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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268045, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511816

RESUMO

Surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis at the edge of its range is hindered by fragmented distributional patterns and low prevalence in definitive hosts. Thus, tests with adequate levels of sensitivity are especially important for discriminating between infected and non-infected areas. In this study we reassessed the prevalence of E. multilocularis at the southern border of its distribution in Province of Bolzano (Alto Adige, northeastern Alps, Italy), to improve surveillance in wildlife and provide more accurate estimates of exposure risk. We compared the diagnostic test currently implemented for surveillance based on coproscopy and multiplex PCR (CMPCR) to a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 235 fox faeces collected in 2019 and 2020. The performances of the two tests were estimated using a scraping technique (SFCT) applied to the small intestines of a subsample (n = 123) of the same foxes as the reference standard. True prevalence was calculated and the sample size required by each faecal test for the detection of the parasite was then estimated. True prevalence of E. multilocularis in foxes (14.3%) was markedly higher than reported in the last decade, which was never more than 5% from 2012 to 2018 in the same area. In addition, qPCR showed a much higher sensitivity (83%) compared to CMPCR (21%) and agreement with the reference standard was far higher for qPCR (0.816) than CMPCR (0.298) meaning that for the latter protocol, a smaller sample size would be required to detect the disease. Alto Adige should be considered a highly endemic area. Routine surveillance on definitive hosts at the edges of the E. multilocularis distribution should be applied to smaller geographic areas, and rapid, sensitive diagnostic tools using directly host faeces, such as qPCR, should be adopted.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus multilocularis , Animais , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Prevalência
2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203833

RESUMO

The quantification of antimicrobial usage (AMU) in food-producing animals can help identify AMU risk factors, thereby enhancing appropriate stewardship policies and strategies for a more rational use. AMU in a sample of 34 farms in the Province of Trento (north-eastern Italy) from 2018 to 2020 was expressed as defined daily doses for animals per population correction unit according to European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption guidelines (DDDvet) and according to Italian guidelines (DDDAit). A retrospective analysis was carried out to test the effects of several husbandry practices on AMU. Overall, the average AMU ranged between 6.5 DDDAit in 2018 and 5.2 DDDAit in 2020 (corresponding to 9 and 7 DDDvet, respectively), showing a significant trend of decrement (-21.3%). Usage of the highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIA) was reduced by 83% from 2018 to 2020. Quarantine management, available space, water supply, animals' cleanliness and somatic cell count had no significant association with AMU. Rather, farms with straw-bedded cubicles had lower AMU levels than those with mattresses and concrete floors (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study evidenced a decrement in AMU, particularly regarding HPCIA, but only a few risk factors due to farm management.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162820

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis frequently responsible for clinical disease in dogs and rarely reported in human people. The risk of human exposure to Leptospira has been investigated in a sample population working in the northeast of Italy, a geographical area with high endemicity of canine leptospirosis. Two-hundred twenty-one human serum samples were analyzed for Leptospira microagglutination test (MAT): 112 clinical freelance small animal practitioners (exposed subjects) and 109 people not occupationally exposed to Leptospira-infected animals (unexposed subjects) were voluntarily enrolled. Despite the previously reported serological detection of antibodies vs. Leptospira in people in different Italian regions, this study did not detect any reactivity in the investigated population. This study shows that veterinarians do not appear to be at a greater risk of leptospirosis than the reference population. This may be due to both veterinarian awareness of the Leptospira zoonotic risk and the efficiency of the preventive measures and management of patients. Moreover, it could be the result of the relatively low excretion of Leptospira in symptomatic dogs, which can be considered as an environmental sentinel for Leptospira presence rather than a vehicle of transmission.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Cães , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696389

RESUMO

South Tyrol has implemented, in 2007, a mandatory eradication program against Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV), a virus known to cause economic losses related to decreases in milk production and milk quality in goats, along with poor animal welfare and premature death. After a great initial decrease in the seroprevalence, the program has reached a tailing phase with scattered positivities. Potential risk factors associated with the multispecies farming system, a traditional approach in South Tyrol, are evaluated in this study, in order to better understand some of the potential causes leading to the tailing phenomenon. A statistically significant number of farms was selected for the present study, based on the risk factors evaluated. Even though there is no statistically significant association between the practices evaluated and the incidence of infection, the authors believe that it is important to highlight potential risks that may threaten the outcome of this eradication program.


