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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444096

RESUMO

The main aim of the study was to investigate the reasons that motivate secondary school pupils to practise physical exercise, and how these motives are related to their perception of the climate in physical education classes. Participants: The sample consisted of 448 subjects, 36.8% girls and 63.2% boys, aged between 16 and 19 years (M = 17.61; SD = 0.96). The methodology was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Two instruments were applied: self-reporting by the pupils of their motives for practising physical exercise, and a questionnaire on their attitudes towards teachers' behaviour and the physical education programme. The results showed that the strongest motive for the practice of physical exercise was "Prevention and positive health" (M = 5.29; SD = 1.45). In conclusion, there is a weak correlation among the pupils' motives for practising physical exercise and their perception of the climate in class.


Assuntos
Motivação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1166-1172, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198308

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: actualmente, el ejercicio físico practicado de manera regular es la mejor herramienta disponible para fomentar el bienestar de las personas y una mejor salud. OBJETIVO: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar el nivel de condición física y el estado nutricional, así como la relación entre estos, en estudiantes de enseñanza básica de la ciudad de Chillán. MÉTODOS: el estudio es de tipo descriptivo, de corte transversal y relacional. Participaron 2500 estudiantes. Para evaluar la condición física se utilizaron los siguientes test: Wells y Dillons (flexibilidad), Sargent Test (potencia miembros inferiores), Test de 1 Milla de la AAPHARD (capacidad aeróbica) y Abdominales en 30 segundos (capacidad muscular localizada). RESULTADOS: al comparar por sexos, los hombres presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas en las variables físicas de capacidad aeróbica (p = 0,00), abdominales (p = 0,00) y salto (p = 0,00); solo en el caso de la flexibilidad las mujeres presentaron mejores resultados (p = 0,01). Al relacionar el IMC con la capacidad física se observa una relación negativa en ambos sexos, es decir: a mayor IMC, menor es la cantidad de abdominales realizados (r = -0,032; r = -0,084, mujeres y hombres, respectivamente) y la capacidad aeróbica (r = -0,063 y r = -0,023, mujeres y hombres, respectivamente). En flexibilidad y salto se observa una correlación positiva, aunque esta es insignificante. CONCLUSIÓN: los hombres y las mujeres con normopeso presentan una mejor condición física en comparación con quienes presentan sobrepeso u obesidad. En cuanto al sexo, los hombres presentan una mejor condición física salvo en la prueba de flexibilidad, donde las mujeres presentan los mejores resultados. Además, se observa una relación negativa en ambos sexos entre la condición física y la composición corporal, donde un IMC elevado se traduce en un bajo nivel de rendimiento físico


INTRODUCTION: currently, regular physical exercise is the best tool available to promote people's well-being and improve their health. OBJECTIVE: the objective of the study was to determine the level of physical condition and nutritional status, as well as the relationship between them, in elementary school students in the city of Chillán. METHODS: the study is of the descriptive, cross-sectional, relational type. A total of 2500 students participated. To evaluate physical condition, the followingtests were used: Wells and Dillons (flexibility), Sargent Test (lower limb power), AAPHARD's 1-Mile Test (cardiorespiratory resistance), and Sit-ups in 30 seconds (localized muscular resistance). RESULTS: when comparing by sex, men presented significant statistical differences in the physical variables of aerobic capacity (p = 0.00), situps (p = 0.00) and jumping (p = 0.00); only in the case of flexibility did women present better results (p = 0.01). When relating BMI to physical capacity a negative relationship is observed in both sexes-that is, the higher the BMI, the lower the amount of sit-ups (r = -0.032; r = -0.084, women and men, respectively) and aerobic capacity (r = -0.063 and r = -0.023, women and men, respectively). In flexibility and jump a positive though negligible correlation was observed. CONCLUSION: normal-weight men and women have a better physical condition as compared to those with overweight or obesity. As for sex, men have a better physical condition except for the flexibility test, where women obtain the best results. In addition, a negative relationship is observed in both sexes between physical condition and body composition, where a high BMI results in a low level of physical performance


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Composição Corporal , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Antropometria , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375134

RESUMO

Lack of physical activity is a global public health problem causing not only morbidity and premature mortality, but it is also a major economic burden worldwide. One of the cornerstones of a physically active lifestyle is Motor Competence (MC). MC is a complex biocultural attribute and therefore, its study requires a multi-sectoral, multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary approach. MC is a growing area of research, especially in children and adolescents due to its positive association with a plethora of health and developmental outcomes. Many questions, however, remain to be answered in this field of research, with regard to: (i) Health and Developmental-related Associations of MC; (ii) Assessment of MC; (iii) Prevalence and Trends of MC; (iv) Correlates and Determinants of MC; (v) MC Interventions, and (vi) Translating MC Research into Practice and Policy. This paper presents a narrative review of the literature, summarizing current knowledge, identifying key research gaps and presenting questions for future investigation on MC in children and adolescents. This is a collaborative effort from the International Motor Competence Network (IMCNetwork) a network of academics and researchers aiming to promote international collaborative research and knowledge translation in the expansive field of MC. The knowledge and deliverables generated by addressing and answering the aforementioned research questions on MC presented in this review have the potential to shape the ways in which researchers and practitioners promote MC and physical activity in children and adolescents across the world.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Adolescente , Criança , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Prevalência
4.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(6): 1166-1172, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119391

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: currently, regular physical exercise is the best tool available to promote people's well-being and improve their health. Objective: the objective of the study was to determine the level of physical condition and nutritional status, as well as the relationship between them, in elementary school students in the city of Chillán. Methods: the study is of the descriptive, cross-sectional, relational type. A total of 2500 students participated. To evaluate physical condition, the followingtests were used: Wells and Dillons (flexibility), Sargent Test (lower limb power), AAPHARD's 1-Mile Test (cardiorespiratory resistance), and Sit-ups in 30 seconds (localized muscular resistance). Results: when comparing by sex, men presented significant statistical differences in the physical variables of aerobic capacity (p = 0.00), sit-ups (p = 0.00) and jumping (p = 0.00); only in the case of flexibility did women present better results (p = 0.01). When relating BMI to physical capacity a negative relationship is observed in both sexes-that is, the higher the BMI, the lower the amount of sit-ups (r = -0.032; r = -0.084, women and men, respectively) and aerobic capacity (r = -0.063 and r = -0.023, women and men, respectively). In flexibility and jump a positive though negligible correlation was observed. Conclusion: normal-weight men and women have a better physical condition as compared to those with overweight or obesity. As for sex, men have a better physical condition except for the flexibility test, where women obtain the best results. In addition, a negative relationship is observed in both sexes between physical condition and body composition, where a high BMI results in a low level of physical performance.

5.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study summarizes the findings of the 2018 Chilean Report Card (RC) on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Adolescents and compares the results with the first Chilean RC and with other countries from the Global Matrix 3.0. METHODS: A Research Work Group using a standardized methodology from the Global Matrix 3.0 awarded grades for 13 PA-related indicators based on the percentage of compliance for defined benchmarks. Different public data sets, government reports, and papers informed the indicators. RESULTS: The grades assigned were for (1) "behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels": overall PA, D-; organized sport participation, D-; active play, INC; and active transportation, F; (2) "factors associated with cardiometabolic risk": sedentary behavior, C-; overweight and obesity, F; fitness, D; sleep, INC; and (3) "factors that influence PA": family and peers, F; school, D; inclusion, INC; community and built environment, B; government strategies and investments, B-. CONCLUSIONS: Chile's grades remained low compared with the first RC. On the positive side, Chile is advancing in environmental and policy aspects. Our findings indicate that the implementation of new strategies should be developed through collaboration between different sectors to maximize effective investments for increasing PA and decreasing sedentary time among children and adolescents in Chile.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422866

RESUMO

(1) Background: The association between actual and perceived motor competence (MC) is one of the underlying mechanisms that influence the practice of physical activity. This study mainly aimed to analyze the structure and correlations between actual and perceived MC in schoolchildren and to compare actual and perceived MC between girls and boys. (2) Methods: A total of 467 fifth and sixth graders (43.9% girls, M = 11.26, SD = 0.70) participated. Actual and perceived MC were assessed. To examine the proposed four factor models, structural equation models (factor analyses, latent correlations, invariance testing for gender) were conducted. Student t-test for independent samples was used to compare boys and girls. (3) Results: Proposed models achieved acceptable fit values with moderate correlation between the factors according to the type of MC in actual and perceived MC. Invariant factor structure in boys and girls was revealed. Boys performed and perceived themselves higher in object control than girls; whereas girls showed higher actual and perceived self-movement than boys. (4) Conclusions: The association between actual and perceived MC exists both globally and separately by gender, despite the differences between boys and girls. It is important to consider the role of gender and type of MC in the development of motor competencies, as well as in the strengthening of the children's sense of competence.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Autoimagem
7.
Cad. pesqui ; 50(175): 96-111, enero-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1132906

