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1.
Nanotechnology ; 29(41): 415702, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047925

RESUMO

We investigate the distribution of Sn in GeSn nano-heteroepitaxial clusters deposited at temperatures well exceeding the eutectic temperature of the GeSn system. The 600 °C molecular beam epitaxy on Si-patterned substrates results in the selective growth of GeSn nano-clusters having a 1.4 ± 0.5 at% Sn content. These nano-clusters feature Sn droplets on their faceted surfaces. The subsequent deposition of a thin Ge cap layer induced the incorporation of the Sn atoms segregated on the surface in a thin layer wetting the nano-dots surface with 8 ± 0.5 at% Sn. The presence of this wetting layer is associated with a relatively strong photoluminescence emission that we attribute to the direct recombination occurring in the GeSn nano-dots outer region.

2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 5(6): 1700955, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938172

RESUMO

Growth and characterization of advanced group IV semiconductor materials with CMOS-compatible applications are demonstrated, both in photonics. The investigated GeSn/SiGeSn heterostructures combine direct bandgap GeSn active layers with indirect gap ternary SiGeSn claddings, a design proven its worth already decades ago in the III-V material system. Different types of double heterostructures and multi-quantum wells (MQWs) are epitaxially grown with varying well thicknesses and barriers. The retaining high material quality of those complex structures is probed by advanced characterization methods, such as atom probe tomography and dark-field electron holography to extract composition parameters and strain, used further for band structure calculations. Special emphasis is put on the impact of carrier confinement and quantization effects, evaluated by photoluminescence and validated by theoretical calculations. As shown, particularly MQW heterostructures promise the highest potential for efficient next generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible group IV lasers.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 28(48): 485303, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985186

RESUMO

Self-ordered three-dimensional body-centered tetragonal (BCT) SiGe nanodot structures are fabricated by depositing SiGe/Si superlattice layer stacks using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. For high enough Ge content in the island (>30%) and deposition temperature of the Si spacer layers (T > 700 °C), we observe the formation of an ordered array with islands arranged in staggered position in adjacent layers. The in plane periodicity of the islands can be selected by a suitable choice of the annealing temperature before the Si spacer layer growth and of the SiGe dot volume, while only a weak influence of the Ge concentration is observed. Phase-field simulations are used to clarify the driving force determining the observed BCT ordering, shedding light on the competition between heteroepitaxial strain and surface-energy minimization in the presence of a non-negligible surface roughness.

4.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46513, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422155

RESUMO

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), for their intriguing properties, have attracted a great interest as they can be employed in many different biomedical applications. In this multidisciplinary study, we synthetized and characterized ultrafine 3 nm superparamagnetic water-dispersible nanoparticles. By a facile and inexpensive one-pot approach, nanoparticles were coated with a shell of silica and contemporarily functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dye. The obtained sub-5 nm silica-coated magnetic iron oxide fluorescent (sub-5 SIO-Fl) nanoparticles were assayed for cellular uptake, biocompatibility and cytotoxicity in a human colon cancer cellular model. By confocal microscopy analysis we demonstrated that nanoparticles as-synthesized are internalized and do not interfere with the CaCo-2 cell cytoskeletal organization nor with their cellular adhesion. We assessed that they do not exhibit cytotoxicity, providing evidence that they do not affect shape, proliferation, cellular viability, cell cycle distribution and progression. We further demonstrated at molecular level that these nanoparticles do not interfere with the expression of key differentiation markers and do not affect pro-inflammatory cytokines response in Caco-2 cells. Overall, these results showed the in vitro biocompatibility of the sub-5 SIO-Fl nanoparticles promising their safe employ for diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Corantes Fluorescentes , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Teste de Materiais , Dióxido de Silício , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Humanos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia
5.
Nanotechnology ; 28(13): 135301, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240987

RESUMO

We present the nanoheteroepitaxial growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) on nano-patterned silicon (Si) (001) substrates fabricated using a CMOS technology compatible process. The selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs) was achieved at 570 °C by MOVPE. A detailed structure and defect characterization study of the grown nano-heterostructures was performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, and micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) spectroscopy. The results show single-crystalline, nearly relaxed GaAs NCs on top of slightly, by the SiO2-mask compressively strained Si nano-tips (NTs). Given the limited contact area, GaAs/Si nanostructures benefit from limited intermixing in contrast to planar GaAs films on Si. Even though a few growth defects (e.g. stacking faults, micro/nano-twins, etc) especially located at the GaAs/Si interface region were detected, the nanoheterostructures show intensive light emission, as investigated by µ-PL spectroscopy. Achieving well-ordered high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs may provide opportunities for superior electronic, photonic, or photovoltaic device performances integrated on the silicon technology platform.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 28(13): 135701, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240990

