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1.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep apnea, as measured by polysomnography, is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure. The DASAP-HF (Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea in Patient With Heart Failure) study previously demonstrated that the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) computed by the ApneaScan algorithm (Boston Scientific) accurately identifies severe sleep apnea in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the long-term study phase was to assess the incidence of clinical events after 24 months and investigate the association with RDI values. METHODS: Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% implanted with an ICD were enrolled and followed-up for 24 months. The RDI calculated at 1 month after implantation was used to stratify patients (below or above 30 episodes/h). The endpoints were all-cause death and a combination of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 265 enrolled patients, 224 had usable RDI values. Severe sleep apnea (RDI ≥30 episodes/h) was diagnosed in 115 patients (51%). These patients were more frequently male (84% vs 72%; P = .030) and had higher creatinine levels. During median follow-up of 25 months, 19 patients (8%) died. Cardiovascular hospitalizations were reported in 19 patients (8%). The risk of all-cause death was higher in patients with RDI ≥30 episodes/h (hazard ratio [HR] 3.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-8.21; P = .023), as well as the risk of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.01-3.76; P = .048). At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of death were RDI ≥30 episodes/h (HR 4.02; 95% CI 1.16-13.97; P = .029) and creatinine levels (HR 2.36; 95% CI 1.26-4.42; P = .008). CONCLUSION: In heart failure patients implanted with an ICD, higher RDI values are associated with death and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Device-detected severe sleep apnea independently predicts death.

2.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often detected during hospitalization for surgery or medical illness and is often assumed to be due to the acute condition. METHODS: ASSERT enrolled patients >65 years old without AF. Pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators recorded device-detected AF. We identified participants who were hospitalized and compared the prevalence of AF before and after hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 2580 participants, 436 (16.9%) had a surgical or medical hospitalization. In the 30 days following a first hospitalization, 43 participants (9.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2%-13.1%) had >6 minutes of device-detected AF; 20 (4.6%, 95% CI 2.8%-7.0%) had >6 hours. More participants had AF >6 minutes in the 30 days following hospitalization, as compared to the period 30-60 days before hospitalization (9.9% versus 4.4%, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed for episodes >6 hours (4.6% versus 2.3%, P = 0.03). Roughly half of participants with device-detected AF in the 30 days following hospitalization had ≥1 episodes of the same duration in the 6 months prior (50% [95% CI 31.3%-68.7%] for >6 minutes; 68.8% [95% CI 41.3%-89.0%] for >6 hours). Those with AF in the 30 days following hospitalization were more likely to have had AF in the past (adjusted OR 7.2 95%CI 3.2-15.8 for episodes >6 minutes; adjusted OR 32.6, 95%CI 10.3-103.4 for >6 hours). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of device-detected AF increases around the time of hospitalization for non-cardiac surgery or medical illness. About half of patients with AF around the time of hospitalization previously had similar episodes.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242505

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the effect of pharmacological therapy on long-term prognosis of patients with MINOCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective multicentre cohort study involving 9 Hub Hospitals across Italy we enrolled consecutive patients 18 years and older with diagnosis of MINOCA discharged from 1st March 2012 to 31st March 2018. Data on baseline characteristics and pharmacological therapy at discharge (ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor antagonists; ASA, acetylsalicylic acid; beta-blockers; CCB, calcium-channel blockers; DAPT, dual anti-platelet therapy; statins), were collected systematically. The primary endpoint (PE) of the study was a composite of all cause death or acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome or heart failure leading to hospitalization or stroke. A total of 621 patients were included (mean [SD] age 65.1 [13.9] years; 344 [55.4%] female), of whom 106 (17.1%) experienced PE, including 27 patients (4.3%) who died. Multivariable analysis, after correction for all baseline differences, showed a significant association between pharmacological therapy at discharge and an increased risk of PE for aspirin (HR[95%CI] = 2.47[1.05-5.78], adjusted p = 0.04), whereas beta-blockers were associated with a significant benefit (HR[95%CI] = 0.49 [0.31-0.79], adjusted p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The use of beta-blockers was significantly associated to a less frequent occurrence of adverse outcomes at long-term follow-up among patients with MINOCA, whereas ASA displayed a potentially harmful impact on prognosis. The findings in the study may be relevant for the design of future studies which should take into account possible heterogeneity among MINOCA patients.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144165