Assuntos
Agricultura/normas , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/patogenicidade , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Doenças das Cabras/etiologia , Cabras/virologia , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Avian Pathol ; : 1-8, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856239

RESUMO

Mycoplasma iowae, a pathogen affecting the turkey industry, is commonly associated with decreased hatchability and leg abnormalities in young progeny. This Mycoplasma was in the spotlight more in the past than today since its prevalence has been decreasing over time. Reports of M. iowae in turkeys showing reduced growth performances, leg problems and skeletal abnormalities are scarce although there is no report whether this pathogen has been completely eradicated in commercial turkeys. Additionally, there are no comprehensive epidemiological data available on M. iowae prevalence in any country. Therefore, we carried out a retrospective study to evaluate the prevalence of the infection and any correlation between necropsy findings and M. iowae presence in Italian turkeys between 2011 and 2012. Necropsy was performed on 101 dead turkey submissions presented for diagnostic purposes. Fifty-six submissions (55.4%) tested positive for M. iowae, most of which (69.6%) were between 4 and 7 weeks of age. Skeletal abnormalities were observed in 36 cases (35.6%). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the probability of finding a M. iowae-positive submission was four times higher if the animals showed skeletal abnormalities (OR = 4.48, IC 95%: 1.66-12.15). This is the first retrospective, cross-sectional study on M. iowae field outbreaks in commercial turkeys. These results suggest that M. iowae should be considered as a differential diagnosis when skeletal abnormalities are observed. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSM. iowae was found in more than half of the turkey groups analysed.M. iowae was likely to be detected if skeletal abnormalities were present in the studied turkeys.

6.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(2): 936-945, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukoreduction is a routine procedure in human transfusion medicine but is uncommon in veterinary. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of leukoreduction on the quality of canine whole blood (WB) and blood products during storage. ANIMALS: Ten canine blood donors. METHODS: This is a case series study. An amount of 450 mL of blood was collected from each dog. Five WB and 5 packed red blood cells (pRBC) bags were divided into 2 units each: leukoreduced (LR) and non-leukoreduced (nLR). RBC count, erythrocytes' mean osmotic fragility (MOF), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), percentage of hemolysis, potassium (K), lactate, glucose, and cytokines were measured weekly from day of donation (T0) to day 35 (T35); pH, coagulation times, and clotting factors were evaluated at T0 and T35 from WB and in fresh frozen plasma after 1 year of storage. RESULTS: Leukoreduction showed positive effects on lactate (T35: LR WB 14.42 mmol/L SD 2.71, nLR WB 22.42 mmol/L SD 1.86, LR pRBC 20.88 mmol/L SD 2.65, nLR pRBC 36.81 mmol/L SD 2.34; P < .0001), pH (T35: LR WB 6.88 SD 0.16, nLR WB 6.69 SD 0.20, P = .02; LR pRBC 6.57 SD 0.23, nLR pRBC 6.22 SD 0.11; P < .001), and K (LR pRBC 4.08 mmol/L SD 0.88, nLR pRBC 5.48 mmol/L SD 0.90; P < .001). Increasing values of IL8 were observed in nLR units during storage (T0: 4167 ± 11 888 pg/mL; T35: 6367 ± 11 612 pg/mL). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: LR blood units are recommended to critically ill dogs with marked inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue , Doenças do Cão , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Preservação de Sangue/veterinária , Citocinas , Cães , Eritrócitos , Hemólise
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(4): e018020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295380