RESUMO

Nano-heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on Si(001) by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was investigated to study emerging materials phenomena on the nano-scale of III-V/Si interaction. Arrays of Si nano-tips (NTs) embedded in a SiO2 matrix were used as substrates. The NTs had top Si openings of 50-90 nm serving as seeds for the selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs). The structural and morphological properties were investigated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The GaAs growth led to epitaxial NCs featuring a bi-modal distribution of size and morphology. NCs of small size exhibited high structural quality and well-defined {111}-{100} faceting. Larger clusters had less regular shapes and contained twins. The present work shows that the growth of high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs is feasible and can provide an alternate way to the integration of compound semiconductors with Si micro- and opto-electronics technology.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(40): 26948-26955, 2016 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27642767

RESUMO

The epitaxial integration of highly heterogeneous material systems with silicon (Si) is a central topic in (opto-)electronics owing to device applications. InP could open new avenues for the realization of novel devices such as high-mobility transistors in next-generation CMOS or efficient lasers in Si photonics circuitry. However, the InP/Si heteroepitaxy is highly challenging due to the lattice (∼8%), thermal expansion mismatch (∼84%), and the different lattice symmetries. Here, we demonstrate the growth of InP nanocrystals showing high structural quality and excellent optoelectronic properties on Si. Our CMOS-compatible innovative approach exploits the selective epitaxy of InP nanocrystals on Si nanometric seeds obtained by the opening of lattice-arranged Si nanotips embedded in a SiO2 matrix. A graphene/InP/Si-tip heterostructure was realized on obtained materials, revealing rectifying behavior and promising photodetection. This work presents a significant advance toward the monolithic integration of graphene/III-V based hybrid devices onto the mainstream Si technology platform.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(39): 26374-26380, 2016 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27603117

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and µ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 22709, 2016 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26940260

RESUMO

The integration of dislocation-free Ge nano-islands was realized via selective molecular beam epitaxy on Si nano-tip patterned substrates. The Si-tip wafers feature a rectangular array of nanometer sized Si tips with (001) facet exposed among a SiO2 matrix. These wafers were fabricated by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible nanotechnology. Calculations based on nucleation theory predict that the selective growth occurs close to thermodynamic equilibrium, where condensation of Ge adatoms on SiO2 is disfavored due to the extremely short re-evaporation time and diffusion length. The growth selectivity is ensured by the desorption-limited growth regime leading to the observed pattern independence, i.e. the absence of loading effect commonly encountered in chemical vapor deposition. The growth condition of high temperature and low deposition rate is responsible for the observed high crystalline quality of the Ge islands which is also associated with negligible Si-Ge intermixing owing to geometric hindrance by the Si nano-tip approach. Single island as well as area-averaged characterization methods demonstrate that Ge islands are dislocation-free and heteroepitaxial strain is fully relaxed. Such well-ordered high quality Ge islands present a step towards the achievement of materials suitable for optical applications.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(3): 2017-26, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709534

RESUMO

Dislocation networks are one of the most principle sources deteriorating the performances of devices based on lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxial systems. We demonstrate here a technique enabling fully coherent germanium (Ge) islands selectively grown on nanotip-patterned Si(001) substrates. The silicon (Si)-tip-patterned substrate, fabricated by complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible nanotechnology, features ∼50-nm-wide Si areas emerging from a SiO2 matrix and arranged in an ordered lattice. Molecular beam epitaxy growths result in Ge nanoislands with high selectivity and having homogeneous shape and size. The ∼850 °C growth temperature required for ensuring selective growth has been shown to lead to the formation of Ge islands of high crystalline quality without extensive Si intermixing (with 91 atom % Ge). Nanotip-patterned wafers result in geometric, kinetic-diffusion-barrier intermixing hindrance, confining the major intermixing to the pedestal region of Ge islands, where kinetic diffusion barriers are, however, high. Theoretical calculations suggest that the thin Si/Ge layer at the interface plays, nevertheless, a significant role in realizing our fully coherent Ge nanoislands free from extended defects especially dislocations. Single-layer graphene/Ge/Si-tip Schottky junctions were fabricated, and thanks to the absence of extended defects in Ge islands, they demonstrate high-performance photodetection characteristics with responsivity of ∼45 mA W(-1) and an Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼10(3).

