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1.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(9): 2715-2726, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although low back pain (LBP) is a high-impact health condition, its burden has not been examined from the syndemic perspective. OBJECTIVE: To compare and assess clinical, socioeconomic, and geographic factors associated with LBP prevalence in low-income and upper-middle-income countries using syndemic and syndemogenesis frameworks based on network and cluster analyses. METHODS: Analyses were performed by adopting network and cluster design, whereby interrelations among the individual and social variables and their combinations were established. The required data was sourced from the databases pertaining to the six Latin-American countries. RESULTS: Database searches yielded a sample of 55,724 individuals (mean age 43.38 years, SD = 17.93), 24.12% of whom were indigenous, and 60.61% were women. The diagnosed with LBP comprised 6.59% of the total population. Network analysis showed higher relationship individuals' variables such as comorbidities, unhealthy habits, low educational level, living in rural areas, and indigenous status were found to be significantly associated with LBP. Cluster analysis showed significant association between LBP prevalence and social variables (e.g. Gender inequality Index, Human Development Index, Income Inequality). CONCLUSIONS: LBP is a highly prevalent condition in Latin-American populations with a high impact on the quality of life of young adults. It is particularly debilitating for women, indigenous individuals, and those with low educational level, and is further exacerbated by the presence of comorbidities, especially those in the mental health domain. Thus, the study findings demonstrate that syndemic and syndemogenesis have the potential to widen the health inequities stemming from LBP in vulnerable populations. Key points • Syndemic and syndemogenesis evidence health disparities in Latin-American populations, documenting the complexity of suffering from a disease such as low back pain that is associated with comorbidities, unhealthy habits, and the social and regional context where they live. • The use of network and cluster analyses are useful tools for documenting the complexity and the multifaceted impact in health in large populations as well as the differences between countries. • The variability and impact of socioeconomic indicators (e.g., Gini index) related to low back pain and comorbidities could be felt through the use of cluster analysis, which generates evidence of regional inequality in Latin America. • Populations can be studied from different models (network and cluster analysis) and grouping, presenting new interpretations beyond geographical groupings, such as syndemic and inequity in health.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 685-699, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide an update of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management recommendations to account for the most recent developments in the field. METHODS: An international task force considered new evidence supporting or contradicting previous recommendations and novel therapies and strategic insights based on two systematic literature searches on efficacy and safety of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) since the last update (2016) until 2019. A predefined voting process was applied, current levels of evidence and strengths of recommendation were assigned and participants ultimately voted independently on their level of agreement with each of the items. RESULTS: The task force agreed on 5 overarching principles and 12 recommendations concerning use of conventional synthetic (cs) DMARDs (methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide, sulfasalazine); glucocorticoids (GCs); biological (b) DMARDs (tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab), abatacept, rituximab, tocilizumab, sarilumab and biosimilar (bs) DMARDs) and targeted synthetic (ts) DMARDs (the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors tofacitinib, baricitinib, filgotinib, upadacitinib). Guidance on monotherapy, combination therapy, treatment strategies (treat-to-target) and tapering on sustained clinical remission is provided. Cost and sequencing of b/tsDMARDs are addressed. Initially, MTX plus GCs and upon insufficient response to this therapy within 3 to 6 months, stratification according to risk factors is recommended. With poor prognostic factors (presence of autoantibodies, high disease activity, early erosions or failure of two csDMARDs), any bDMARD or JAK inhibitor should be added to the csDMARD. If this fails, any other bDMARD (from another or the same class) or tsDMARD is recommended. On sustained remission, DMARDs may be tapered, but not be stopped. Levels of evidence and levels of agreement were mostly high. CONCLUSIONS: These updated EULAR recommendations provide consensus on the management of RA with respect to benefit, safety, preferences and cost.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas , Medicamentos Sintéticos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/economia , Produtos Biológicos/economia , Consenso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Sintéticos/economia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
4.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 13(4): 201-209, jul.-ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164335

