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1.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647576

RESUMO

The prevalence of maternal and child overweight/obesity and gestational hyperglycemia has increased greatly in China in recent years. However, studies examining the relationship between maternal hyperglycemia, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (ppBMI), and offspring obesity in China are limited. Here, we conducted a prospective study of 6684 mother-child pairs in Wuhan, China in 2012-2015. Maternal glucose concentrations were measured at approximately 24-28 weeks of gestation; children's weight and length were measured at birth and at 6, 12, and 24 months of age; and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated for different time points. We found that maternal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations were positively associated with offspring ponderal index and the risk of macrosomia at birth, but not with BMIZ or the risk of overweight/obesity at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. By contrast, maternal ppBMI was positively associated with both an increased risk of macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Here, we observed an interaction effect of the association of FPG and ppBMI on offspring macrosomia and a mediating effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on the pathway between ppBMI and macrosomia. Our findings suggest that maternal ppBMI is a more pronounced predictor than gestational FPG concentrations in both the relation to BMIZ and the risk of overweight/obesity in early childhood.

2.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(11): 88, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599364

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the status of elevated blood pressure in Chinese children and adolescents, and identify potential influence factors. RECENT FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, the Web of science, the WanFang, the VIP, and the CNKI to identify articles that were published from Jan 1, 1997, to May 30, 2019. We used random effects models to estimate the pooled prevalence of elevated blood pressure, and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed with Cochran's Q statistic. The potential source of heterogeneity was explored by meta-regression and subgroup comparisons using Q test based on ANOVA. Fifty-nine studies were included in the qualitative synthesis and the prevalence of elevated blood pressure ranged from 2.2 to 26.4%. The meta-analysis included 25 studies (341,281 participants), and the pooled prevalence of elevated blood pressure was 9.8% (95% CI 7.9, 11.9). The prevalence of elevated blood pressure in the obese children (34.1%, 95% CI 26.9, 41.7) and overweight children (15.5%, 95% CI 10.1, 21.7) was much higher than that in the normal or underweight children (5.0%, 95% CI 2.4, 8.4). Fluctuating trends in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure both in the total sample of Chinese children and adolescents and in each subgroup were observed from 2007 to 2014. Our study showed that prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents in China was in the medium level in the world. Primary prevention for childhood hypertension should be implemented and focus on weight control and healthy lifestyle habits.

3.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105222, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested exposure to heavy metals and endocrine disrupting chemicals could disturb the homeostasis of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), but no epidemiology study concerning the influence of rare earth elements (REE) exposure during pregnancy on neonatal TSH levels. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between prenatal REE exposure and neonatal TSH levels. METHODS: A total of 7367 pregnant women were recruited from Wuhan Children's Hospital between September 2012 and October 2014 in Wuhan, China. Urinary concentrations of cerium (Ce), and ytterbium (Yb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect neonatal TSH levels. The associations between REE exposure and neonatal TSH levels were evaluated using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS: The geometric means of maternal urinary Ce and Yb concentrations were 0.060 µg/g creatinine and 0.025 µg/g creatinine, respectively. The results showed that per doubling of maternal urinary Ce and Yb were associated with 4.07% (95% CI: -5.80%, -2.31%), 5.13% (95% CI: -6.93%, -3.30%) decreased neonatal TSH levels respectively in the adjusted model. Sex stratified analysis demonstrated that the decreased neonatal TSH levels were observed both in male infants and female infants, and the decrease was greater in male infants in urinary Ce. There were no significant interactions between maternal urinary Ce, Yb and infant sex (Ce: P for interaction = 0.173, Yb: P for interaction = 0.967). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that increased maternal urinary Ce and Yb were associated with decreased neonatal TSH levels. Further researches from different populations are warranted to verify the association and to explore the mechanisms.