RESUMO

The therapy of atrial fibrillation often involves the use of a rhythm control strategy, in which 1 or more antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD), ablative procedures, and/or hybrid approaches involving both of these options are utilized in an attempt to restore and maintain sinus rhythm. For chronic therapy, an AAD is taken daily. However, for patients with symptomatic but infrequent, acute, but nondestabilizing episodes, the use of an AAD only at the time of an episode that can quickly restore sinus rhythm, generally as an out-patient, without the burden of a daily drug regimen, may be better. This is called "pill-in-the-pocket" therapy. This manuscript reviews the "pill-in-the-pocket" concept, traces its development from its origins using quinidine, to its expansion using class IC AADs, to the more recent investigation of ranolazine for this purpose. Who should get it, what it involves, its efficacy rates and concerns are all discussed.

5.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 59(3): 495-507, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048302

RESUMO

Symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) or clinical AF is associated with impaired quality of life, higher risk of stroke, heart failure, and increased mortality. Current clinical classification of AF is based on the duration of AF episodes and the recurrence over time. Appropriate management strategy should follow guidelines of Scientific Societies. The last decades have been marked by the advances in mechanism comprehension, better management of symptomatic AF, particularly regarding stroke prevention with the use of direct oral anticoagulants and a wider use of AF catheter or surgical ablations. The advent of new tools for detection of asymptomatic AF including continuous monitoring with implanted electronic devices and the use of implantable cardiac monitors and recently wearable devices or garments have identified what is called "subclinical AF" encompassing atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs). New concepts such as "AF burden" have resulted in new management challenges. Oral anticoagulation has proven to reduce substantially stroke risk in patients with symptomatic clinical AF but carries the risk of bleeding. Management of detected asymptomatic atrial arrhythmias and their relation to clinical AF and stroke risk is currently under evaluation. Based on a review of recent literature, the validity of current clinical classification has been reassessed and appropriate updates are proposed. Current evidence supporting the inclusion of subclinical AF within current clinical classification is discussed as well as the need for controlled trials which may provide responses to current therapeutic challenges particularly regarding the subsets of asymptomatic AF patients that might benefit from oral anticoagulation.

7.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 388, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cardiologist-only approach to procedural sedation with midazolam in the setting of elective cardioversion (DCC) for AF has already been proven as safe as sedation with propofol and anaesthesiologist assistance. No data exist regarding the safety of such a strategy during emergency procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the feasibility of sedation with midazolam, administered by a cardiologist, to an anaesthesiologist-assisted protocol with propofol in emergency DCC. METHODS: Single centre, prospective, open blinded, randomized study including all consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Department requiring urgent or emergency DCC. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to either propofol or midazolam treatment arm. Patients in the midazolam group were managed by the cardiologist only, while patients treated with propofol group underwent DCC with anaesthesiologist assistance. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled and split into two groups. Eighteen patients (26.1%) experienced peri-procedural adverse events (bradycardia, severe hypotension and severe hypoxia), which were similar between the two groups and all successfully managed by the cardiologist. No deaths, stroke or need for invasive ventilation were registered. Patients treated with propofol experienced a greater decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure when compared with those treated with midazolam. As the procedure was shorter when midazolam was used, the median cost of urgent/emergency DCC with midazolam was estimated to be 129.0 € (1st-3rd quartiles 114.6-151.6) and 195.6 € (1st-3rd quartiles 147.3-726.7) with propofol (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Procedural sedation with midazolam given by the cardiologist alone was feasible, well-tolerated and cost-effective in emergency DCC.