RESUMO

Objective. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed tofacitinib efficacy and safety in the Latin American (LA) subpopulation of global Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies. Materials and methods. Data from LA patients with RA and inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were pooled across five Phase 3 studies. Phase 3 patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10mg twice daily (BID), adalimumab or placebo; patients in the single LTE study received tofacitinib 5 or 10mg BID; treatments were administered alone or with conventional synthetic DMARDs. Efficacy was reported up to 12 months (Phase 3) and 36 months (LTE) by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates, Disease Activity Score (DAS)28-4(erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Incidence rates (IRs; patients with event/100 patient-years) of adverse events (AEs) of special interest were reported. Results. The Phase 3 studies randomized 496 LA patients; the LTE study enrolled 756 LA patients from Phase 2 and Phase 3. In the Phase 3 studies, patients who received tofacitinib 5 and 10mg BID showed improvements vs placebo at Month 3 in ACR20 (68.9% and 75.7% vs 35.6%), ACR50 (45.8% and 49.7% vs 20.7%) and ACR70 (17.5% and 23.1% vs 6.9%) responses, mean change from baseline in HAQ-DI (−0.6 and −0.8 vs −0.3) and DAS28-4(ESR) score (−2.3 and −2.4 vs −1.4). The improvements were sustained up to Month 36 in the LTE study. In the Phase 3 studies, IRs with tofacitinib 5 and 10mg BID and placebo were 7.99, 6.57 and 9.84, respectively, for SAEs, and 3.87, 5.28 and 3.26 for discontinuation due to AEs. IRs of AEs of special interest in tofacitinib-treated LA patients were similar to the global population. Conclusion. In Phase 3 and LTE studies in LA patients with RA, tofacitinib demonstrated efficacy up to 36 months with a manageable safety profile up to 60 months, consistent with the overall tofacitinib study population (AU)