4.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with shorter telomere lengths in adults, but evidence on the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure is limited. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal second-hand smoke exposure and newborn telomere length. METHODS: We recruited 762 mother-newborn pairs from Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital) between November 2013 and March 2015. Information on second-hand smoke exposure was obtained via questionnaires. Relative telomere length was measured in DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood. We used linear regression to assess the associations between prenatal second-hand smoke exposure and newborn telomere length. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, prenatal second-hand smoke exposure was associated with 9.7% shorter newborn telomere length (percent difference: -9.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -15.0, -4.0). The estimate for boys was lower (percent difference: -10.9%; 95% CI: -18.6, -2.5) than that for girls (percent difference: -8.5%; 95% CI: -15.8, -0.5), but the interaction term between newborn sex and prenatal second-hand smoke was not significant (P = 0.751). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that prenatal second-hand smoke exposure may be a preventable risk factor for accelerated biological aging in the intrauterine stage, and further suggested possible sex differences in the susceptibility to prenatal second-hand smoke.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87007, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) is a marker of biological aging and is inversely related to aging-related diseases. The setting of TL at birth may have important implications for lifelong telomere dynamics; however, its determinants remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to explore the relationships between prenatal exposure to phthalates and umbilical cord blood TL. METHODS: A total of 762 mother­newborn pairs were recruited from a birth cohort study performed between November 2013 and March 2015 in Wuhan, China. Relative cord blood TL was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Six phthalate metabolites were measured in urine samples acquired from pregnant women during the three trimesters. Multiple informant models were applied to estimate the associations between prenatal exposure to phthalates and cord blood TL and to evaluate potential windows of vulnerability. RESULTS: Exposure to mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ([Formula: see text]) during the first trimester were inversely related to cord blood TL. In addition, we observed a female-specific association between maternal exposure to MEP during the first trimester and cord blood TL ([Formula: see text]). The associations between maternal exposure to MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, and [Formula: see text] during the first trimester and cord blood TL were consistent between males and females (all [Formula: see text]). CONCLUSION: This prospective study demonstrated that prenatal exposure to some phthalate metabolites were associated with shorter cord blood TL. Our results, if confirmed in other populations, may provide more evidence of adverse health outcomes of phthalate exposure and support the hypothesis that the intrauterine environment may be one of the major determinants for newborn TL. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4492.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 330-335, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158661

RESUMO

Aluminum is a widely distributed metal that has been reported to have embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity in animal studies. However, there has been no study of the association between prenatal aluminum exposure and newborn mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn). We aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal aluminum exposure on newborn mtDNAcn. A total of 762 mother-newborn pairs were recruited between November 2013 and March 2015 in Wuhan city, China. We measured maternal urinary aluminum concentrations at three trimesters of pregnancy. Relative mtDNAcn was measured in DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood samples. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the relationship between prenatal aluminum exposure and newborn mtDNAcn. The geometric means of creatinine corrected aluminum concentrations were 31.0 µg/g Cr (95% CI: 27.6, 34.7), 40.9 µg/g Cr (95% CI: 35.7, 46.8) and 58.4 µg/g Cr (95% CI: 51.2, 67.4) for the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, a doubling of maternal urinary aluminum concentrations during the second and third trimesters was related to 3.16% (95% CI: 0.88, 5.49) and 4.20% (95% CI: 1.64, 6.81) increases in newborn mtDNAcn, respectively, while the association between maternal urinary aluminum concentration during the first trimester and newborn mtDNAcn was not significant (percent difference: 0.70%, 95% CI: -2.25, 3.73). Prenatal aluminum exposure during the second and third trimesters was positively associated with newborn mtDNAcn. Further studies are essential to elucidate on the potential health consequences of newborn mtDNAcn.


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Adulto , Alumínio/urina , China , Cidades , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez
7.
Environ Res ; 175: 442-448, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The telomere length at birth has important implications for telomere dynamics over the lifespan; however, few studies have explored the relationship between prenatal arsenic exposure and newborn telomere length (TL). We investigated whether newborn TL is related to prenatal arsenic exposure. METHODS: We used data from a birth cohort study of 762 mother-newborn pairs conducted between November 2013 and March 2015 in Wuhan, China. We measured relative cord blood TL using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Arsenic concentrations were measured in spot urine samples collected during three trimesters using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We applied multiple informant models to explore the relationships between prenatal urinary arsenic concentrations and cord blood TL. RESULTS: The geometric means of urinary arsenic concentrations were 21.7 µg/g creatinine, 27.3 µg/g creatinine, and 27.1 µg/g creatinine in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, a doubling of maternal urinary arsenic concentration during the third trimester was related to a 5.75% (95% CI: 1.70%, 9.95%) increase in cord blood TL, particularly in female infants. Similarly, mothers in the highest quartile of urinary arsenic during the third trimester had an 11.45% (95% CI: 1.91%, 21.88%) longer cord blood TL than those in the lowest quartile. However, no significant association was found between maternal urinary arsenic concentration and cord blood TL during the first and second trimesters. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that maternal arsenic exposure during the third trimester was positively associated with newborn TL. The elongation of newborn telomeres due to prenatal arsenic exposure may offer new insights into the mechanisms underlying arsenic-related disorders.

8.
Environ Int ; 129: 470-477, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to thallium is related to adverse birth outcomes. However, little is known about the effects of prenatal exposure to thallium on the mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in newborns; such knowledge might reveal a potential mechanism linking maternal thallium exposure and adverse birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the trimester-specific associations of maternal thallium exposure with cord blood leukocyte mtDNAcn. METHODS: A total of 746 pregnant women with trimester-specific urinary samples and cord blood samples were recruited from Wuhan Children Hospital between November 2013 and March 2015 in Wuhan City, China. The concentration of thallium in maternal urine was quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cord blood leukocyte mtDNAcn was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Trimester-specific associations of specific gravity (SG)-adjusted urinary thallium concentrations with mtDNAcn were estimated using a multiple informant model. RESULTS: The geometric mean value of maternal urinary thallium was 0.34 µg/L, 0.36 µg/L, and 0.34 µg/L for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Prenatal exposure to thallium during the first trimester, rather than during the second or the third trimester, was identified as negatively related to mtDNAcn. The multiple informant model showed a 10.4% lower level of mtDNAcn with each doubling increase of thallium levels (95% CI, -16.4%, -3.9%; P = 0.002). The observed associations were stronger among female newborns and among newborns born to older mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed a significant negative association between maternal thallium exposure during early pregnancy and cord blood leukocyte mtDNAcn in Chinese newborns, pointing to the important role of mitochondria as a target of thallium toxicity in early pregnancy.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Tálio/toxicidade , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez
9.
Environ Res ; 176: 108526, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential surrounding green spaces can affect human health. However, limited studies have examined their impacts on maternal blood glucose homeostasis outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of residential exposure to green space with maternal blood glucose levels, gestational impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from a prospective birth cohort between October 2012 and September 2015. Exposure to green space was calculated as the mean value of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within a 300-m circular buffer area surrounding each residence. Maternal glucose was measured between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, and gestational IGT and GDM were diagnosed using valid methods. We estimated the associations of residential NDVI with maternal glucose levels using multiple linear regression models with adjustment for age, education, BMI, passive smoking during pregnancy, parity, season of conception, income, and urbancity. We estimated the relative risks of residential NDVI with IGT and GDM using a generalized estimating equation model with modified Poisson regression. The mediation effects of residential exposure to air pollution and maternal physical activity were assessed using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: Of 6807 pregnant women, 751 (11.3%) and 604 (8.8%) were diagnosed with IGT and GDM, respectively. One SD increment of residential NDVI was associated with a decrease of 0.06 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.07, -0.05), 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.13, -0.05), and 0.06 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.09, -0.03) in maternal fasting glucose levels, 1-h glucose levels, and 2-h glucose levels, respectively, as well as reduced risks of incident IGT (RR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and GDM (RR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92). The association between residential NDVI and maternal fasting glucose levels was partly mediated by maternal exposure to PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Living with higher levels of green space was significantly associated with decreased maternal glucose levels and attenuated risks of incident maternal IGT and GDM. Our findings provide evidence linking green space to better maternal glucose outcomes. More studies are needed to further explore the maternal and child health benefits related to our findings.

10.
Environ Int ; 128: 254-260, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) is considered as a surrogate of biological aging and has been related to aging-related diseases. The initial setting of newborn TL has important implications for telomere dynamics in adulthood, and is affected by the intrauterine environment. However, the effects of prenatal air pollution exposure on the initial setting of newborn TL are poor understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the trimester-specific relationships between maternal air pollution exposure and newborn TL. METHODS: Between November 2013 and March 2015, a total of 762 mother-newborn pairs were recruited in a birth cohort study in Wuhan, China. Relative cord blood TL was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Maternal exposures to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, and NO2, were determined using spatial-temporal land use regression models. Multiple informant models were applied to explore the trimester-specific associations of maternal air pollution exposure with cord blood TL. RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and a 100 µg/m3 increase in CO during the third trimester were related to 3.71% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.06%, -1.30%), 3.24% (95% CI: -5.29%, -1.14%), 11.07% (95% CI: -18.86%, -2.53%), and 3.67% (95% CI: -6.27%, -1.00%) shorter cord blood TL, respectively. The inverse relationships between exposures to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO during the third trimester and cord blood TL were more evident in male infants. In multi-pollutant models, exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 during the third trimester were both related to shorter cord blood TL, but not SO2 and CO. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that maternal exposures to PM2.5, PM10, CO, and SO2 during the third trimester were related to shorter newborn TL, which highlights the importance of improving air quality in favor of subsequent health in later life of newborns.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Materna , Telômero , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5043-5052, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994896

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy play a critical role in fetal development. However, whether maternal heavy metal exposure affects their thyroid hormones and the effects on fetal growth are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of heavy metal exposure on maternal thyroid hormones and the potential mediation role of thyroid hormones on birth outcomes. METHODS: Concentrations of heavy metals in urine samples and thyroid hormones in blood samples of 675 pregnant women were measured during early pregnancy in a cohort study conducted in China. Multivariable linear regressions were applied to explore the associations of maternal urinary heavy metal levels with both maternal thyroid hormones and birth outcomes. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation role of thyroid hormones in these associations. RESULTS: Maternal urinary vanadium (V) exhibited an inverse association with free T3 (FT3) and FT3/free T4 (FT4) ratio levels. Urinary arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) had inverse relationships with FT3. We also observed the positive associations of maternal FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio with birthweight. The mediation analyses suggested that 5.33% to 30.57% of the associations among V, As, and Pb levels and birth size might be mediated by maternal FT3 or FT3/FT4 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that maternal exposures to V, As, and Pb at early pregnancy were associated with decreased maternal FT3 or FT3/FT4 ratio, which might contribute to reduced birthweight. Mediation analyses indicated that maternal thyroid hormone was a possible mediator of the association between urinary heavy metals and birth size.

12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(10): 1292-1302, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015738

RESUMO

Microglia, the brain-resident macrophage, is known as the innate immune cell type in the central nervous system. Microglia is also the major cellular component of tumor mass of gliomas that plays a key role in glioma development. Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) frequently occur in gliomas, which leads to accumulation of oncometabolic product 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Moreover, IDH1/2 mutations were found to correlate with better prognosis in glioma patients. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the 2HG on microglial inflammatory activation. We showed that the conditioned media (CM) from GL261 glioma cells stimulated the activation of BV-2 microglia cells, evidenced by markedly increased expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) and CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine 10). CM-induced expression of proinflammatory genes was significantly suppressed by pretreatment with a synthetic cell-permeable 2HG (1 mM) or a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor BAY11-7082 (10 µM). In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or TNF-α-stimulated BV-2 microglia cells and primary microglia, pretreatment with 2HG (0.25-1 mM) dose-dependently suppressed the expression of proinflammatory genes. We further demonstrated that 2HG significantly suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB kinase α/ß (IKKα/ß), IκBα and p65, IκB degradation, and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB, as well as NF-κB transcriptional activity. Similarly, ectopic expression of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) (R132H) significantly decreased TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, we revealed that activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequent inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling contributed to the inhibitory effect of 2HG on NF-κB signaling pathway in BV-2 cells. Taken together, these results, for the first time, show that oncometabolite 2HG inhibits microglial activation through affecting AMPK/mTOR/NF-κB signaling pathway and provide evidence that oncometabolite 2HG may regulate glioma development via modulating microglial activation in tumor microenvironment.

