongos , Projetos Piloto , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sementes , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22809, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasties (THA) and total knee arthroplasties (TKA) are always associated with a frequent incidence of postoperative pain. Effective pain management after surgery is quite essential for surgeons and patients. The purpose of the present meta-analysis is to evaluate the analgesic effect of perioperative ketamine after THA and TKA. METHODS: Seven online databases, Embase, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and Wanfang Data were searched for the related randomized controlled trials (RCT) by August 15, 2019. The qualities of the included studies were assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0. The visual analog scale (VAS), morphine equivalent consumption, and the side effects were used to evaluate the postoperative analgesic effect of ketamine by meta-analysis, which was performed by Review Manager version 5.3 software. RESULTS: The VAS scores at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after surgery were statistically lower in the ketamine group. The morphine equivalent consumptions in 24 hours and 48 hours after surgery were also significantly lower in the ketamine group. For the side effects, no statistical differences in odds ratio (OR) of sedation, dizziness, hallucination, sweating, pruritus, urinary retention, constipation, version trouble, nightmares, and delirium were observed between the ketamine group and the control group. But postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) showed lower OR in the ketamine group. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis demonstrated perioperative ketamine could be used as a safe and effective analgesic agent for THA and TKA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Assistência Perioperatória , Escala Visual Analógica
18.
Anal Biochem ; 606: 113877, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738212

RESUMO

Rapidly identifying cachexia-inducing factors that directly induce muscle wasting is an existing challenge. We developed two reporter cell lines that allow swift detection of such factors in blood from patients. C2C12 myoblasts were used for the establishment of reporter cells. A luciferase reporter gene, driven by promoters of wasting genes, Muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) and Muscle Atrophy F-Box Protein (MAFbx/Atrogin-1) were used for the construction of reporter constructs. Increased expression of these genes in muscle tissue under wasting conditions was shown in vivo and in vitro. We found these reporter cell lines could detect factors associated with cancer cachexia, such as myostatin (Mstn), activin A, and TNF-α. We further investigated the capacity to directly detect a cachectic state using plasma samples from cachectic mice and cancer patients. Activation of the reporter cell lines was observed by the addition of plasma from mice with cancer cachexia and serum samples from patients with pancreatic or colorectal cancer. These results indicate that the reporter cell lines are competent as a tool for screening cachexia-inducing factors and potentially distinguishing a cachectic state induced by cancer.


Assuntos
Caquexia/sangue , Caquexia/genética , Atrofia Muscular/sangue , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Neoplasias/complicações , Ativinas/metabolismo , Animais , Caquexia/diagnóstico , Caquexia/etiologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Miostatina/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
19.
ACS Nano ; 14(8): 10265-10275, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649178

RESUMO

Interlayer interaction could substantially affect the electrical transport in transition metal dichalcogenides, serving as an effective way to control the device performance. However, it is still challenging to utilize interlayer interaction in weakly interlayer-coupled materials such as pristine MoS2 to realize layer-dependent tunable transport behavior. Here, we demonstrate that, by substitutional doping of vanadium atoms in the Mo sites of the MoS2 lattice, the vanadium-doped monolayer MoS2 device exhibits an ambipolar field effect characteristic, while its bilayer device demonstrates a heavy p-type field effect feature, in sharp contrast to the pristine monolayer and bilayer MoS2 devices, both of which show similar n-type electrical transport behaviors. Moreover, the electrical conductance of the doped bilayer MoS2 device is drastically enhanced with respect to that of the doped monolayer MoS2 device. Employing first-principle calculations, we reveal that such striking behaviors arise from the presence of electrical transport networks associated with the enhanced interlayer hybridization of S-3pz orbitals between adjacent layers activated by vanadium dopants in the bilayer MoS2, which is nevertheless absent in its monolayer counterpart. Our work highlights that the effect of dopant not only is confined in the in-plane electrical transport behavior but also could be used to activate out-of-plane interaction between adjacent layers in tailoring the electrical transport of the bilayer transitional metal dichalcogenides, which may bring different applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

20.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(5): 1761-1766, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539158

RESUMO

Postmortem serum urea has been demonstrated as an objective indicator for the forensic diagnosis of cause of death. However, samples used in postmortem biochemical analysis are always affected by hemolysis. To investigate whether hemolysis affects the biochemical analysis of urea and to explore the feasibility of using ultrafiltration to process hemolyzed blood samples, three different levels of hemolyzed blood samples were used to assess the influence of hemolysis on postmortem biochemical analysis of urea, and two ultrafiltration methods were used to process the hemolyzed blood samples. Bias% was used to assess the interference of hemolysis. Our results showed that heavy hemolysis had a significant influence on the biochemical analysis of urea. Both ultrafiltration methods in the present study could significantly reduce the interference of hemolysis, with the |bias%| of methods A and B decreasing from 69.74% ± 99.14% to 12.18% ± 7.23% and 10.77% ± 8.09%, respectively, compared to the original serum. After regression correction, there was no significant difference between the urea concentration in the ultrafiltrates of the two ultrafiltration methods and that in the original serum, which suggested that the postmortem serum urea concentration could be estimated by the corrected urea concentration in the ultrafiltrate. The current study also provided possible pretreatment methods for postmortem biochemical analysis of other biomarkers in hemolyzed blood samples of forensic practice.


Assuntos
Hemólise , Soro/química , Ultrafiltração , Ureia/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Medicina Legal/métodos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
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