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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4644, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330903


Frameshifting of mRNA during translation provides a strategy to expand the coding repertoire of cells and viruses. How and where in the elongation cycle +1-frameshifting occurs remains poorly understood. We describe seven ~3.5-Å-resolution cryo-EM structures of 70S ribosome complexes, allowing visualization of elongation and translocation by the GTPase elongation factor G (EF-G). Four structures with a + 1-frameshifting-prone mRNA reveal that frameshifting takes place during translocation of tRNA and mRNA. Prior to EF-G binding, the pre-translocation complex features an in-frame tRNA-mRNA pairing in the A site. In the partially translocated structure with EF-G•GDPCP, the tRNA shifts to the +1-frame near the P site, rendering the freed mRNA base to bulge between the P and E sites and to stack on the 16S rRNA nucleotide G926. The ribosome remains frameshifted in the nearly post-translocation state. Our findings demonstrate that the ribosome and EF-G cooperate to induce +1 frameshifting during tRNA-mRNA translocation.

Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico/genética , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica/genética , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Biocatálise , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/química , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura , tRNA Metiltransferases/genética , tRNA Metiltransferases/metabolismo
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5552, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144582


Ribosomes stalled during translation must be rescued to replenish the pool of translation-competent ribosomal subunits. Bacterial alternative rescue factor B (ArfB) releases nascent peptides from ribosomes stalled on mRNAs truncated at the A site, allowing ribosome recycling. Prior structural work revealed that ArfB recognizes such ribosomes by inserting its C-terminal α-helix into the vacant mRNA tunnel. In this work, we report that ArfB can efficiently recognize a wider range of mRNA substrates, including longer mRNAs that extend beyond the A-site codon. Single-particle cryo-EM unveils that ArfB employs two modes of function depending on the mRNA length. ArfB acts as a monomer to accommodate a shorter mRNA in the ribosomal A site. By contrast, longer mRNAs are displaced from the mRNA tunnel by more than 20 Å and are stabilized in the intersubunit space by dimeric ArfB. Uncovering distinct modes of ArfB function resolves conflicting biochemical and structural studies, and may lead to re-examination of other ribosome rescue pathways, whose functions depend on mRNA lengths.

Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Dimerização , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Modelos Biológicos , Conformação Proteica , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/ultraestrutura , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura