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1.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372606

RESUMO

As demonstrated with the novel coronavirus pandemic, rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to determine the clinical characteristic of a disease and to improve vaccine development. Once the infected person is identified, hematological findings may be used to predict disease outcome and offer the correct treatment. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and clinical parameters are pivotal to track infections during clinical trials and set protection status. This is also applicable for re-emerging diseases like dengue fever, which causes outbreaks in Asia and Latin America every 4 to 5 years. Some areas in the US are also endemic for the transmission of dengue virus (DENV), the causal agent of dengue fever. However, significant number of DENV infections in rural areas are diagnosed solely by clinical and hematological findings because of the lack of availability of ELISA or PCR-based tests or the infrastructure to implement them in the near future. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are a less sensitive, yet they represent a timely way of detecting DENV infections. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between hematological findings and the probability for an NS1-based DENV RDT to detect the DENV NS1 antigen. We also aimed to describe the hematological parameters that are associated with the diagnosis through each test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208455, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601814

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus responsible for a significant number of deaths in Latin America. This virus is transmitted through the bite of Aedes aegypti, the main mosquito vector, and Ae. albopictus. During blood uptake, the mosquito injects its saliva into the host to facilitate the feeding process. Mosquito saliva contains potent immunogens capable of inducing antibody production directly related to mosquito bite exposure intensity and disease risk. In this study, we first determined the DENV infection status by two different DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) based rapid tests and qRT-PCR, then measured the levels of IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against salivary proteins of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes in volunteers living in a dengue endemic area. Our results show that people with a positive DENV diagnosis present higher levels of IgG4 antibodies than people with a negative diagnostic test, and that these antibody levels were higher in people with secondary DENV infections. With this study, we show that detection of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito saliva may be a reliable method to evaluate the risk of dengue infection.


Assuntos
Aedes/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Gen Virol ; 98(7): 1702-1712, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691657

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been responsible for a serious outbreak of disease in South and Central America. Infection with ZIKV has been associated with severe neurological symptoms and the development of microcephaly in unborn fetuses. Many of the regions involved in the current outbreak are known to be endemic for another flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV), which indicates that a large percentage of the population may have pre-existing DENV immunity. Thus, it is vital to investigate what impact pre-existing DENV immunity has on ZIKV infection. Here, we use primary human myeloid cells as a model for ZIKV enhancement in the presence of DENV antibodies. We show that sera containing DENV antibodies from individuals living in a DENV-endemic area are able to enhance ZIKV infection in a human macrophage-derived cell line and primary human macrophages. We also demonstrate altered pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages with enhanced ZIKV infection. Our study indicates an important role for pre-existing DENV immunity on ZIKV infection in primary human immune cells and establishes a relevant in vitro model to study ZIKV antibody-dependent enhancement.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Facilitadores/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Células U937 , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
4.
Front Immunol ; 7: 380, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27746778

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens. However, there is very little ongoing research or information available regarding IgG4 bi-specificity with regard to infectious disease, particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, filariasis, or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings.

5.
J Med Entomol ; 53(3): 505-512, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26843451

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes spp mosquitoes during a bloodmeal uptake. The bloodmeal consists of host cells, immune factors, and possibly blood-borne pathogens, such as arboviruses. Human cells and immune-related factors, like the complement system, can remain active in the bloodmeal and may be able to interact with pathogens in the mosquito. Previous studies have shown that active complement proteins impact Plasmodium parasite viability in the Anopheles midgut. Thus, we investigated the effects of the human complement on DENV infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti. Our findings indicate that mosquitoes receiving DENV mixed with normal non-inactivated human serum showed significantly lower viremia than those fed with heat-inactivated serum. This implies that human complement may act to limit DENV infection in the mosquito midgut. In addition, we found that human complement C5a protein was able to directly communicate with mosquito cells, affecting the cell antiviral response against DENV. Our results also show that human C5a protein is able to interact with several membrane-bound mosquito proteins. Together these results suggest an important role of human complement protein in DENV transmission.