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Serological methods are the most common diagnostic techniques used for the diagnosis of the CanL. The objective of our study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of one in-house ELISA kit (ELISA UNIZAR) and three commercially available serological tests (MEGACOR Diagnostik GmbH) including an immunochromatographic rapid test (FASTest LEISH®), an immunofluorescent antibody test (MegaFLUO LEISH®) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MegaELISA LEISH®), using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Two hundred fifteen serum samples were included. The highest sensitivity was achieved for FASTest LEISH® (99.38%), ELISA UNIZAR (99.37%), MegaFLUO LEISH® (99.36%) followed by MegaELISA LEISH® (98.49%). The best specificity was obtained by FASTest LEISH® (98.43%), followed by ELISA UNIZAR (97.50%), whilst MegaFLUO LEISH® and MegaELISA LEISH® obtained the lower specificity (91.94% and 91.93%, respectively). The results of present study indicate that the immunochromatographic rapid test evaluated FASTest LEISH® show similar levels of sensitivity and specificity to the quantitative commercial tests. Among quantitative serological tests, sensitivity and specificity were similar considering ELISA or IFAT techniques.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Análise de Classes Latentes , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose , Testes Sorológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
8.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993093

RESUMO

According to the Directive 2007/43/EC, broiler farms can house animals up to 39 kg/m2, provided that specific environmental requirements are met. However, limited information is available about the effects of stocking density (SD) on broiler health and welfare, including the need for antimicrobial use. In this study, annual data on mortality, feed conversion rate, and antimicrobial use (AMU) are compared between broiler farms with stocking densities of 39 kg/m2 (N = 257) and 33 kg/m2 (N = 87). These farms were distributed throughout Italy and belonged to the same integrated poultry company. Antimicrobial use data were obtained from each farm and production cycle; AMU was expressed using the defined daily doses (DDD) method proposed by EMA. The annual AMU per farm was calculated as the median AMU over all cycles. Stratified analysis by sex and geographical area (Italy vs Northern Italy) showed no significant effect of stocking density on broiler mortality, feed conversion rate, and AMU. However, a higher AMU variability among farms with 39 kg/m2 stocking density vs. those with 33 kg/m2 was found. This study indicates that AMU does not apparently vary between animals reared at different stocking densities in intensive farms.

9.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 589-593, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552528

RESUMO

Since 2007, the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) has carried out a compulsory eradication program against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. A drastic seroprevalence reduction was achieved during the initial phase (2007-2011); however, a tailing phenomenon has been observed during the latest years, hampering the achievement of the final goal. CAEV belongs to a group of lentiviruses, called small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), which are antigenically related and can infect both goats and sheep. We investigated the possible link between the tailing phenomenon in goats and the role of sheep as a virus reservoir by comparing serologic results between multispecies farms (where goats and sheep coexist) and monospecies farms (goats only). Goats on multispecies farms had a higher prevalence and seroconversion rate (even if to a rather moderate extent), higher antibody titers, and a higher probability of conclusive results in the genotyping analysis, with more frequent identification of SRLV genotype A (sheep-related) infections. Sheep can serve as a SRLV reservoir, thus contributing to scattered positive tests in goats, causing the tailing phenomenon.


Assuntos
Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/fisiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico/virologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Itália , Infecções por Lentivirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Prevalência , Soroconversão
10.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131557

RESUMO

The analysis of antimicrobial use (AMU) data in livestock allows for the identification of risk factors for AMU, thereby favoring the application of responsible AMU policies on-farm. Herewith, AMU in 36 finishing pig farms in northern Italy from 2015-2017 was expressed as defined daily doses for Italian pigs (DDDita) per population correction unit (DDDita/100kg). A retrospective analysis was then conducted to determine the effects of several husbandry practices on AMU. Overall, AMU ranged between 12 DDDita/100kg in 2015 and 8 DDDita/100kg in 2017, showing no significant trends, due to the large variability in AMU between farms. However, a 66% AMU reduction was observed in 19 farms during 2015-2017. Farm size, number of farm workers, air quality, average pig mortality, and presence of undocked pigs on the farm had no significant effects on AMU. Rather, welfare-friendly farms had 38% lower AMU levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, animal welfare management seems to be relatively more important than farm structure and other managerial characteristics as drivers of AMU in finishing pig farms.

11.
Vet Pathol ; 57(1): 49-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640480

RESUMO

CD30 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily included in the diagnostic algorithm of human cutaneous, anaplastic large cell and Hodgkin lymphomas and represents an optimal therapeutic target for CD30+ tumors. Similar diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are largely missing for feline lymphomas. Cross-reactivity of the antihuman CD30 receptor clone Ber-H2 was investigated in feline lymphomas. Comparative analysis of feline and human CD30 identified 61% identity of the amino acid sequence, with 100% identity of the main sequence of the epitope targeted by the antibody (RKQCEPDYYL). CD30 expression in normal feline tissues was restricted to rare lymphoid cells in perifollicular and interfollicular lymph node areas and in the thymic medulla. In feline lymphoma, CD30 was expressed in 4 of 33 (13%) T-cell lymphomas, 3 of 22 (14%) B-cell lymphomas, and 5 of 7 (71%) mixed-cell lymphomas, showing diffuse (1/5) or multifocal (4/5) positivity restricted to neoplastic multinucleated lymphoid cells and binucleated cells consistent with Reed-Sternberg-like cells. Based on the human classification system, cell morphology, expression of multiple markers (mixed cell components), and CD30 positivity, these cases were considered most consistent with classical Hodgkin-like lymphoma (HLL). The other 2 mixed-cell lymphomas were CD30 negative and thus most consistent with either T-cell-rich large B-cell lymphoma (TCRLBCL) or nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). These findings provide multiple data supporting the cross-reactivity of the Ber-H2 anti-CD30 clone in feline tissues and give evidence of the usefulness of CD30 in the diagnostic evaluation of feline lymphoma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Epitopos/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-1/metabolismo , Linfoma/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/classificação , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfoma/classificação , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/patologia , Masculino
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e018020, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144232

RESUMO

Abstract Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Serological methods are the most common diagnostic techniques used for the diagnosis of the CanL. The objective of our study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of one in-house ELISA kit (ELISA UNIZAR) and three commercially available serological tests (MEGACOR Diagnostik GmbH) including an immunochromatographic rapid test (FASTest LEISH®), an immunofluorescent antibody test (MegaFLUO LEISH®) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MegaELISA LEISH®), using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Two hundred fifteen serum samples were included. The highest sensitivity was achieved for FASTest LEISH® (99.38%), ELISA UNIZAR (99.37%), MegaFLUO LEISH® (99.36%) followed by MegaELISA LEISH® (98.49%). The best specificity was obtained by FASTest LEISH® (98.43%), followed by ELISA UNIZAR (97.50%), whilst MegaFLUO LEISH® and MegaELISA LEISH® obtained the lower specificity (91.94% and 91.93%, respectively). The results of present study indicate that the immunochromatographic rapid test evaluated FASTest LEISH® show similar levels of sensitivity and specificity to the quantitative commercial tests. Among quantitative serological tests, sensitivity and specificity were similar considering ELISA or IFAT techniques.