Objetivo. Tofacitinib es un inhibidor oral de la quinasa Janus para el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide (AR). Este análisis evaluó la eficacia y la seguridad de tofacitinib en la subpoblación Latinoamericana (LA) de los estudios fase 3 y de extensión a largo plazo (ELP). Materiales y métodos. Se agruparon datos de pacientes de Latinoamérica con AR y una respuesta inadecuada a agentes modificadores de la enfermedad (DMARD) de 5 estudios fase 3. Los pacientes en estos estudios recibieron tofacitinib 5 o 10mg/2 veces al día (bid), adalimumab o placebo; los pacientes en el estudio de seguridad recibieron tofacitinib 5 o 10mg/bid; los tratamientos se administraron en monoterapia o con DMARD sintéticos convencionales. La eficacia se reporta hasta 12 (fase 3) y 36 meses (ELP) mediante las tasas de respuesta del Colegio Americano de Reumatología (ACR) 20/50/70, el índice de actividad de la enfermedad (DAS)28-4 ESR (tasa de sedimentación globular [ESR]) y el índice de discapacidad del cuestionario de evaluación de la salud (HAQ-DI). Se reportan las tasas de incidencia (IR: pacientes con evento/100 pacientes/año) de eventos adversos (EA) de interés especial. Resultados. Los estudios fase 3, incluyeron 496 pacientes de LA, el ELP reclutó 756 pacientes de fase 2 y fase 3. En los estudios de fase 3, los pacientes que recibieron tofacitinib 5 y 10mg/bid presentaron mejorías vs placebo al mes 3 en las respuestas ACR20 (68,9% y 75,7% vs 35,6%), ACR50 (45,8% y 49,7% vs 20,7%) y ACR70 (17,5% y 23,1% vs 6,9%), en cambio, desde el valor basal en el escore HAQ-DI (−0,6 y −0,8 vs −0,3) y en el escore DAS28-4(ESR) (−2,3 y −2,4 vs −1,4); estas mejorías fueron sostenidas hasta el mes 36, último mes de evaluación en el estudio de ELP. En los pacientes con tofacitinib 5 o 10mg/bid y placebo, las tasas de incidencia de SAE fueron de 7,99, 6,57 y 9,84, mientras que la incidencia de descontinuaciones por EA fueron de 3,87, 5,28 y 3,26, respectivamente. Las IR de EA de interés especial en pacientes de LA fueron similares a la población global. Conclusión. En los pacientes de LA con AR de estudios fase 3 y ELP, tofacitinib demostró eficacia hasta por 36 meses con un perfil de seguridad manejable hasta por 60 meses, en los pacientes de LA con AR, datos consistentes con el de la población global de los estudios de tofacitinib (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , América Latina/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Sociedades Médicas/normas
5.
Reumatol Clin ; 13(4): 201-209, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27317492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We assessed tofacitinib efficacy and safety in the Latin American (LA) subpopulation of global Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from LA patients with RA and inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were pooled across five Phase 3 studies. Phase 3 patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10mg twice daily (BID), adalimumab or placebo; patients in the single LTE study received tofacitinib 5 or 10mg BID; treatments were administered alone or with conventional synthetic DMARDs. Efficacy was reported up to 12 months (Phase 3) and 36 months (LTE) by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response rates, Disease Activity Score (DAS)28-4(erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Incidence rates (IRs; patients with event/100 patient-years) of adverse events (AEs) of special interest were reported. RESULTS: The Phase 3 studies randomized 496 LA patients; the LTE study enrolled 756 LA patients from Phase 2 and Phase 3. In the Phase 3 studies, patients who received tofacitinib 5 and 10mg BID showed improvements vs placebo at Month 3 in ACR20 (68.9% and 75.7% vs 35.6%), ACR50 (45.8% and 49.7% vs 20.7%) and ACR70 (17.5% and 23.1% vs 6.9%) responses, mean change from baseline in HAQ-DI (-0.6 and -0.8 vs -0.3) and DAS28-4(ESR) score (-2.3 and -2.4 vs -1.4). The improvements were sustained up to Month 36 in the LTE study. In the Phase 3 studies, IRs with tofacitinib 5 and 10mg BID and placebo were 7.99, 6.57 and 9.84, respectively, for SAEs, and 3.87, 5.28 and 3.26 for discontinuation due to AEs. IRs of AEs of special interest in tofacitinib-treated LA patients were similar to the global population. CONCLUSION: In Phase 3 and LTE studies in LA patients with RA, tofacitinib demonstrated efficacy up to 36 months with a manageable safety profile up to 60 months, consistent with the overall tofacitinib study population.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 86(4): 297-304, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-838392

RESUMO

Abstract Objective Drug inhibition of platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor has reduced the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary interventions. The analysis of the phosphorylation status of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein by flow cytometry has shown a predictive value for adverse events and stent thrombosis. Polymorphisms of CYP2C19 in high risk patients may also relate to adverse cardiovascular events. Methods Ninety patients were enrolled. Patients received a 600 mg clopidogrel loading dose. Blood samples were obtained at the time of the procedure and 24 h later, platelet reactivity was assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation measurement using flow cytometry. Low response to clopidogrel was defined as a platelet reactivity index ≥ 50%. The presence of CYP2C19*2 was identified with the restriction enzyme Smal. Results Mean platelet reactivity index: 53.45 ± 22.48% in the baseline sample and 57.14 ± 23.08% at 24 h (p = 0.183); 40% of patients behaved as good responders, the rest behaved as non-responders with 38% of patients showing platelet reactivity indexes between 50-70% and 22% showing indexes above 70%. The CYP2C19*2 polymorphism was found in 17% of patients, with a 3.9% AA homozygous genotype carriers. Conclusion Response to the clopidogrel loading dose showed a wide variability among patients with 40% responding to the drug according to previously established cut-off values. Our results showed that 3.9% of patients show the AA genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study involving clopidogrel response by flow citometry and genotype typification in Mexican Mestizo population.


