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1.
Infectio ; 23(3): 215-221, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002153

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Correlacionar la incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar, tuberculosis extrapulmonar y VIH con el índice de desarrollo humano por departamentos en Colombia entre los años 2005 y 2014. Métodos: Estudio ecológico en 29 departamentos de Colombia, con datos de las secretarias de salud, SIVIGILA y del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. Los análisis se realizaron con medidas de resumen, intervalos de confianza, Kruskal Wallis y correlación de Spearman en SPSS. Resultados: Se encuentra incremento en la incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar y VIH en el lapso estudiado. Por otra parte, no se halló correlación entre el IDH con la tasa de tuberculosis pulmonar; sin embargo, con la tuberculosis extrapulmonar y el VIH se identificaron correlaciones positivas y significativas con Rho Spearman de 0,320 y 0,324 respectivamente. Conclusión: Este estudio puso de manifiesto una correlación positiva y significativa entre la infección por VIH, tuberculosis extrapulmonar e índice de desarrollo humano que indica que las regiones del país con mayor nivel de desarrollo presentan las mayores tasas de infección. Esta información es importante para que las autoridades sanitarias realicen acciones que ayuden a comprender las causas que explican este fenómeno.


Abstract Objective: To correlate the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis and HIV with the human development index by departments in Colombia between 2005 and 2014. Methods: Ecological study in 29 departments of Colombia. The incidence data of pulmonary, extrapulmonary and HIV tuberculosis were obtained through the request to departmental health secretaries and data registered in SIVIGILA. The information on the human development index (HDI) was obtained from the United Nations Development Program. The description of the variables was made with measures of central tendency, position, dispersion and 95% confidence intervals. The variation of the disease rates over time was done with the H Kruskal Wallis test. The covariation between the rates of diseases and the HDI was evaluated with scatter plots and Spearman correlation coefficients. In all the analyzes p values lower than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There is an increase in the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV in the period studied. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the HDI with the rate of pulmonary tuberculosis; however, positive and significant correlations with Rho Spearman of 0.320 and 0.324 were found with extrapulmonary tuberculosis and HIV, respectively. Conclusion: this study showed a positive and significant correlation between HIV infection, extrapulmonary tuberculosis and human development index, which indicates that the regions of the country with the highest level of development have the highest infection rates. This information is important for the health authorities to carry out actions that help to understand the causes that explain this phenomenon.

2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the scientific literature, the impacts of plateletpheresis on leukogram parameters are not clear, with a high divergence in the studies that have evaluated changes in leukocytes. The objective of this paper was to meta-analyze the effect of plateletpheresis on the leukocyte count, based on studies published between 1980-2018. METHODS: Systematic review with meta-analysis of random effects for the difference of means. The phases of the PRISMA guide were applied with 132 search strategies in Pubmed, Scielo, Science direct and Scopus. Reproducibility and evaluation of methodological quality were guaranteed. Heterogeneity was evaluated with Galbraith and Dersimonian and Laird's, publication bias with Funnel Plot and Begg; sensitivity analysis, accumulated meta-analysis and Forest Plot were carried out. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included with 2,358 donors, mostly from India, United States, Turkey, Germany and Austria. A mean difference of -0,80 x109/L (IC95%= -1,96; 0,36x109/L) between the predonation value and the value immediately after donation was founded; no publication bias was found and the conclusion presented good sensitivity since it does not vary with the elimination of studies in successive phases. CONCLUSIONS: The donation of platelets by apheresis does not affect the leukocyte count in the donors, in the last century there were reports of reductions in this parameter, explained by the blood loss in the cases used for the procedure and by effects produced in the blood cells by the biomaterials; however, at present the high safety of plateletpheresis for the white blood cell count is evidenced.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on HTLV in Colombia is limited; despite being an endemic country there are few studies on the magnitude of this infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV I/II and its associated factors in donors to a blood bank of Medellín Colombia, 2014-2018. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 52,159 donors with a secondary information source. Seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was determined with its confidence interval and the population characteristics were described by frequency and summary measures. To explore the associated factors, Pearson's Chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test, crude odds ratios were used and they were adjusted by logistic regression in SPSS 25.0. RESULTS: 88% of the population lived in the metropolitan area, 68.5% belonged to the University. 76.2% were altruistic donors (unpaid donors who did not donate to a specific patient). 24.5% were repetitive (paid) donors. 75% of the donors were under 41 years old. The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was 0.176% (95% CI = 0.139% -0.213%), being statistically lower in repetitive donors and men. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II infection in the studied blood bank is lower than that reported in other blood banks at the departmental and national levels. In Medellín, it was associated with the frequency of donation and gender, which is useful information for the hemovigilance programs of the city.