9.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(11): e13317, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the clinical course of patients with history of atrial fibrillation (AF) when admitted in an intensive care environment. We aimed to describe the occurrence of major adverse events in AF patients admitted to a stepdown care unit (SDU) and to analyse clinical factors associated with outcomes, impact of dicumarolic oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy impact and performance of clinical risk scores in this setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-centre, observational retrospective analysis on a population of subjects with AF history admitted to a SDU. Therapeutic failure (composite of transfer to ICU or death) was considered the main study outcome. Occurrence of stroke and major bleeding (MH) was considered as secondary outcomes. The performance of clinical risk scores was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 1430 consecutive patients were enrolled. 194 (13.6%) reported the main outcome. Using multivariate logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.05), acute coronary syndrome (OR:3.10, 95% CI: 1.88-5.12), cardiogenic shock (OR:10.06, 95% CI: 5.37-18.84), septic shock (OR:5.19,95%CI:3.29-18.84), acute respiratory failure (OR:2.49, 95% CI: 1.67-3.64) and OAC use (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02-2.55) were independently associated with main outcome. OAC prescription was associated with stroke risk reduction and to both MH and main outcome risk increase. CHA2 DS2 -VASc (c-index: 0.545, P = .117 for stroke) and HAS-BLED (c-index:0.503, P = .900 for MH) did not significantly predict events occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill AF patients admitted to a SDU, adverse outcomes are highly prevalent. OAC use is associated to an increased risk of therapeutic failure, clinical scores seem unhelpful in predicting stroke and MH, suggesting a highly individualized approach in AF management in this setting.

10.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(4): 382-392, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine how CIED-related complications affect all-cause and cardiovascular mortality over a long-term follow-up. BACKGROUND: Although complications related to implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation are steadily increasing in Europe, little is known about the impact of complications other than device infection on mortality. METHODS: The POINTED (Impact on Patient Outcome and health care utilization of cardiac ImplaNTable Electronic Device complications) registry was a prospective, multicenter, observational study designed to collect data on complications in patients undergoing de novo CIED implantation (NCT03612635). All consecutive patients were enrolled in 6 high-volume centers between January 2010 and December 2012 and followed up for at least 3 years. A complication was defined as any CIED-related adverse event requiring surgical revision after implantation. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 56.9 months), we observed 283 complications in 263 of 2811 consecutive patients (71 ± 14 years of age, 66.7% men). Early complications (≤30 days) were associated with significantly lower cumulative survival from cardiovascular death in comparison with late complications and with freedom from complications. On multivariate analysis, early complication, pneumothorax, and pocket hematoma were significantly associated with a higher risk of all-cause death, while device infection remained the only complication significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular death. CONCLUSIONS: All CIED-related complications are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, and early complications are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. These data underline the importance of specific measures aimed at reducing CIED complications and improving their management.

11.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(17): 1876-1886, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306757

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) is frequent and represents a negative prognostic factor. Recent studies have described subclinical heart involvement of both the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) via speckle-tracking-derived global longitudinal strain (GLS). It is currently unknown if SSc-related cardiomyopathy progresses through time. Our aim was to assess the progression of subclinical cardiac involvement in patients with SSc via speckle-tracking-derived GLS. METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal study enrolling 72 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of SSc and no structural heart disease nor pulmonary hypertension. A standard echocardiographic exam and GLS calculations were performed at baseline and at follow-up. RESULTS: Traditional echocardiographic parameters did not differ from baseline to 20-month follow-up. LV GLS, despite being already impaired at baseline, worsened significantly during follow-up (from -19.8 ± 3.5% to -18.7 ± 3.5%, p = .034). RV GLS impairment progressed through the follow-up period (from -20.9 ± 6.1% to -18.7 ± 5.4%, p = .013). The impairment was more pronounced for the endocardial layers of both LV (from -22.5 ± 3.9% to -21.4 ± 3.9%, p = .041) and RV (-24.2 ± 6.2% to -20.6 ± 5.9%, p = .001). A 1% worsening in RV GLS was associated with an 18% increased risk of all-cause death or major cardiovascular event (p = .03) and with a 55% increased risk of pulmonary hypertension (p = .043). CONCLUSION: SSC-related cardiomyopathy progresses over time and can be detected by speckle-tracking GLS. The highest progression towards reduced deformation was registered for the endocardial layers, which supports the hypothesis that microvascular dysfunction is the main determinant of heart involvement in SSc patients and starts well before overt pulmonary hypertension.

12.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(7): 691-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HeartLogic algorithm measures data from multiple implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-based sensors and combines them into a single index. The associated alert has proved to be a sensitive and timely predictor of impending heart failure (HF) decompensation. HYPOTHESIS: We describe a multicenter experience of remote HF management by means of HeartLogic and appraise the value of an alert-based follow-up strategy. METHODS: The alert was activated in 104 patients. All patients were followed up according to a standardized protocol that included remote data reviews and patient phone contacts every month and at the time of alerts. In-office examinations were performed every 6 months or when deemed necessary. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 13 (10-16) months, the overall number of HF hospitalizations was 16 (rate 0.15 hospitalizations/patient-year) and 100 alerts were reported in 53 patients. Sixty alerts were judged clinically meaningful, and were associated with multiple HF-related conditions. In 48 of the 60 alerts, the clinician was not previously aware of the condition. Of these 48 alerts, 43 triggered clinical actions. The rate of alerts judged nonclinically meaningful was 0.37/patient-year, and the rate of hospitalizations not associated with an alert was 0.05/patient-year. Centers performed remote follow-up assessments of 1113 scheduled monthly transmissions (10.3/patient-year) and 100 alerts (0.93/patient-year). Monthly remote data review allowed to detect 11 (1%) HF events requiring clinical actions (vs 43% actionable alerts, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: HeartLogic allowed relevant HF-related clinical conditions to be identified remotely and enabled effective clinical actions to be taken; the rates of unexplained alerts and undetected HF events were low. An alert-based management strategy seemed more efficient than a scheduled monthly remote follow-up scheme.

13.
J Arrhythm ; 36(2): 353-362, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256887

RESUMO

Background: Parameters measured during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implant also depend on bioelectrical properties of the myocardium. We aimed to explore their potential association with clinical outcomes in patients with single/dual-chamber ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D). Methods: In the framework of the Home Monitoring Expert Alliance, baseline electrical parameters for all implanted leads were compared by the occurrence of all-cause mortality, adjudicated ventricular arrhythmia (VA), and atrial high-rate episode lasting ≥24 hours (24 h AHRE). Results: In a cohort of 2976 patients (58.1% ICD) with a median follow-up of 25 months, event rates were 3.1/100 patient-years for all-cause mortality, 18.1/100 patient-years for VA, and 9.3/100 patient-years for 24 h AHRE. At univariate analysis, baseline shock impedance was consistently lower in groups with events than without, with a 40 Ω cutoff that better identified high-risk patients. However, at multivariable analysis, the adjusted-hazard ratios (HRs) lost statistical significance for any endpoint. Baseline atrial sensing amplitude during sinus rhythm was lower in patients with 24 h AHRE than in those without (2.45 [IQR: 1.65-3.85] vs 3.51 [IQR: 2.37-4.67] mV, P < .01). The adjusted HR for 24 h AHRE in patients with atrial sensing >1.5 mV vs those with values ≤1.5 mV was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.83), P = .006. Conclusions: Although lower baseline shock impedance was observed in patients with events, the association lost statistical significance at multivariable analysis. Conversely, low sinus rhythm atrial sensing (≤1.5 mV) measured with standard transvenous leads could identify subjects at high risk of atrial arrhythmia.

14.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 58(1): 95-101, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel implantable defibrillators (ICDs) allow first (S1) and third (S3) heart sounds to be measured by means of an embedded accelerometer. ICD-measured S1 and S3 have been shown to significantly correlate with hemodynamic changes in acute animal models. The HeartLogic algorithm (Boston Scientific) measures and combines multiple parameters, including S3 and S1, into a single index to predict impending heart failure decompensation. We evaluated the echocardiographic correlates of ICD-measured S1 and S3 in patients with ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICD. METHODS: The HeartLogic feature was activated in 104 patients. During in-office visits, patients underwent echocardiographic evaluation, and parameters of systolic and diastolic function were correlated with S3 and S1 amplitude measured on the same day as the visit. RESULTS: S3 amplitude inversely correlated with deceleration time of the E-wave (r = -0.32; 95% CI -0.46 - -0.17; P < 0.001), and S1 amplitude significantly correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.30; P = 0.021). S3 > 0.9 mG detected a restrictive filling pattern with 85% (95% CI 72%-93%) sensitivity and 82% (95% CI 75%-88%) specificity, while S1 < 1.5 mG detected ejection fraction < 35% with 28% (95% CI 19%-40%) sensitivity and 88% (95% CI 80%-93%) specificity. CONCLUSION: ICD-measured heart sound parameters are significantly correlated with echocardiographic indexes of systolic and diastolic function. This confirms their utility for remote patient monitoring when used as single sensors and their potential relevance when considered in combination with other physiological ICD sensors that evaluate various aspects of heart failure physiology.

15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(1): 5-7, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721018

RESUMO

Symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cause of emergency department (ED) referrals. In case of hemodynamic stability, the choice to either perform early cardioversion (pharmacologic or electrical) or to prescribe rate-lowering drugs and differ any attempts to restore sinus rhythm (i.e., wait-and-see approach) has been widely debated. Results of the recent Rate Control versus Electrical Cardioversion Trial 7-Acute Cardioversion versus Wait and See (RACE 7 ACWAS) have been considered a strong argument in favor of the wait-and-see approach. In this debate, we discuss several issues that would support early cardioversion, ranging from patients' satisfaction and costs to concerns about safety. Furthermore, the wait-and-see approach may translate into a missed opportunity to encourage widespread use of a "pill-in-the-pocket" home treatment: this underused option could allow rapid solving of many AF episodes, potentially avoiding future ED referrals. Our opinion is that a delayed cardioversion may introduce unneeded complications in the straightforward management of a common clinical problem. Therefore, early cardioversion should continue to be the preferred option because of its proven efficacy, safety and convenience.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Heart Fail Rev ; 25(3): 505-511, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713085