RESUMO

Resumo O presente estudo tem o objetivo de determinar a forma como estudantes de diferentes culturas percebem a utilidade das aulas de Educação Física. Foram entrevistados 2.748 estudantes (1.373 da região da Araucanía, Chile; e 1.375 do Estado de Sarre, Alemanha). Tanto os alunos chilenos como os alemães reconhecem mais uma utilidade "esportivo-recreativa" que uma "socioeducativa", e os chilenos apresentam valores mais altos que seus pares alemães; por outro lado, ambos os grupos manifestam seu desacordo com a opinião de que a Educação Física não lhes serve para nada. Os estudantes consideram que suas aulas de Educação Física foram úteis, o que surge como uma oportunidade para reforçar a geração de experiências positivas nas aulas e consolidar as aprendizagens.


Abstract The aim of this study is to show how the students of different cultures perceive their physical education classes. 2748 students (1373 from the Araucania Region in Chile and 1375 from Saarland in Germany) have been surveyed. The students of both countries agree that the "sportive-recreational" aspect is more important than the "social-educational" one, while the Chilean students present higher values than the German students do. In addition, the students of both countries disagree to the statement that physical education is useless for them. The Chilean and German students think that their physical education class is useful. This knowledge can be used as an opportunity to reinforce the generation of positive experiences in class and to consolidate the learning processes.


Résumé L'objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la façon dont des étudiants issus de cultures différentes perçoivent l'utilité des classes d'Éducation Physique. 2748 élèves (1373 de la région d'Araucania, au Chili; et 1375 de l'État de Sarre, en Allemagne) ont été interrogés. Les étudiants chiliens et allemands reconnaissent une utilité plus "sportive-récréative" que "socio-éducative", les valeurs présentées par les Chiliens sont cependant plus élevées que chez les allemands. En outre, les deux groupes expriment leur désaccord quant à l'opinion que l'éducation physique ne leur apporte rien. Dans l'ensemble, les élèves considèrent que les cours d'Éducation Physique ont été utiles, ce qui représente une opportunité pour renforcer les expériences positives en classe et pour consolider les apprentissages.


Resumen El presente estudio tiene como propósito determinar cómo escolares de diferentes culturas perciben la utilidad de las clases de Educación Física. Fueron encuestados 2748 escolares (1373 de la Región de La Araucanía, Chile; y 1375 del Estado de Sarre, Alemania). Tanto los escolares chilenos como los alemanes reconocen una utilidad "deportivo-recreativa" por sobre una utilidad "socioeducativa", siendo los chilenos quienes presentan valores más altos que sus pares alemanes; además, ambos grupos manifiestan su desacuerdo en que la Educación Física no les ha servido para nada. Los escolares consideran que sus clases de Educación Física les han sido útiles, lo que se presenta como una oportunidad para reforzar la generación de experiencias positivas en las clases y consolidar los aprendizajes.

9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. esporte ; 40(3): 295-301, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-977487

RESUMO

El propósito del estudio fue determinar el nivel de relación entre indicadores antropométricos segmentarios de muscularidad con los niveles de potencia expresados en la fuerza explosiva y elástico-explosiva. Para ello se evaluó a 31 deportistas varones (edad = 15,5 ± 1,7 años; peso = 61,4 ± 11,5 kg) de diversas disciplinas del Programa de Proyección Deportiva Nacional de la Región de Aysén, Chile, a través de los protocolos de la ISAK para las evaluaciones antropométricas y test de Bosco para la valoración de potencia de salto, tras lo cual se observó una alta intensidad de asociación entre potencia absoluta de los saltos SJ y CMJ, y todos los parámetros antropométricos de muslo (r >0,8). Con ello se logró establecer un modelo predictivo del rendimiento en salto mediante 3 mediciones antropométricas.