Resumo A leishmaniose canina (Lcan) é uma causada pela Leishmania infantum. Os métodos sorológicos são as técnicas diagnósticas mais utilizadas para o diagnóstico da leishmaniose canina. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi estimar a sensibilidade e a especificidade de um kit ELISA interno (ELISA UNIZAR) e de três testes sorológicos disponíveis comercialmente, feitos pelo mesmo fabricante (MEGACOR Diagnostik GmbH), incluindo um teste rápido imunocromatográfico (FASTest LEISH®), um teste de anticorpos imunofluorescentes (Megafluo LEISH®) e um ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (Megaelisa LEISH®), utilizando-se modelos de classe latentes numa análise bayesiana. Foram incluídas duzentas e quinze amostras de soro. A maior sensibilidade foi alcançada para Fastest LEISH® (99,38%), ELISA UNIZAR (99,37%), Megafluo LEISH® (99,36%) seguida por Megaelisa LEISH® (98,49%). A melhor especificidade foi obtida por FASTest LEISH® (98,43%), seguida por ELISA UNIZAR (97,50%), enquanto Megafluo LEISH® e Megaelisa LEISH® obtiveram a menor especificidade (91,94% e 91,93%, respectivamente). Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o teste rápido imunocromatográfico, avaliado por FASTest LEISH® mostra níveis similares de sensibilidade e especificidade aos testes comerciais quantitativos incluídos. Entre os testes sorológicos quantitativos, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram semelhantes, considerando-se as técnicas de ELISA ou IFI.

13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(9): 2784-2787, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial usage (AMU) in livestock plays a key role in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Analysis of AMU data in livestock is therefore relevant for both animal and public health. OBJECTIVES: To assess AMU in 470 broiler and 252 turkey farms of one of Italy's largest poultry companies, accounting for around 30% of national poultry production, to identify trends and risk factors for AMU. METHODS: Antimicrobial treatments administered to 5827 broiler and 1264 turkey grow-out cycles in 2015-17 were expressed as DDDs for animals per population correction unit (DDDvet/PCU). A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the effect of geographical area, season and prescribing veterinarian on AMU. Management and structural interventions implemented by the company were also assessed. RESULTS: AMU showed a 71% reduction in broilers (from 14 to 4 DDDvet/PCU) and a 56% reduction in turkeys (from 41 to 18 DDDvet/PCU) during the study period. Quinolones, macrolides and polymyxins decreased from 33% to 6% of total AMU in broilers, and from 56% to 32% in turkeys. Broiler cycles during spring and winter showed significantly higher AMU, as well as those in densely populated poultry areas. Different antimicrobial prescribing behaviour was identified among veterinarians. CONCLUSIONS: This study evidenced a decreasing trend in AMU and identified several correlates of AMU in broilers and turkeys. These factors will inform the design of interventions to further reduce AMU and therefore counteract antimicrobial resistance in these poultry sectors.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Galinhas , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Perus , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(2)2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717110

RESUMO

In human breast cancer, both circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow are predictive of short survival and may be used as liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Herein we investigate, for the first time, the feasibility to quantify CTCs and DTCs in canine metastatic mammary carcinoma (MMC) with the automated CellSearch platform, which identifies tumour cells by immune-magnetic enrichment and fluorescent labelling. Using this approach before start of treatment, we could detect at least 1 CTC per 7.5 mL of peripheral blood in 12 out of 27 evaluable samples (44.4%) and at least 1 DTC per 1 mL of bone marrow in 11 out of 14 evaluable samples (78.6%). Conversely, we did not find any CTCs in the healthy, negative control dogs (n = 5) that we analysed in parallel. Interestingly, the levels of CTCs/DTCs and the prevalence of positive dogs closely resemble results obtained by CellSearch assay in metastatic breast cancer patients at diagnosis. Moreover, in the canine cohort, the presence of CTCs was significantly associated with poor outcome. These observations identify the first actionable marker in veterinarian oncology to guide treatment of canine MMC. Furthermore, our findings have important implications for human research, since it reinforce the value of canine MMC as model useful to speed up pharmacological studies with primary endpoint of overall survival, given the reduced life-span of the canine species.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303754