RESUMO

One important complication related to takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is adverse rhythm disorders. Our study was conducted to determine the incidence and management of adverse rhythm disorders in TTS and its long-term prognostic impact. We analyzed 906 TTS patients from 9 European centers. Patients were divided into the adverse rhythm disorders group (encompassing ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, torsade de pointes, and asystole or complete atrioventricular block) and non-adverse rhythm disorders group. In our study cohort, we identified 67 (7.4%) patients with presence of adverse rhythm disorders. TTS patients were followed up over a period of 2.8 years. In the adverse rhythm disorders group, 18% of patients presented adverse rhythm disorders before hospital admission. Asystole and/or AV block were significantly more presented before admission (13 patients versus 8 patients; p < 0.01), whereas ventricular tachyarrhythmias were more presented in-hospital (4 patients versus 42 patients; p < 0.01). Adverse rhythm disorders patients suffered more frequently from cardiogenic shock (31% versus 7.6%, p < 0.01) and in-hospital death (10.9% versus 3.6%; p < 0.01). Furthermore, the long-term survival was significantly impaired in adverse rhythm disorders patients as compared with non-adverse rhythm disorders patients; (log-rank p < 0.01). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, cardiogenic shock (HR 2.86, 95% CI 1.1-6.9; p = 0.02) was identified as independent predictors of adverse rhythm disorders. The short- and long-term mortality rate of TTS patients presenting with adverse rhythm disorders was significantly higher than in TTS patients presenting without it. Therefore, TTS patients with adverse rhythm disorders should be carefully monitored during hospital stay and at long-term follow-up.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(1 Pt 1): 1-9, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess speckle-tracking-derived parameters as predictors of first and subsequent ventricular events in patients with structural heart disease and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD). BACKGROUND: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the current primary parameter of risk stratification for ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in structural heart diseases is burdened by many limitations. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational study, all consecutive patients with structural heart disease were admitted for ICD implantation. Patients not followed by a home-monitoring system were excluded. Two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking analysis was used to derive global longitudinal strain (GLS), mechanical dispersion (MD), and delta contraction duration (DCD) of all patients at enrollment. Home monitoring was checked weekly to detect all VAs and ICD therapies. A recurrent event statistical approach (Prentice, Williams, and Peterson model) was applied to evaluate subsequent events after the first ones. RESULTS: A total of 203 patients were consecutively enrolled and followed for a median of 2.2 years. Kaplan-Meier curves showed an increased risk of antitachycardia pacing or shock (log-rank p = 0.003) and VAs (log-rank p = 0.001) associated with lower quartiles of GLS. An impaired GLS was independently associated with an increased risk for the first ICD therapy (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30 to 2.91; p = 0.001) and (HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.98; p = 0.04) for the first VA. GLS impairment was not significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrent ICD therapies or VAs. LVEF, MD, and DCD were not associated with an increased risk of first, second, and third ICD therapies or VA. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired GLS is associated with an increased risk of VAs and appropriate ICD therapies in a consecutive "real-world," unselected population of remotely monitored patients with structural heart disease, although it does not seem reliable in predicting further arrhythmic events after the first one. MD and DCD do not predict first or subsequent arrhythmic events in ICD patients with structural heart disease.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Cardiopatias/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(10): 1197-1208, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the temporal association between atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) and sustained ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in a remotely monitored cohort with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) with and/or without cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). BACKGROUND: Clinical relevance of AHREs in terms of VA rate and survival has not been outlined yet. METHODS: This study analyzed data of patients with ICDs and CRT-Ds from the nationwide Home Monitoring Expert Alliance network. The cohort included 2,435 patients with a median follow-up of 25 months (interquartile range: 13 to 42 months) and age 70 years (range 61 to 77 years); 19.7% were women, 51.4% had coronary artery disease, and 45.2% had a CRT-D. There were 3,410 appropriate VA episodes; 498 (14.6%) were preceded by AHREs within 48 h; in 85.5% of this group, AHREs were still ongoing at episode onset. RESULTS: In a longitudinal analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) of experiencing any VA in a 30-day interval with AHREs versus intervals without AHREs were 2.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86 to 2.97; p < 0.001) for ventricular tachycardia (VT), 3.06 (95% CI: 2.35 to 3.99; p < 0.001) for fast VT, 1.84 (95% CI: 1.36 to 2.48; p < 0.001) for self-extinguishing ventricular fibrillation (VF), and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.17 to 4.57; p = 0.01) for VF. ORs decreased with increasing AHRE burden. Patients with AHREs 48 h before VAs were more likely to experience VA recurrences (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.24; p < 0.001) and had higher overall mortality (HR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.68 to 4.23; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: AHREs were not uncommon 48 h before VAs, which tended to be distributed around intervals with AHREs. Temporal connection between AHREs and VAs was a marker of increased risk of VA recurrence and a poorer prognosis.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Flutter Atrial/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Taquicardia Supraventricular/epidemiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Dispositivos de Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 148: 104443, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493514

RESUMO

Over the last 35 years, flecainide proved itself one of the most commonly used arrhythmic drugs, expanding its original indication for ventricular arrhythmias and results nowadays as the cornerstone of the rhythm control strategy in atrial fibrillation management of patients without structural heart disease. While the increased mortality associated with flecainide in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) still casts his shadow over flecainide clinical profile, this compound has subsequently demonstrated safe and is now used successfully for a plethora of indications, including pharmacological cardioversion of atrial fibrillation, cathecolaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and ventricular pre-excitation. Moreover, the recent marketing of a controlled release formulation, along with the intravenous and immediate release formulations, increased the armamentarium to the clinician's disposal while improving patients' compliance. In the present paper, we offer a comprehensive review of the anti-arrhythmic effects of flecainide, detailing its electrophysiological properties, its effects on the conduction system, its clinical use and the major side effects and contraindications in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flecainida/farmacologia , Flecainida/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos
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