4.
Infectio ; 23(2): 167-174, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989948

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la validez diagnóstica de las pruebas inmunológicas en la infección por Paracoccidioides, a partir de un metaanálisis de la literatura publicada entre 1972-2017. Métodos: Se realizó un metanálisis según las fases de identificación, tamización, elección e inclusión descritas en la guía PRISMA. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica con la guía QUADAS y se garantizó la reproducibilidad en la selección de estudios y extracción de la información. Se estimó la sensibilidad, especificidad, razones de verosimilitud, OR diagnóstica y área bajo la curva ROC usando Meta-DiSc. Resultados: Se identificaron 21 estudios que evaluaron 32 pruebas diagnósticas con una población de 1.404 individuos sanos, 2.415 con otras infecciones y 2.337 con Paracoccidioides. La mayoría de pacientes son de Brasil y Colombia. Las pruebas analizadas incluyen inmunodifusión, western blot, ELISA, aglutinación en látex. Las pruebas presentaron una sensibilidad y especificidad superior al 90%, razón de verosimilitud positiva y negativa de 24,7 y 0,08 respectivamente. La OR diagnóstica fue 495,9 y el área bajo la curva de 0,99. En la meta-regresión por tipo de antígeno se encontró que las mezclas de antígenos y el gp43 presentaron resultados satisfactorios en todos los parámetros; por su parte, los que utilizaron el antígeno p27 no presentaron resultados aceptables en ninguno de los parámetros. Conclusión: La elevada validez diagnóstica hallada en las pruebas serológicas que utilizan mezclas de antígenos o gp43 purificada evidencia la pertinencia de su uso en clínica y en programas de tamización.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic validity of the immunological tests in Paracoccidioides infection, from a meta-analysis of the literature published between 1970-2017. Methods: Meta-analysis according to the identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion phases of PRISMA. The methodological quality was evaluated with the QUADAS guide and the reproducibility in the selection of studies and extraction of the information was guaranteed. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic OR and area under the ROC curve were estimated using Meta-DiSc. Results: We identified 21 studies that evaluated 32 diagnostic tests with a population of 1404 healthy individuals, 2415 with other infections and 2337 with Paracoccidioides. The majority of patients are from Brazil and Colombia. The tests analyzed include immunodiffusion, western blot, ELISA, latex agglutination. The tests presented a sensitivity and specificity higher than 90%, positive and negative likelihood ratio of 24,7 and 0,08 respectively. The diagnostic OR was 495,9 and the area under the curve was 0,99. In the meta-regression by type of antigen it was found that mixtures of antigens and gp43 showed satisfactory results in all parameters; those who used the p27 antigen did not present acceptable results in any of the parameters. Conclusion: The diagnostic validity of the serological tests using mixtures of antigens or purifed gp43 is clinically similar, for the other antigens the validity was scarce.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 590, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research into Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms is heterogeneous. In addition, no systematization of studies of polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF) have been carried out. The objective of this review is to characterize studies on BCR-ABL1-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and to compare the frequency of JAK2, MPL and CALR mutations in PV, ET and PMF. METHOD: A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted, as was meta-analysis with an ex-ante selection of protocol, according to phases of the PRISMA guide in three interdisciplinary databases. To guarantee reproducibility in the pursuit and retrieval of information, the reproducibility and methodological quality of the studies were evaluated by two researchers. RESULTS: Fifty-two studies were included, the majority having been carried out in the United States, China, Brazil and Europe. The frequency of the JAK2V617F mutation ranged from 46.7 to 100% in patients with PV, from 31.3 to 72.1% in patients with ET, and from 25.0 to 85.7% in those with PMF. The frequency of the MPL mutation was 0% in PV, from 0.9 to 12.5% in ET, and from 0 to 17.1% in PMF. The CALR mutation occurred at a frequency of 0.0% in PV, whereas in ET, it ranged from 12.6 to 50%, and in PMF, it ranged from 10 to 100%. The risk of this mutation presenting in PV is 3.0 times that found for ET and 4.0 times that found for PMF. CONCLUSION: Given the specificity and reported high frequencies of the JAK2V617F, MPL and CALR mutations in this group of neoplasms, the diagnosis of these diseases should not be made on clinical and hematological characteristics alone but should include genetic screening of patients.