Assuntos
Aedes/imunologia , Complemento C5a/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/virologia
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 8: 533, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26464073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During blood meal, the female mosquito injects saliva able to elicit an immune response in the vertebrate. This immune response has been proven to reflect the intensity of exposure to mosquito bites and risk of infection for vector transmitted pathogens such as malaria. The peptide gSG6-P1 of An. gambiae saliva has been demonstrated to be antigenic and highly specific to Anopheles as a genus. However, the applicability of gSG6-P1 to measure exposure to different Anopheles species endemic in the Americas has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to test whether human participants living in American countries present antibodies able to recognize the gSG6-P1, and whether these antibodies are useful as a proxy for mosquito bite exposure and malaria risk. METHODS: We tested human serum samples from Colombia, Chile, and the United States for the presence of IgG antibodies against gSG6-P1 by ELISA. Antibody concentrations were expressed as delta optical density (ΔOD) of each sera tested in duplicates. The difference in the antibody concentrations between groups was tested using the nonparametric Mann Whitney test (independent groups) and the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (dependent groups). All differences were considered significant with a P < 0.05. RESULTS: We found that the concentration of gSG6-P1 antibodies was significantly correlated with malaria infection status and mosquito bite exposure history. People with clinical malaria presented significantly higher concentrations of IgG anti-gSG6-P1 antibodies than healthy controls. Additionally, a significant raise in antibody concentrations was observed in subjects returning from malaria endemic areas. CONCLUSION: Our data shows that gSG6-P1 is a suitable candidate for the evaluation of exposure to Anopheles mosquito bites, risk of malaria transmission, and effectiveness of protection measures against mosquito bites in the Americas.


Assuntos
Anopheles/imunologia , Anticorpos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Malária/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Adolescente , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Anopheles/fisiologia , Anticorpos/sangue , Chile , Colômbia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Malária/sangue , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , North Carolina , Projetos Piloto , Plasmodium/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Biomedica ; 35(4): 572-81, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26844447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mosquito salivary proteins are able to induce an antibody response that reflects the level of human-vector contact. IgG antibodies against dengue virus (DENV-IgG) are indicators of previous exposure. The risk of DENV transmission is not only associated to mosquito or dengue factors, but also to socioeconomic factors that may play an important role in the disease epidemiology. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitos in different stages in households and the history of dengue exposure on vector-human contact determined by the level of anti-salivary protein antibodies in people living in a Colombian endemic area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pilot study of 58 households and 55 human subjects was conducted in Norte de Santander, Colombia. A questionnaire for socioeconomic factors was administered and houses were examined for the presence of Ae. aegypti specimens in the aquatic stages. The level of DENV-IgG antibodies (DENV-IgG), in addition to IgG and IgM anti- Ae. aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies (SGE-IgG, SGE-IgM) were evaluated by ELISA using blood collected in filter paper. RESULTS: We found a significant higher level of SGE-IgG antibodies in subjects living in houses with Ae. aegypti in aquatic stages. We also found a higher concentration of SGE-IgG antibodies in people exposed to DENV, a positive correlation between IgM-SGE and IgG-DENV and a negative correlation with IgG-SGE. CONCLUSION: Anti-salivary proteins antibodies are consistent with the presence of Ae. aegypti aquatic stages inside houses and DENV-IgG antibodies concentrations.


Assuntos
Aedes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Exposição Ambiental , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/virologia , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Larva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e81211, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24312537

RESUMO

Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an "Ae. aegypti-free" area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence.


Assuntos
Aedes/química , Anticorpos/imunologia , Misturas Complexas/química , Vírus da Dengue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Insetos Vetores/química , Glândulas Salivares/química , Adulto , Aedes/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Misturas Complexas/imunologia , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Glândulas Salivares/imunologia
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