Resumen Objetivo La inhibición del receptor plaquetario P2Y12 se ha asociado con reducción en incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares mayores en pacientes sometidos a intervenciones coronarias percutáneas. El estudio de la fosfoproteína estimulada por vasodilatadores mediante citometría de flujo tiene valor predictivo para desarrollo de eventos adversos y trombosis del stent. Los polimorfismos del CYP2C19 en pacientes de alto riesgo pueden también asociarse con eventos adversos. Método 90 pacientes, dosis de carga de clopidogrel: 600 mg. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre basales y post-24 horas. La reactividad plaquetaria se estudió mediante medición de fosfoproteína estimulada por vasodiatadores por citometría de flujo. Se consideró baja respuesta al clopidogrel un índice de reactividad plaquetaria ≥50%. La presencia del CYP2C19*2 se identificó con enzima de restricción Smal. Resultados La media del índice de reactividad plaquetaria fue: 53.45 ± 22.48% en muestras basales y 57.14 ± 23.08% a 24 h (p = 0.183); 40% de los pacientes repondieron a clopidogrel, el resto de comportó como no-respondedores, un 38%, mostró índices de reactividad plaquetaria entre 50 -70% y 22%, índices > 70%. El polimorfismo CYP2C19*2 se encontró en 17% pacientes, con un 3.9% portadores de genotipo homozigótico AA. Conclusiones La respuesta a clopidogrel mostró amplia variabilidad entre pacientes, el 40% presentó respuesta de acuerdo con puntos de corte pre establecidos. Un 3.9% de los pacientes presentó genotipo AA. Consideramos que este es el primer estudio realizado en población mestizo-mexicana utilizado citometría de flujo para evaluar la respuesta a clopidogrel así como la tipificación genética de los pacientes.

7.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 86(4): 297-304, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26971130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Drug inhibition of platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor has reduced the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary interventions. The analysis of the phosphorylation status of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein by flow cytometry has shown a predictive value for adverse events and stent thrombosis. Polymorphisms of CYP2C19 in high risk patients may also relate to adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled. Patients received a 600mg clopidogrel loading dose. Blood samples were obtained at the time of the procedure and 24h later, platelet reactivity was assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation measurement using flow cytometry. Low response to clopidogrel was defined as a platelet reactivity index≥50%. The presence of CYP2C19*2 was identified with the restriction enzyme SmaI. RESULTS: Mean platelet reactivity index: 53.45±22.48% in the baseline sample and 57.14±23.08% at 24h (p=0.183); 40% of patients behaved as good responders, the rest behaved as non-responders with 38% of patients showing platelet reactivity indexes between 50-70% and 22% showing indexes above 70%. The CYP2C19*2 polymorphism was found in 17% of patients, with a 3.9% AA homozygous genotype carriers. CONCLUSION: Response to the clopidogrel loading dose showed a wide variability among patients with 40% responding to the drug according to previously established cut-off values. Our results showed that 3.9% of patients show the AA genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study involving clopidogrel response by flow citometry and genotype typification in Mexican Mestizo population.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo Genético , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Clopidogrel , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico
8.
Reumatol Clin ; 12(5): 256-62, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26725021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several antibodies have proven to be useful in autoimmune diseases, as markers for diagnosis, prognosis or clinical manifestations. Our objective was to evaluate the diagnosis and manifestations associated for antibodies anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-La at a referral hospital in Spain. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the antigenic specificities of the consecutive samples submitted to the Immunology Unit for antinuclear antibody screening between 2002 and 2012. We included patients with more than one positive sample for some of the autoantibodies anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 or anti-La. We also reviewed diagnosis, clinical and laboratory features. As dependent variable we evaluated possible combinations of anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-La. RESULTS: 322 patients, 91% females, were studied (age 44.3±15.51 years). The most frequent diagnosis was Sjögren's syndrome (40.06%) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (36.6%). The most prevalent pattern by indirect immunofluorescence was the fine speckled (69.9%). Anti-Ro52+/anti-Ro60+/anti-La+ combination was positively associated with fine speckled pattern (p: 0.001) and negatively with homogeneous (p: 0.016) and cytoplasmic pattern (p: 0.002). Isolated anti-Ro52+ was negatively associated with fine speckled pattern (p<0.001) and positively with the cytoplasmic one (p<0.001). The main positive associations with clinical symptoms were xerostomia and xerophthalmia with anti-Ro52+/anti-Ro60+/anti-La+ (p<0.001), oral ulcers with anti-Ro52+/anti-Ro60+/anti-La- (p: 0.002) and alopecia with anti-Ro52-/anti-Ro60+/anti-La- (p: 0.003). Negative associations were xerophthalmia and photosensitivity with anti-Ro52+/anti-Ro60-/anti-La- (p: 0.003). Laboratory positive associations were hypergammaglobulinemia with anti-Ro52+/anti-Ro60+/anti-La+ (p: 0.003), and hypocomplementemia with anti-Ro52-/anti-Ro60+/anti-La- (p: 0.003). Leucopenia was negatively associated with anti-Ro52+/anti-Ro60-/anti-La- (p: 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our study found significant relationships between clinical and laboratory manifestations with different patterns of antibodies to anti-Ro52, anti-Ro60 and anti-La. The combination of antibodies might be clinically useful due to prognostic and therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/diagnóstico , Ribonucleoproteínas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Reumáticas/sangue , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Espanha , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
Clin Rheumatol ; 35(1): 175-82, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25227770