Abstract The purpose of this study was determined the level of relation between anthropometric segmental indicators of muscularity with the power levels expressed in the explosive and elastic strength, to carry it out 31 male athletes were (Age = 15.5 ±1.7 years; Weight = 61.4 ±11.5 kg) of diverse disciplines from the Program of National Sportive Projection of the Region of Aysén-Chile, were evaluated. The protocols of the ISAK for the anthropometric evaluations and Test of Bosco for the assessment of power of jump were followed. Results: An association between absolute power of the jumps SJ and CMJ and all the anthropometric variables of thigh (r > 0,8) it was able to establish a predictive model of the performance in jump by means of 3 anthropometric measurements has been established.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o nível de relação entre indicadores antropométricos segmentários de muscularidade com os níveis de potência expressados na força explosiva e elástico explosiva. Para tal, avaliaram-se a 31 esportistas varões (idade = 15,5 ± 1,7 anos; peso = 61,4 ±11,5 kg) de diversas disciplinas do Programa de Projeção Esportiva Nacional da Região de Aysén, Chile. Seguiram-se os protocolos da ISAK para as avaliações antropométricas e teste de Bosco para a valoração de potência de salto. Observa-se uma alta intensidade de associação entre potência absoluta dos saltos SJ e CMJ e todas as variáveis antropométricas da coxa (r > 0,8). Estabeleceu-se um modelo preditivo do rendimento em salto mediante três medidas antropométricas.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(3): 976-986, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, have been historically under-represented due to the lack of surveillance of physical behaviours in young populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare overall physical activity (PA), active transportation to and from school (i.e. walking or cycling), physical education (PE) participation, and sedentary behaviour (SB) in adolescents from 26 countries in LAC. METHODS: Data were collected in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2007-13). Prevalences for each physical behaviour were compared by sex across the region. RESULTS: In total, 64 034 adolescents provided complete data (age range: 11 to 18 years; 47.7% male). Only about 15% of adolescents in LAC countries were physically active (at least 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA) with most countries showing sex disparities. Overall, 41.9% reported being active for transportation to and from school at least 3 days per week. In 12 countries, at least 50% of the adolescents reported sitting ≥3 h per day outside school, and a third of adolescents reported participation in PE classes on 3 days or more per week. CONCLUSIONS: The study sets a challenge for the LAC region, as physical inactivity and SB are highly prevalent across all countries. Gender inequity was shown in most countries, with boys reporting more active behaviours. Regional and national actions for implementing policies to revert this situation are urgent.

11.
Nutr Hosp ; 33(6): 1379-1384, 2016 Nov 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000469

RESUMO

Introducción: Chile en las últimas décadas ha experimentado un cambio en su perfil epidemiológico nutricional, pasando de una situación caracterizada por una elevada prevalencia de desnutrición y enfermedades infecciosas/parasitarias a otro completamente distinto, en donde las enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas presentan una elevada prevalencia.Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio es elaborar tablas de referencia de aspectos antropométricos y de condición física en estudiantes varones de 10 a 14 años de la ciudad de Chillán.Método: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra se compone de 1250 varones con edades entre los 10 y 14 años. Para la confección de las tablas de referencia se utilizó estadística descriptiva y estas fueron divididas en cinco clasificaciones desde muy malo, malo, media, bueno y muy bueno, teniendo como parámetro la edad.Resultados: observamos niveles importantes de sobrepeso que se asociaron con bajo desempeño físico, lo que plantea la urgencia de realizar un seguimiento en el tiempo con herramientas de fácil aplicación como la presente batería; con el fin de detectar a tiempo a los niños que tienen bajos niveles de condición física y tomar medidas orientadas a estimular o mejorar la capacidad física como factores protectores de promoción de la salud y como ayuda en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas relacionadas con el sobrepeso u obesidad.Conclusión: en este trabajo se han establecido valores de referencia para posteriores estudios en cuanto a la condición física orientada a la salud en estudiantes varones de 10 a 14 años de la ciudad de Chillán, que permitirán evaluar e interpretar correctamente la condición física orientada a la salud de este grupo etario.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Padrões de Referência , Estudantes
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 33(6): 1379-1384, nov.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-159819

RESUMO

Introducción: Chile en las últimas décadas ha experimentado un cambio en su perfil epidemiológico nutricional, pasando de una situación caracterizada por una elevada prevalencia de desnutrición y enfermedades infecciosas/parasitarias a otro completamente distinto, en donde las enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas presentan una elevada prevalencia. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio es elaborar tablas de referencia de aspectos antropométricos y de condición física en estudiantes varones de 10 a 14 años de la ciudad de Chillán. Método: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra se compone de 1250 varones con edades entre los 10 y 14 años. Para la confección de las tablas de referencia se utilizó estadística descriptiva y estas fueron divididas en cinco clasificaciones desde muy malo, malo, media, bueno y muy bueno, teniendo como parámetro la edad. Resultados: observamos niveles importantes de sobrepeso que se asociaron con bajo desempeño físico, lo que plantea la urgencia de realizar un seguimiento en el tiempo con herramientas de fácil aplicación como la presente batería; con el fi n de detectar a tiempo a los niños que tienen bajos niveles de condición física y tomar medidas orientadas a estimular o mejorar la capacidad física como factores protectores de promoción de la salud y como ayuda en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas relacionadas con el sobrepeso u obesidad. Conclusión: en este trabajo se han establecido valores de referencia para posteriores estudios en cuanto a la condición física orientada a la salud en estudiantes varones de 10 a 14 años de la ciudad de Chillán, que permitirán evaluar e interpretar correctamente la condición física orientada a la salud de este grupo etario (AU)


Introduction: Chile in recent decades has experienced a change in its nutritional epidemiological profile, going from a situation characterized by a high prevalence of malnutrition and infectious/parasitic diseases to another completely different, where chronic and degenerative diseases have high prevalence. Objective: The aim of the study is to develop reference values of health-related physical fitness and health male students 10-14 years of the city of Chillan. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consists of 1,250 men aged from 10 to 14 years. Descriptive statistics were used for the preparation of these reference tables and these were divided into five classifications from very bad, bad, average, good and very good, within the age parameter. Results: We observed important levels of overweight were associated with low physical performance, raising the urgency to track in time, with tools for easy application as is this battery; in order to detect promptly the children who have low fitness levels and take measures to stimulate or improve physical capacity as a protective factors for health promotion and as an aid in the prevention of chronic diseases related to overweight or obesity. Conclusion: In this work we have established reference values for further studies regarding the health-oriented male students 10-14 years of the city of Chillan that will allow to asses and interpret correctly health-related physical fitness of this age group (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Antropometria/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Peso-Estatura , Crescimento , Valores de Referência , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente
13.
Mot. hum. (En linea) ; 15(2): 116-123, jul.-dic. 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-831137

RESUMO

Debido a la predominancia de movimientos breves y explosivos, la larga duración de los torneos oficiales, y las diferencias reglamentarias, técnicas y tácticas de cada una de las armas, no existe una homogeneidad de criterios en referencia a la contribución de los sistemas energéticos participantes en la esgrima. Determinar los niveles máximos de lactato sanguíneo que producen esgrimistas durante una competencia oficial, y determinar si existen diferencias según cada arma. Se realizó la medición de lactato a 24 esgrimistas adultos (ocho por cada una de las tres armas) luego de finalizado los combates de la fase de octavos de final de una competencia oficial de carácter Nacional. Los valores promedios obtenidos para las tres armas fueron de 2,62 mmol/lt. (espada: 2,46 mmol/lt; sable: 2,67 mmol/lt y florete: 2,73 mmol/lt.), no existiendo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las tres armas. Las concentraciones máximas de lactato en la fase de octavos de final de una competencia oficial indican una escasa participación del sistema anaeróbico láctico; además, el tipo de arma no influiría en las concentraciones de ácido láctico producidas en combate. Los resultados de este estudio sirven de herramienta para mejorar la aplicación de las cargas físicas y selección de métodos de entrenamiento, los que deben considerar la predominancia de los sistemas energéticos anaeróbico aláctico y aeróbico.


Due to the predominance of brief and explosive movements, the length of the official tournaments and the differences in regulations, techniques and tactics of each of the weapons, there’s a lack of criteria homogeneity in reference to the contribution of the energy systems involved in fencing. The objective of this study is to determine the maximal levels of blood lactate produced by fencers during an official tournament, and determine if differences exist between each weapon.A lactate measurement was performed on 24 adult fencers (eight for each of the three weapons) after the end of their respective matches in the combats of the eighth finals in a official competition. The values from the averages obtained for the three weapons were that of 2,62 mmol/lt (sword: 2,46 mmol/lt; sable 2,67 mmol/lt and foil: 2,73 mmol/lt), without any statistical significant differences found between the three weapons. The maximal concentrations of lactate in the combats of the eighth finals in a official competition indicate a low participation of the anaerobic lactate system; furthermore, the type of weapon would not influence the maximum concentrations of lactic acid produced in combat. The results of this study can be used as a tool to improve on the application of physical burdens and selection of training methods, in particular, those which must take into account the anaerobic lactic and aerobic systems.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Esportes
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