13.
Environ Int ; 128: 70-76, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few studies reported that exposure to high levels of residential surrounding green spaces was associated with better cognitive development in primary school children. However, no studies have been conducted to examine such association in early childhood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between residential exposure to green space and early childhood neurodevelopment, and further explored the mediation effects of traffic-related air pollution and maternal physical activity on this association. METHODS: We enrolled 1312 pregnant women between January 2012 and October 2015 and their children were followed up until an age of 2 years. We measured residential exposure to green space by calculating averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within a 300 meter buffer area surrounding residential address at birth. The neurodevelopment, which included mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI), was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development for each child at about 24 months. The associations of residential exposure to NDVI with early childhood MDI score and PDI score were evaluated using multiple linear regression models. The mediation effects of traffic-related air pollution and maternal physical activities on those associations were estimated by causal mediation analyses. RESULTS: Exposure to higher levels of residential surrounding green spaces was associated with increased early childhood PDI score (adjusted changes for one SD increment of NDVI: 3.28 (95% CI: 2.15, 4.41)) and MDI score (adjusted changes for one SD increment of NDVI: 1.97 (95% CI: 0.63, 3.30). These associations were more pronounced in children of mothers whose pre-pregnancy BMI were lower than 24 kg/m2. Further mediation analyses indicated that reduced levels of traffic-related air pollution explained 13.6% to 28.0% of the association between exposure to green space and early childhood PDI score. CONCLUSION: Exposure to higher levels of residential surrounding green spaces was associated with better early childhood neurodevelopment. The association between exposure to green space and early childhood psychomotor development might be partly explained by reduced levels of traffic-related air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Exposição Ambiental , Condução de Veículo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez
14.
Environ Res ; 173: 366-372, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal essential organ development is completed during early pregnancy which is important for fetal and postnatal health. However, the effect of exposure to PM2.5 on fetal growth during early pregnancy is less studied and the related mechanisms are largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a birth cohort study of 1945 pregnant women with measurement of the fetal crown to rump length (CRL) by ultrasound between the gestational age of 11 and 14 weeks. We estimated residential exposures of PM2.5 from the date of LMP to the date of ultrasound examination using a spatial-temporal land use regression model. Maternal hemoglobin concentration was examined by maternal blood samples during the same gestational period or ±1 week of the ultrasound examination. The associations of exposure to PM2.5 with maternal hemoglobin concentration, and exposure to PM2.5 with fetal CRL during early pregnancy were estimated by multiple linear regression models. The mediation effect of maternal hemoglobin concentration on the association between exposure to PM2.5 and fetal CRL was explored by a casual mediation analysis. RESULTS: One IQR increment of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 0.929 g/L (95% CI: 0.068, 1.789) increase in maternal hemoglobin concentration, and associated with a -0.082 cm (95% CI: 0.139, -0.025) decrease in fetal CRL. One g/L increment of maternal hemoglobin concentration was associated a -0.011 cm (95% CI: 0.014, -0.008) decrease in fetal CRL. The mediation analysis indicated that 12.1% of the total effect of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 on reducing fetal CRL was mediated by increased maternal hemoglobin concentration. CONCLUSION: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with reduced fetal growth during early pregnancy and elevated maternal hemoglobin concentration mediated this association.

15.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006717

RESUMO

BackgroundPregnancy leads to substantial maternal metabolic and lifestyle alterations. However, it is still unclear whether repeated exposure to these changes will influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between the number of pregnancies and GDM among Chinese women.MethodsA total of 7008 subjects from the Healthy Baby Cohort study were included in this study. The number of pregnancies was classified into three categories: 1, 2, or ≥ 3 pregnancies. GDM was diagnosed using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were used.ResultsIn the fully adjusted model, women with ≥ 3 pregnancies had a 1.27-fold (95% CI: 1.05, 1.54) higher risk of GDM. Among women ≥ 30 years old, 2 and ≥ 3 pregnancies were associated with a higher risk of GDM (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.73; OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.01). Among women with a pre-pregnancy BMI < 24 Kg/m2, ≥ 3 pregnancies were associated with a 1.35-fold (95% CI: 1.09, 1.67) higher risk of GDM.ConclusionsOur findings suggested that higher numbers of pregnancies is an independent risk factor of GDM. The associations between number of pregnancies and GDM were more prominent among women who were ≥ 30 years old or with a pre-pregnancy BMI < 24 Kg/m2.

16.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 27, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length (TL) is considered a potential marker for future disease and lifelong health, but few epidemiological studies have examined the determinants of TL in early life. The study aim was to investigate whether there is an association between prenatal cadmium exposure and relative cord blood TL in Chinese newborns. METHODS: Participants were 410 mother-newborn pairs drawn from a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China, between November 2013 and March 2015. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women during their period of institutional delivery. Urinary cadmium concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection was used to measure relative TL using genomic DNA isolated from umbilical cord blood leukocytes. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the effect of prenatal urinary cadmium concentration on relative cord blood TL. RESULTS: The geometric mean of maternal urinary cadmium concentration was 0.68 µg/g creatinine. In the multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, per doubling of maternal urinary cadmium concentration was associated with 6.83% (95% CI - 11.44%, - 1.97%; P = 0.006) shorter relative cord blood TL. Stratified analyses indicated that the inverse association between prenatal urinary cadmium and newborn relative TL was more pronounced among female infants and mothers < 29 years, while there were no significant effect modification according to infant sex (P for interaction = 0.907) and maternal age (P for interaction = 0.797). CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that increased maternal urinary cadmium was associated with shortened relative cord blood TL. The results provide more evidence of the negative effects of environmental cadmium exposure and suggest that accelerated aging or cadmium-related diseases may begin in early life.


