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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9733-9740, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321826

RESUMO

Isoprene has the highest emission into Earth's atmosphere of any nonmethane hydrocarbon. Atmospheric processing of alkenes, including isoprene, via ozonolysis leads to the formation of zwitterionic reactive intermediates, known as Criegee intermediates (CIs). Direct studies have revealed that reactions involving simple CIs can significantly impact the tropospheric oxidizing capacity, enhance particulate formation, and degrade local air quality. Methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide) is a four-carbon, asymmetric, resonance-stabilized CI, produced with 21 to 23% yield from isoprene ozonolysis, yet its reactivity has not been directly studied. We present direct kinetic measurements of MVK-oxide reactions with key atmospheric species using absorption spectroscopy. Direct UV-Vis absorption spectra from two independent flow cell experiments overlap with the molecular beam UV-Vis-depletion spectra reported recently [M. F. Vansco, B. Marchetti, M. I. Lester, J. Chem. Phys. 149, 44309 (2018)] but suggest different conformer distributions under jet-cooled and thermal conditions. Comparison of the experimental lifetime herein with theory indicates only the syn-conformers are observed; anti-conformers are calculated to be removed much more rapidly via unimolecular decay. We observe experimentally and predict theoretically fast reaction of syn-MVK-oxide with SO2 and formic acid, similar to smaller alkyl-substituted CIs, and by contrast, slow removal in the presence of water. We determine products through complementary multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry, observing SO3 and identifying organic hydroperoxide formation from reaction with SO2 and formic acid, respectively. The tropospheric implications of these reactions are evaluated using a global chemistry and transport model.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(18): 3542-3554, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255634

RESUMO

Ozonolysis of isoprene, one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds emitted into the Earth's atmosphere, generates two four-carbon unsaturated Criegee intermediates, methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide) and methacrolein oxide (MACR-oxide). The extended conjugation between the vinyl substituent and carbonyl oxide groups of these Criegee intermediates facilitates rapid electrocyclic ring closures that form five-membered cyclic peroxides, known as dioxoles. This study reports the first experimental evidence of this novel decay pathway, which is predicted to be the dominant atmospheric sink for specific conformational forms of MVK-oxide (anti) and MACR-oxide (syn) with the vinyl substituent adjacent to the terminal O atom. The resulting dioxoles are predicted to undergo rapid unimolecular decay to oxygenated hydrocarbon radical products, including acetyl, vinoxy, formyl, and 2-methylvinoxy radicals. In the presence of O2, these radicals rapidly react to form peroxy radicals (ROO), which quickly decay via carbon-centered radical intermediates (QOOH) to stable carbonyl products that were identified in this work. The carbonyl products were detected under thermal conditions (298 K, 10 Torr He) using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The main products (and associated relative abundances) originating from unimolecular decay of anti-MVK-oxide and subsequent reaction with O2 are formaldehyde (88 ± 5%), ketene (9 ± 1%), and glyoxal (3 ± 1%). Those identified from the unimolecular decay of syn-MACR-oxide and subsequent reaction with O2 are acetaldehyde (37 ± 7%), vinyl alcohol (9 ± 1%), methylketene (2 ± 1%), and acrolein (52 ± 5%). In addition to the stable carbonyl products, the secondary peroxy chemistry also generates OH or HO2 radical coproducts.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(17): 3634-3646, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865470

RESUMO

Photolytically initiated oxidation experiments were conducted on cyclohexane and tetrahydropyran using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry to assess the impact of the ether functional group in the latter species on reaction mechanisms relevant to autoignition. Pseudo-first-order conditions, with [O2]0:[R•]0 > 2000, were used to ensure that R• + O2 → products were the dominant reactions. Quasi-continuous, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light from a synchrotron was employed over the range 8.0-11.0 eV to measure photoionization spectra of the products at two pressures (10 and 1520 Torr) and three temperatures (500, 600, and 700 K). Photoionization spectra of ketohydroperoxides were measured in both species and were qualitatively identical, within the limit of experimental noise, to those of analogous species formed in n-butane oxidation. However, differences were noted in the temperature dependence of ketohydroperoxide formation between the two species. Whereas the yield from cyclohexane is evident up to 700 K, ketohydroperoxides in tetrahydropyran were not detected above 650 K. The difference indicates that reaction mechanisms change due to the ether group, likely affecting the requisite •QOOH + O2 addition step. Branching fractions of nine species from tetrahydropyran were quantified with the objective of determining the role of ring-opening reactions in diminishing ketohydroperoxide. The results indicate that products formed from unimolecular decomposition of R• and •QOOH radicals via concerted C-C and C-O ß-scission are pronounced in tetrahydropyran and are insignificant in cyclohexane oxidation. The main conclusion drawn is that, under the conditions herein, ring-opening pathways reduce the already low steady-state concentration of •QOOH, which in the case of tetrahydropyran prevents •QOOH + O2 reactions necessary for ketohydroperoxide formation. Carbon balance calculations reveal that products from ring opening of both R• and •QOOH, at 700 K, account for >70% at 10 Torr and >55% at 1520 Torr. Three pathways are confirmed to contribute to the depletion of •QOOH in tetrahydropyran including (i) γ-•QOOH → pentanedial + •OH, (ii) γ-•QOOH → vinyl formate + ethene + •OH, and (iii) γ-•QOOH → 3-butenal + formaldehyde + •OH. Analogous mechanisms in cyclohexane oxidation leading to similar intermediates are compared and, on the basis of mass spectral results, confirm that no such ring-opening reactions occur. The implication from the comparison to cyclohexane is that the ether group in tetrahydropyran increases the propensity for ring-opening reactions and inhibits the formation of ketohydroperoxide isomers that precede chain-branching. On the contrary, the absence of such reactions in cyclohexane enables ketohydroperoxide formation up to 700 K and perhaps higher temperature.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(26): 14042-14052, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652179

RESUMO

Ammonia and amines are emitted into the troposphere by various natural and anthropogenic sources, where they have a significant role in aerosol formation. Here, we explore the significance of their removal by reaction with Criegee intermediates, which are produced in the troposphere by ozonolysis of alkenes. Rate coefficients for the reactions of two representative Criegee intermediates, formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) and acetone oxide ((CH3)2COO) with NH3 and CH3NH2 were measured using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent rate coefficients, k(CH2OO + NH3) = (3.1 ± 0.5) × 10-20T2 exp(1011 ± 48/T) cm3 s-1 and k(CH2OO + CH3NH2) = (5 ± 2) × 10-19T2 exp(1384 ± 96/T) cm3 s-1 were obtained in the 240 to 320 K range. Both the reactions of CH2OO were found to be independent of pressure in the 10 to 100 Torr (N2) range, and average rate coefficients k(CH2OO + NH3) = (8.4 ± 1.2) × 10-14 cm3 s-1 and k(CH2OO + CH3NH2) = (5.6 ± 0.4) × 10-12 cm3 s-1 were deduced at 293 K. An upper limit of ≤2.7 × 10-15 cm3 s-1 was estimated for the rate coefficient of the (CH3)2COO + NH3 reaction. Complementary measurements were performed with mass spectrometry using synchrotron radiation photoionization giving k(CH2OO + CH3NH2) = (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-12 cm3 s-1 at 298 K and 4 Torr (He). Photoionization mass spectra indicated production of NH2CH2OOH and CH3N(H)CH2OOH functionalized organic hydroperoxide adducts from CH2OO + NH3 and CH2OO + CH3NH2 reactions, respectively. Ab initio calculations performed at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/cc-pVQZ-F12//CCSD(T)(F12*)/cc-pVDZ-F12 level of theory predicted pre-reactive complex formation, consistent with previous studies. Master equation simulations of the experimental data using the ab initio computed structures identified submerged barrier heights of -2.1 ± 0.1 kJ mol-1 and -22.4 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1 for the CH2OO + NH3 and CH2OO + CH3NH2 reactions, respectively. The reactions of NH3 and CH3NH2 with CH2OO are not expected to compete with its removal by reaction with (H2O)2 in the troposphere. Similarly, losses of NH3 and CH3NH2 by reaction with Criegee intermediates will be insignificant compared with reactions with OH radicals.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4343, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341291

RESUMO

Methanol is a benchmark for understanding tropospheric oxidation, but is underpredicted by up to 100% in atmospheric models. Recent work has suggested this discrepancy can be reconciled by the rapid reaction of hydroxyl and methylperoxy radicals with a methanol branching fraction of 30%. However, for fractions below 15%, methanol underprediction is exacerbated. Theoretical investigations of this reaction are challenging because of intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet surfaces - ∼45% of reaction products are obtained via intersystem crossing of a pre-product complex - which demands experimental determinations of product branching. Here we report direct measurements of methanol from this reaction. A branching fraction below 15% is established, consequently highlighting a large gap in the understanding of global methanol sources. These results support the recent high-level theoretical work and substantially reduce its uncertainties.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(29): 19373-19381, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999060