RESUMO

The illegal use of glucocorticoids (GCs) as growth-promoters (GPs) is prohibited in farm animals in the European Union because the strong pharmacological activity of most synthetic GCs produces residues that are dangerous for human consumption. Among the alternative methods proposed to increase the efficacy of official controls, histology was the technique of choice in Italy on account of its high performance level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anti-cleaved-Lamin A antibody to enhance the performance of the histological test applied to GC-related microscopic changes in the thymus. Veal calves (VC) and beef cattle (BC) were raised and both underwent different growth-promoting protocols or were left untreated. The morphology of the thymus parenchyma was evaluated for cortical atrophy with concurrent adipose tissue infiltration, and a score of 1 to 3 was attributed. A semi-quantitative IHC analysis was also performed by counting the number of positive thymocytes in 5 randomly selected high-power fields (HPFs). The distribution of the thymus atrophy scores was significantly different among the subgroups in both BC and VC. The IHC values were higher in untreated than in treated animals, for both BC and VC. The association between thymus atrophy score and IHC positivity showed higher median values in control than in treated animals (independently of the treatment protocol), for both BC and VC. Our data shows that IHC against anti-cleaved-Lamin A antibody is a reliable marker to detect illegal GC treatments, administered either alone or in association with other growth promoters, in both BC and VC. Combining IHC with the thymus atrophy score improves the accuracy of the histological method in correctly identifying treated animals and could represent a valuable, reproducible method to be applied to large-scale screening programmes.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Glucocorticoides/química , Lamina Tipo A/análise , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Bovinos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lamina Tipo A/imunologia
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 32(3): 1051-1059, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal procedure for storage of feline blood is needed. Open-collection systems have been employed in feline medicine, thus limiting the possibility for storage. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate indicators of quality of feline blood stored for 35 days at +4°C in a closed-collection system specifically designed for cats. ANIMALS: Eight healthy adult European domestic shorthair cats with a weight of 5-6.8 kg. METHODS: This is a case series study. A bacteriological test, CBC, blood smear, pH, osmotic fragility, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurement were performed weekly on whole blood (WB) units from day 1 to day 35 after donation. The hemolysis index, lactate and potassium concentrations, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen were measured on plasma aliquots. RESULTS: One out of eight blood units (BUs) had bacterial growth (Serratia marcescens) at day 35. No significant differences were found regarding CBC, morphology, pH, and osmotic fragility. Despite high inter-individual variability and low starting levels, significant decreases in the mean concentrations of 2,3-DPG (T0 1.99 mmol/g Hb, SD 0.52, T35 1.25 mmol/g Hb, SD 1.43; P = .003) and ATP (T0 1.45 mmol/g Hb, SD 0.71, T35 0.62 mmol/g Hb, SD 0.51; P < .001) were detected during the study, as opposed to an increase in hemolysis (T0 0.11 mmol/L, SD 0.07, T35 0.84 mmol/L, SD 0.19; P < .001), lactate (T0 3.30 mmol/L, SD 0.86, T35 13.36 mmol/L, SD 2.90; P < .001), and potassium (T0 3.10 mmol/L, SD 0.21, T35 4.12 mmol/L, SD 0.35; P < .001) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The commercial BU kit is appropriate for blood collection and conservation of WB in cats. The maintenance of WB quality indicators during storage is essential for future improvements of feline transfusion medicine.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue/veterinária , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Gatos/sangue , 2,3-Difosfoglicerato/sangue , Trifosfato de Adenosina/sangue , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Citratos , Fibrinogênio/análise , Glucose , Hemólise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Fragilidade Osmótica , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/veterinária , Potássio/sangue , Tempo de Protrombina/veterinária
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(2): 251-257, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956231

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 first entered Myanmar in 2006 in the Mandalay District. Several H5N1 outbreaks followed and the one of Bago East District (2007) required post outbreak surveillance in the at-risk domestic duck population of the Moyingyi Wetland. A field epidemiological study based on a randomised prospective stratified study with five surveys provided the serological evidence that the avian influenza H5 subtype circulates in the domestic duck population and spreads to almost all the newly housed (and negative) flocks in the time span of a seasonal production cycle. Virological investigation was negative. The survival analysis showed that the probability of seroconversion increased rapidly over the study period, without significant difference among different agro-ecosystems. The analysis suggests that viral spread in the new cycle could be limited if control measures were adopted at the time new flocks are housed. The study recommends that future surveillance schemes for ducks are designed in a way to get as much information as possible from serological results which should drive virological sampling to determined farms.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Patos/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Vet Rec ; 182(2): 51, 2018 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109181

RESUMO

Small ruminant lentivirus infections in goats affect both production and animal welfare. This represents a threat to the qualitative and quantitative growth of goat farming, recently observed in mountainous regions such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). To monitor and eradicate the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in this goat population, a compulsory eradication campaign was launched, based on a strict census of small ruminants and yearly serological testing of all animals, followed by the consequent culling of seropositive individuals. The campaign succeeded in completely eliminating cases of clinical disease in goats, while drastically reducing the seroprevalence at the herd as well as individual animal level. The serological outcome of the introduced control measures was determined using commercially available ELISA kits, demonstrating their suitability for use in this type of campaign, aimed at reducing seroprevalence as well as clinical manifestations of these infections. However, this clear success is diminished by the failure to achieve a complete eradication of these viruses. The reasons leading to the observed tailing phenomenon and the occurrence of new infections in already sanitised flocks are discussed and implementation of further measures are proposed.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Logro , Animais , Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Itália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
19.
Anim Sci J ; 88(10): 1651-1657, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548346

RESUMO

Limited information is available on suitable height of transport crates for turkeys. We compared behaviors and physiological indicators of four groups of 10 female turkeys each confined in either conventional (38.5 cm height) or experimental (77 cm height) crates during six commercial pre-slaughter transportations for 86 km (76 ± 4 min) along two tracts with one-lane streets, crossroads, bends, roundabouts (S1 and S2) and a highway tract (H) between S1 and S2. Only 36% of birds in the higher crates maintained a standing position. In conventional versus experimental crates, the frequency of rising attempts was five/bird/hour versus less than one/bird/hour, while wing flapping was seven/bird/hour versus 20/bird/hour, and balance loss was one versus four/bird/hour. The behaviors of both groups differed significantly according to the route tract, with a lower frequency of stress-related behaviors at H. No scratches, fractures or hematomas were detected in any birds after transportation. Crate height had no significant effect on hemato-biochemical markers. These results suggest that crates enabling a standing position may increase potentially dangerous behaviors. Moreover, busy and curvy routes should be avoided, as they may contribute to increasing the frequency of stress-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Postura/fisiologia , Transportes/métodos , Perus/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Atividade Motora , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 29(1): 35-40, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28074716

RESUMO

We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of progesterone receptors (PRs) in the prostate and bulbourethral glands of thirty-two 10-14-mo-old Charolais bulls following treatment with a low dosage of estrogens. Animals were divided into 2 groups: 16 animals (group T) were treated for 71 d with a therapeutic dose of trenbolone acetate and estradiol by subcutaneous implant, 16 animals (group C) received no treatment. Urine samples were collected both at the beginning of the trial and 9 times during the study. A semiquantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed by counting the number of positive cells in 10 randomly selected high-power fields (hpf). Both groups showed no significant histologic lesions. IHC examination showed positive cells in the epithelium of both glands, with different patterns of distribution between groups. In group C, IHC-positive cells per hpf varied from 0 to 40 in the prostate and from 0 to 32 in the bulbourethral gland. In group T, positive cells varied from 0 to 85 per hpf in the prostate and from 0 to 75 in the bulbourethral gland. The treated group showed significantly higher median numbers of positively stained cells in both organs than the controls ( p < 0.001). Chemical analysis of the urine samples confirmed that the experimental treatment mimics continuous, low-dose administration of anabolic steroids. IHC quantification showed good sensitivity with a high predictive power to correctly classify treated animals and could be used as a preliminary screening test in bulls.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glândulas Bulbouretrais/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Implantes de Medicamento , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Congêneres da Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Acetato de Trembolona/administração & dosagem
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