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(48): 26696-700, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26541318

RESUMO

We report a detailed advanced materials characterization study on 40 nm thick strained germanium (Ge) layers integrated on 300 mm Si(001) wafers via strain-relaxed silicon-germanium (SiGe) buffer layers. Fast-scanning X-ray microscopy is used to directly image structural inhomogeneities, lattice tilt, thickness, and strain of a functional Ge layer down to the sub-micrometer scale with a real space step size of 750 µm. The structural study shows that the metastable Ge layer, pseudomorphically grown on Si(0.3)Ge(0.7), exhibits an average compressive biaxial strain of -1.27%. By applying a scan area of 100 × 100 µm(2), we observe microfluctuations of strain, lattice tilt, and thickness of ca. ±0.03%, ±0.05°, and ±0.8 nm, respectively. This study confirms the high materials homogeneity of the compressively strained Ge layer realized by the step-graded SiGe buffer approach on 300 mm Si wafers. This presents thus a promising materials science approach for advanced sub-10 nm complementary metal oxide-semiconductor applications based on strain-engineered Ge transistors to outperform current Si channel technologies.

12.
ACS Nano ; 9(12): 12246-54, 2015 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26536495

RESUMO

Prominent resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopic differences between AA' and AB stacked bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor deposition are reported. Bilayer MoS2 islands consisting of the two stacking orders were obtained under identical growth conditions. Resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra of AA' and AB stacked bilayer MoS2 were obtained on Au nanopyramid surfaces under strong plasmon resonance. Both resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra show distinct features indicating clear differences in interlayer interaction between these two phases. The implication of these findings on device applications based on spin and valley degrees of freedom will be discussed.

13.
Opt Express ; 23(19): 25048-57, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406705

RESUMO

We report on the fabrication and electro-optical characterization of SiGeSn multi-quantum well PIN diodes. Two types of PIN diodes, in which two and four quantum wells with well and barrier thicknesses of 10 nm each are sandwiched between B- and Sb-doped Ge-regions, were fabricated as single-mesa devices, using a low-temperature fabrication process. We discuss measurements of the diode characteristics, optical responsivity and room-temperature electroluminescence and compare with theoretical predictions from band structure calculations.

14.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12948, 2015 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26256239

RESUMO

Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (10(19) to 10(20) cm(-3)) low-resistivity (10(-4)Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(34): 19219-25, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26252761

RESUMO

The move from dimensional to functional scaling in microelectronics has led to renewed interest toward integration of Ge on Si. In this work, simulation-driven experiments leading to high-quality suspended Ge films on Si pillars are reported. Starting from an array of micrometric Ge crystals, the film is obtained by exploiting their temperature-driven coalescence across nanometric gaps. The merging process is simulated by means of a suitable surface-diffusion model within a phase-field approach. The successful comparison between experimental and simulated data demonstrates that the morphological evolution is driven purely by the lowering of surface-curvature gradients. This allows for fine control over the final morphology to be attained. At fixed annealing time and temperature, perfectly merged films are obtained from Ge crystals grown at low temperature (450 °C), whereas some void regions still persist for crystals grown at higher temperature (500 °C) due to their different initial morphology. The latter condition, however, looks very promising for possible applications. Indeed, scanning tunneling electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses show that, at least during the first stages of merging, the developing film is free from threading dislocations. The present findings, thus, introduce a promising path to integrate Ge layers on Si with a low dislocation density.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(17): 9031-7, 2015 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25871429

RESUMO

Advanced semiconductor heterostructures are at the very heart of many modern technologies, including aggressively scaled complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistors for high performance computing and laser diodes for low power solid state lighting applications. The control of structural and compositional homogeneity of these semiconductor heterostructures is the key to success to further develop these state-of-the-art technologies. In this article, we report on the lateral distribution of tilt, composition, and strain across step-graded SiGe strain relaxed buffer layers on 300 mm Si(001) wafers treated with and without chemical-mechanical polishing. By using the advanced synchrotron based scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy technique K-Map together with micro-Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy, we are able to establish a partial correlation between real space morphology and structural properties of the sample resolved at the micrometer scale. In particular, we demonstrate that the lattice plane bending of the commonly observed cross-hatch pattern is caused by dislocations. Our results show a strong local correlation between the strain field and composition distribution, indicating that the adatom surface diffusion during growth is driven by strain field fluctuations induced by the underlying dislocation network. Finally, it is revealed that a superficial chemical-mechanical polishing of cross-hatched surfaces does not lead to any significant change of tilt, composition, and strain variation compared to that of as-grown samples.