Assuntos
Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/patologia , Adulto , Cádmio/urina , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Leucócitos/patologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 656: 1102-1107, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of epidemiological studies have shown that daily hot and cold temperatures are associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the relationship between daily temperature variation and PTB is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the role of prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature range (DTR), the difference between the daily maximum and minimum temperatures, in the risk of PTB. METHODS: A total of 11,056 women who gave birth to a live singleton infant were recruited from the Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), from September 2012 to October 2014. Daily temperature data were obtained from the official website of China Meteorological Administration. A binary logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between DTR and PTB. RESULTS: Among the 11,056 live singleton births, 618 (5.6%) infants were PTB. Prenatal exposure to large DTR during the second week before delivery was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. After adjusting for the daily mean temperature, daily mean humidity, socioeconomic, obstetrical and lifestyle factors, each 1 °C incremental increase in DTR was associated with a 5.4% (95% CIs: 1.006, 1.104; P = 0.026) increased risk of PTB. The association between large DTR exposure and PTB was stronger for pregnant women with a higher pre-pregnancy BMI, older maternal age, and with delivery in cold season. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to reveal the association between DTR and PTB in China. Health professionals and pregnant women should be aware of the influence of unstable temperature conditions on the risk of PTB.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 4679245, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159334

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the association between height and plasma glucose level, as well as risk of GDM among Chinese women. Methods: A total of 6941 pregnant Chinese women were recruited from the Healthy Baby Cohort study in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Measured height was categorized into four groups according to the quartile distribution (≤158.0 cm, 158.1-161.0 cm, 161.1-164.0 cm, and >164.0 cm). GDM was defined based on the International Association of the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between height and plasma glucose levels. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between height and GDM. Results: The prevalence of GDM was 14.7% in our study. Height was inversely associated with the 1 h and 2h plasma glucose levels (all P value for trend < 0.05), but not with fasting plasma glucose levels. A significant negative trend was found between height and risk of GDM (P value for trend < 0.05), and each centimeter increase in height was associated with 2% (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 0.99) lower risk of GDM. Women in the highest quartile of height (>164.0 cm) had 23% (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.94) lower risk of developing GDM than those in the shortest quartile of height (≤158.0 cm), after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that height was negatively associated with risk of GDM among Chinese women. The difference in plasma glucose levels is present in the 1 h and 2 h plasma glucose, but not with fasting plasma glucose.

19.
Environ Int ; 119: 407-412, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is increasingly reported to be associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, the effect of PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy on GWG is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between the exposure to PM2.5 and GWGs during three pregnancy trimesters based on a prospective birth cohort. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2029 pregnant women who participated in a birth cohort between January 2013 and October 2014 in Wuhan, China. A spatial-temporal land use regression model was used to estimate the trimester and overall pregnancy exposures of PM2.5 of each pregnant woman. The relationships between PM2.5 exposure and GWG were estimated using linear mixed models. RESULTS: The median value of GWG was 2.0 kg (interquartile range (IQR): 4.0) in the first trimester, 6.5 kg (IQR: 3.5) in the second trimester, and 7.0 kg (IQR: 3.5) in the third trimester, respectively. The exposure to PM2.5 was peaked in the first trimester (median concentration: 117.3 µg/m3 (IQR: 71.9)). After adjustment for potential confounders, each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was consistently associated with increases in GWG in overall pregnancy (0.14 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.17), the first (0.15 kg, 95%CI: 0.12, 0.18), second (0.15 kg, 95%CI: 0.10, 0.19) and third trimester (0.13 kg, 95%CI: 0.09, 0.17). Further stratified analysis indicated that pregnant women who delivered in spring or summer gained more body weight associated with PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence on the effect of exposure to PM2.5 on GWG and it is the first report on the importance of reducing the ambient PM2.5 in controlling of GWG in pregnant women.

20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1017: 181-214, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177963

RESUMO

Research on the potential impact of air pollution on the human's health has increased rapidly in recent years. Several studies have suggested that exposure to air pollutants during period of pregnancy which is a crucial time point of mother-fetus development may have long-term and serious impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is lack of review to evaluate the existed epidemiologic evidence on the associations between air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in China, so we conducted a review to explore the current epidemiological evidence on the effects of air pollutants to pregnancy outcomes and possible mechanisms during the pregnancy process. We used keywords to systematically search all the English and Chinese literatures on studies that were conducted in China. Exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy had shown there were harmful effects for different birth outcomes: preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, birth defects, infertility, and macrosomia fetus. Results on the effects of air pollutants on adverse pregnancy outcomes are small and inconsistent because they vary in their design and methodology. The existed available evidence is compatible with either a small negative effect of air pollutants on pregnancy outcomes or with no effect; therefore, further studies are needed to confirm and quantify the possible associations and potential biologic mechanisms between air pollutants and pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
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