6.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 36(2): 72-78, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis affects between 2% to 30% of the world population. Nail biopsy may help in making a diagnosis and can distinguish between invasion and colonisation. AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of nail biopsy with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for onychomycosis, compared to direct KOH examination, culture and its combination in a reference laboratory in Colombia. METHODS: The study included 66 patients in whom a blind and independent reading of the three tests was performed. The usefulness was defined based on the validity (sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, likelihood ratios), performance (predictive values) efficiency (proportion of correctly diagnosed patients), and reproducibility (kappa coefficient). RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 55±16 years, and included 76% women. The direct tests with KOH were positive in 66.7% (n=44), 62.1% (n=41) were positive with culture, and 56.1% (n=37) with the biopsy. The main causal agents were non-dermatophytes moulds in 36.4% (n=24). The most frequent species were Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (n=11), Trichophyton rubrum (n=11), and Candida parapsilosis (n=13). The sensitivity of nail biopsy, when compared to the standard (KOH and/or culture), was 71%, specificity 83%, Youden's index 0.54, positive likelihood ratio 4.25, negative likelihood ratio 0.35, positive predictive value 92%, negative predictive value 52%, efficiency 74% and kappa coefficient 0.45. When biopsy was evaluated only in patients with onycholysis of the nail plate greater than 50%, all the parameters of diagnostic usefulness increased. CONCLUSIONS: The overall usefulness of the biopsy was moderate for patients with more severe symptomatology, which makes its use advisable in cases of extensive onycholysis, and when discriminating colonisation from invasion is required.

7.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 72-783, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2746

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La onicomicosis afecta a entre el 2 y el 30% de la población mundial; la biopsia ungueal facilita el diagnóstico y diferencia invasión de colonización. Objetivos: Evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica de la biopsia ungueal con coloración de PAS en las onicomicosis frente al examen directo con KOH, el cultivo y su combinación en un laboratorio de referencia de Colombia. Métodos: Se incluyó a 66 pacientes, a quienes se les realizó lectura ciega e independiente de las tres pruebas; la utilidad se definió a partir de los resultados de validez (sensibilidad, especificidad, índice de Youden, cocientes de probabilidad), desempeño (valores predictores), eficiencia (proporción de pacientes correctamente diagnosticados) y reproducibilidad (índice kappa). Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue 55 ± 16 años, el 76% fueron mujeres y el 66,7% (n = 44) de los exámenes directos con KOH resultaron positivos; para el cultivo, el 62,1% (n = 41) de las muestras fueron positivas y con la biopsia lo fueron el 56,1% (n = 37). Los principales agentes causales fueron mohos no dermatofitos en un 36,4% (n = 24) y las especies con la mayor frecuencia fueron Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (n = 11), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 11) y Candida parapsilosis (n = 13). La sensibilidad de la biopsia ungueal frente al KOH o el cultivo fue del 71%, la especificidad del 83%, el índice de Youden 0,54, el cociente de probabilidad positivo de 4,25, el cociente de probabilidad negativo de 0,35, el valor predictivo positivo el 92%, el valor predictivo negativo el 52%, la eficiencia el 74% y el coeficiente kappa 0,45. Al evaluar la biopsia solo en pacientes con onicólisis de la lámina ungueal superior al 50%, aumentaron todos los parámetros de utilidad diagnóstica. Conclusiones: La utilidad global de la biopsia fue moderada para pacientes con mayor sintomatología, por lo que se recomienda su uso en presencia de onicólisis extensa y en los casos en los que se requiera discriminar colonización de invasión