RESUMO

Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are important intermediate products in atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds, especially of isoprene. This work investigates the reactions of the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, with its co-products from isoprene ozonolysis, MVK and MACR, using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), with either tunable synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source or Lyman-α (10.2 eV) radiation for photoionization. CH2OO was produced via pulsed laser photolysis of CH2I2 in the presence of excess O2. Time-resolved measurements of reactant disappearance and of product formation were performed to monitor reaction progress; first order rate coefficients were obtained from exponential fits to the CH2OO decays. The bimolecular reaction rate coefficients at 300 K and 4 Torr are k(CH2OO + MVK) = (5.0 ± 0.4) × 10-13 cm3 s-1 and k(CH2OO + MACR) = (4.4 ± 1.0) × 10-13 cm3 s-1, where the stated ±2σ uncertainties are statistical uncertainties. Adduct formation is observed for both reactions and is attributed to the formation of a secondary ozonides (1,2,4-trioxolanes), supported by master equation calculations of the kinetics and the agreement between measured and calculated adiabatic ionization energies. Kinetics measurements were also performed for a possible bimolecular CH2OO + CO reaction and for the reaction of CH2OO with CF3CHCH2 at 300 K and 4 Torr. For CH2OO + CO, no reaction is observed and an upper limit is determined: k(CH2OO + CO) < 2 × 10-16 cm3 s-1. For CH2OO + CF3CHCH2, an upper limit of k(CH2OO + CF3CHCH2) < 2 × 10-14 cm3 s-1 is obtained.

8.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 313-330, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604897

RESUMO

The reactions of Criegee intermediates with NO2 have been proposed as a potentially significant source of the important nighttime oxidant NO3, particularly in urban environments where concentrations of ozone, alkenes and NOx are high. However, previous efforts to characterize the yield of NO3 from these reactions have been inconclusive, with many studies failing to detect NO3. In the present work, the reactions of formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO) and acetaldehyde oxide (CH3CHOO) with NO2 are revisited to further explore the product formation over a pressure range of 4-40 Torr. NO3 is not observed; however, temporally resolved and [NO2]-dependent signal is observed at the mass of the Criegee-NO2 adduct for both formaldehyde- and acetaldehyde-oxide systems, and the structure of this adduct is explored through ab initio calculations. The atmospheric implications of the title reaction are investigated through global modelling.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(1): 16-23, 2017 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28001404

RESUMO

Hydroxyacetone (CH3C(O)CH2OH) is observed as a stable end product from reactions of the (CH3)2COO Criegee intermediate, acetone oxide, in a flow tube coupled with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer detection. In the experiment, the isomers at m/z = 74 are distinguished by their different photoionization spectra and reaction times. Hydroxyacetone is observed as a persistent signal at longer reaction times at a higher photoionization threshold of ca. 9.7 eV than Criegee intermediate and definitively identified by comparison with the known photoionization spectrum. Complementary electronic structure calculations reveal multiple possible reaction pathways for hydroxyacetone formation, including unimolecular isomerization via hydrogen atom transfer and -OH group migration as well as self-reaction of Criegee intermediates. Varying the concentration of Criegee intermediates suggests contributions from both unimolecular and self-reaction pathways to hydroxyacetone. The hydroxyacetone end product can provide an effective, stable marker for the production of transient Criegee intermediates in future studies of alkene ozonolysis.

10.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(28): 7130-7, 2015 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25216323

RESUMO

The low temperature kinetics of the reactions of OH with ethanol and propan-2-ol have been studied using a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus coupled with pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) spectroscopy. The rate coefficients for both reactions have been found to increase significantly as the temperature is lowered, by approximately a factor of 18 between 293 and 54 K for ethanol, and by ∼10 between 298 and 88 K for OH + propan-2-ol. The pressure dependence of the rate coefficients provides evidence for two reaction channels: a zero pressure bimolecular abstraction channel leading to products and collisional stabilization of a weakly bound OH-alcohol complex. The presence of the abstraction channel at low temperatures is rationalized by a quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism, most likely through the barrier to hydrogen abstraction from the OH moiety on the alcohol.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Propanóis/química , Temperatura , Gases/química , Cinética , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Dinâmica não Linear , Fotólise , Pressão , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
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