17.
Opt Express ; 23(5): 5930-40, 2015 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836819

RESUMO

In this paper we present a planar lightwave switching mechanism based on large refractive index variations induced by electrically-driven strain control in a CMOS-compatible photonic platform. Feasibility of the proposed concept, having general validity, is numerically analyzed in a specific case-study given by a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with Ge waveguides topped by a piezoelectric stressor. The stressor can be operated in order to dynamically tune the strain into the two interferometric arms. The strain modifies the Ge band structure and can induce refractive index variations up to 0.05. We demonstrate that this approach can enable ultra-compact devices featuring low loss propagation for light wavelengths below the waveguide band gap energy, high extinction ratios (>30 dB) and low intrinsic insertion losses (2 dB). The operation wavelength can be extended in the whole FIR spectrum by using SiGe(Sn) alloy waveguides.

18.
Nanotechnology ; 25(13): 135606, 2014 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24594569

RESUMO

In this paper we experimentally study the growth of self-assembled SiGe islands formed on Si(001) by exploiting the thermally activated surface diffusion of Ge atoms from a local Ge source stripe in the temperature range 600-700 °C. This new growth strategy allows us to vary continuously the Ge coverage from 8 to 0 monolayers as the distance from the source increases, and thus enables the investigation of the island growth over a wide range of dynamical regimes at the same time, providing a unique birds eye view of the factors governing the growth process and the dominant mechanism for the mass collection by a critical nucleus. Our results give experimental evidence that the nucleation process evolves within a diffusion limited regime. At a given annealing temperature, we find that the nucleation density depends only on the kinetics of the Ge surface diffusion resulting in a universal scaling distribution depending only on the Ge coverage. An analytical model is able to reproduce quantitatively the trend of the island density. Following the nucleation, the growth process appears to be driven mainly by short-range interactions between an island and the atoms diffusing within its vicinities. The islands volume distribution is, in fact, well described in the whole range of parameters by the Mulheran's capture zone model. The complex growth mechanism leads to a strong intermixing of Si and Ge within the island volume. Our growth strategy allows us to directly investigate the correlation between the Si incorporation and the Ge coverage in the same experimental conditions: higher intermixing is found for lower Ge coverage. This confirms that, besides the Ge gathering from the surface, also the Si incorporation from the substrate is driven by the diffusion kinetics, thus imposing a strict constraint on the initial Ge coverage, its diffusion properties and the final island volume.

19.
ACS Nano ; 7(12): 11310-6, 2013 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24224765

RESUMO

The achievement of controlled high n-type doping in Ge will enable the fabrication of a number of innovative nanoelectronic and photonic devices. In this work, we present a combined scanning tunneling microscopy, secondary ions mass spectrometry, and magnetotransport study to understand the atomistic doping process of Ge by P2 molecules. Harnessing the one-dimer footprint of P2 molecules on the Ge(001) surface, we achieved the incorporation of a full P monolayer in Ge using a relatively low process temperature. The consequent formation of P-P dimers, however, limits electrical activation above a critical donor density corresponding to P-P spacing of less than a single dimer row. With this insight, tuning of doping parameters allows us to repeatedly stack such 2D P layers to achieve 3D electron densities up to ∼2 × 10(20) cm(-3).

20.
Nanoscale ; 5(7): 2600-15, 2013 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23455600

RESUMO

We review our recent research into n-type doping of Ge for nanoelectronics and integrated photonics. We demonstrate a doping method in ultra-high vacuum to achieve high electron concentrations in Ge while maintaining atomic-level control of the doping process. We integrated this doping technique with ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope lithography and femtosecond laser ablation micron-scale lithography, and demonstrated basic components of donor-based nanoelectronic circuitry such as wires and tunnel gaps. By repetition of controlled doping cycles we have shown that stacking of multiple Ge:P two-dimensional electron gases results in high electron densities in Ge (>10(20) cm(-3)). Because of the strong vertical electron confinement, closely stacked 2D layers - although interacting - maintain their individuality in terms of electron transport. These results bode well towards the realization of nanoscale 3D epitaxial circuits in Ge comprising stacked 2DEGs and/or atomic-scale Ge:P devices with confinement in more dimensions.

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