Background: Onychomycosis affects between 2% to 30% of the world population. Nail biopsy may help in making a diagnosis and can distinguish between invasion and colonisation. Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of nail biopsy with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for onychomycosis, compared to direct KOH examination, culture and its combination in a reference laboratory in Colombia. Methods: The study included 66 patients in whom a blind and independent reading of the three tests was performed. The usefulness was defined based on the validity (sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, likelihood ratios), performance (predictive values) efficiency (proportion of correctly diagnosed patients), and reproducibility (kappa coefficient). Results: The mean age of the patients was 55 ± 16 years, and included 76% women. The direct tests with KOH were positive in 66.7% (n = 44), 62.1% (n = 41) were positive with culture, and 56.1% (n = 37) with the biopsy. The main causal agents were non-dermatophytes moulds in 36.4% (n = 24). The most frequent species were Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (n = 11), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 11), and Candida parapsilosis (n = 13). The sensitivity of nail biopsy, when compared to the standard (KOH and/or culture), was 71%, specificity 83%, Youden's index 0.54, positive likelihood ratio 4.25, negative likelihood ratio 0.35, positive predictive value 92%, negative predictive value 52%, efficiency 74% and kappa coefficient 0.45. When biopsy was evaluated only in patients with onycholysis of the nail plate greater than 50%, all the parameters of diagnostic usefulness increased. Conclusions: The overall usefulness of the biopsy was moderate for patients with more severe symptomatology, which makes its use advisable in cases of extensive onycholysis, and when discriminating colonisation from invasion is required

8.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50749

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir cómo se ha aplicado el enfoque de la determinación social de la salud en los estudios sobre malaria en el mundo. Métodos. Revisión sistemática de los estudios originales publicados entre 1980 y 2018. Se emplearon seis estrategias de búsqueda en diez bases de datos multidisciplinarias, y en las bibliotecas y los repositorios de siete universidades de Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Se siguió la guía PRISMA; la calidad metodológica se evaluó según los criterios de STROBE y se realizó la síntesis cualitativa de los resultados. Resultados. Diez estudios publicados entre 1984 y 2017 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión preestablecidos; se identificaron 33 determinantes sociales de la malaria. De los determinantes individuales se halló mayor riesgo de malaria en adultos, personas con hábitos nocturnos y sin prácticas preventivas; de los intermedios, fueron las viviendas con mala infraestructura física y sanitaria, hacinamiento, ubicadas en áreas boscosas y con animales. De los socioeconómicos, el mayor riesgo correspondió a personas con actividades agroforestales, migrantes, y con bajos ingresos y escolaridad. La malaria ocasionó elevadas pérdidas económicas y generó pobreza y retardo educativo. Conclusión. No se hallaron estudios con los enfoques de la Medicina Social Latinoamericana ni que aplicaran el análisis jerárquico y multinivel para los determinantes individuales, intermedios y estructurales, de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. No se ha logrado avanzar en el análisis de categorías sociales —territorio, clase social, género, etnia, políticas macroeconómicas— u otras características socioeconómicas que determinan el riesgo de enfermar o morir de malaria.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Describe how the ‘social determination of health’ approach has been applied in malaria studies around the world. Methods. Systematic review of original studies published from 1980 to 2018. Six search strategies were used in ten multidisciplinary databases, and in libraries and repositories of seven universities in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. PRISMA guidelines were followed, methodological quality was evaluated according to STROBE criteria, and a qualitative summary of the results was conducted. Results. Ten studies published from 1984 to 2017 met pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria; 33 social determinants of malaria were identified. Of individual determinants, greater malaria risk was found in adults, people who are often outdoors at night, and people who do not take preventive measures; intermediate determinants were dwellings with poor physical and sanitary infrastructure, overcrowded, located in forested areas, and containing animals. Regarding socioeconomic determinants, the people at greatest risk were involved in agro-forestry activities, migrants, and those with low income and a low educational level. Malaria caused high economic losses and led to poverty and educational delay. Conclusion. No studies were found that used Latin American social medicine approaches or that applied the World Health Organization’s hierarchical and multilevel analysis for individual, intermediate, and structural determinants. No progress has been made in the analysis of social categories—territory, social class, gender, ethnic group, macroeconomic policies—or other socioeconomic characteristics that determine risk of illness or death from malaria.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever como foi aplicado o enfoque da determinação social da saúde nos estudos de malária no mundo. Métodos. Uma revisão sistemática de estudos originais publicados entre 1980 e 2018 foi conduzida com o uso de seis estratégias de busca em 10 bases de dados multidisciplinares e em bibliotecas e repositórios de sete universidades do Brasil, Colômbia, Equador e Peru. O estudo se baseou nos critérios da recomendação PRISMA e a qualidade metodológica foi avaliada segundo os critérios da iniciativa STROBE. Foi realizada uma síntese qualitativa dos resultados. Resultados. Dez estudos publicados entre 1984 e 2017 preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão predefinidos. Foram identificados 33 determinantes sociais da malária. Com relação aos determinantes individuais, foi observado maior risco da malária em adultos, pessoas com hábitos noturnos e que não aderem a práticas preventivas. Os determinantes intermediários foram moradias com infraestruturas física e sanitária precárias, com aglomeração de pessoas, localizadas em áreas de mata e com a presença de animais. E, quanto aos determinantes socioeconômicos, houve maior risco da doença entre os indivíduos que se dedicam a atividades agroflorestais, migrantes e pessoas com baixa escolaridade e baixa renda. A malária causou grande prejuízo econômico, gerando pobreza e atraso educacional. Conclusão. Não foram encontrados estudos com enfoques da medicina social latino-americana nem estudos contendo análises com modelo hierárquico e multinível para os determinantes individuais, intermediários e estruturais de acordo com a definição da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Não foi possível aprofundar a análise das categorias sociais (território, classe social, gênero, etnia e políticas macroeconômicas) ou outras características socioeconômicas que determinam o risco de ter a doença ou morrer de malária.