RESUMO

Multilevel studies have gained importance for highlighting social inequalities in health. These associations have been reported previously in diseases such as arthritis and chronic pain. We conducted a cross-sectional study using multilevel analysis to identify individual and contextual factors associated with the variation of prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Mexican population. The sample included 17,566 individuals of which 10,666 (60.7%) were women. The relationship between individual and contextual factors and OA were analyzed with a multilevel strategy. From the total population, 1,681 individuals had OA. Multilevel analysis showed that individual variables such as female gender (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.4), age range 55-65 years (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.3, 2.0), musculoskeletal pain in the last 7 days (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 2.3, 3.0), and use of pain treatments (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2, 1.7) were associated with OA. At the regional level, the Social Gap Index (SGIx) was associated with the diagnosis of OA (coefficient 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.1). The SGIx contextual variable was positively associated with the regional prevalence of OA and the variation in prevalence of OA in different regions. The larger the social gap, the greater the variation in OA prevalence. These factors were independently associated with the prevalence of OA: female gender, pain intensity, physical limitation, and the use of pain treatments were individual variables associated with OA. The association between OA prevalence and regional variations with SGIx reflects inequities in health provisions that should be considered in health programs.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/etiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 21(2): 57-62, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25710855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall estimated prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Mexico is 1.6%, but there are major variations in different geographic areas of the country. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the impact of individual and regional variables on the geographic distribution of RA in Mexico. METHODS: This multilevel analysis used data from a cross-sectional study that investigated the prevalence of RA among 19,213 individuals older than 18 years throughout 5 geographic regions in Mexico. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of RA, including individual and regional variables as well as cultural factors. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of RA varied from 0.77% to 2.8% across the 5 regions. Individual factors associated with RA were sex (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.74-3.07), previous medical diagnosis of RA ( OR 3.3, 95%CI: 2919­5.1 [corrected]), disability (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.48-2.93), and the 56- to 65-year age group (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.08-3.74). The regional factor of speaking an indigenous language had an OR of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.13-4.55). CONCLUSIONS: Various individual and regional factors were associated with variations in the prevalence of RA in the Mexican population.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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