Assuntos
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Malária , Medicina Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Medicina Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Malária
9.
Infectio ; 22(4): 185-191, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-953991

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Existen diversas pruebas para el diagnóstico de las geohelmintiasis, con múltiples estudios que demuestran la heterogeneidad en su validez diagnóstica y pocos que aluden su costo-efectividad. Objetivo: Sistematizar las evaluaciones económicas sobre las pruebas aplicadas en el diagnóstico de geohelmintos. Métodos: Revisión sistemática en seis bases de datos con 24 estrategias de búsqueda. Se aplicó un protocolo de selección de estudios, garantizando exhaustividad, reproducibilidad y evaluación de la calidad metodológica. Se realizó síntesis cualitativa de la información. Resultados: En la literatura científica mundial sólo se dispone de cuatro evaluaciones económicas completas para el diagnóstico de geo-helmintos, en la modalidad de estudios de costo-efectividad; en éstas se evaluaron cinco pruebas en 247 adultos y 6.708 niños. En los desenlaces en salud empleados se encontraron la proporción de pacientes positivos y algunos parámetros de validez diagnóstica como la sensibilidad y la especificidad, mientras que los costos se circunscribieron a insumos y salarios. Estos hallazgos ponen de manifiesto la baja aplicación de los recursos teóricos y metodológicos de la economía de la salud en el diagnóstico de las geohelmintiasis. Conclusión: Las evaluaciones económicas de pruebas para el diagnóstico de geohelmintos y parásitos intestinales en general son exiguas en el ámbito mundial y los pocos estudios disponibles presentan limitaciones de validez interna y externa que impiden la aplicación de sus resultados a otros ámbitos.


Abstract Introduction: The tests for diagnosis of the geohelmintiasis are diverse, with multiple studies that demonstrate heterogeneity in its diagnostic validity and few about its cost-effectiveness. Objective: To systematize the economic evaluations on the tests applied in the diagnosis of geohelminths. Methods: Systematic review in six databases with 24 search strategies. A protocol for the selection of the studies was applied, guaranteeing completeness, reproducibility and evaluation of methodological quality. Qualitative synthesis of the information was made. Results: In the scientific literature there are four complete economic evaluations (cost-effectiveness studies) for the diagnosis of geo-helminths; in these, five tests were evaluated in 247 adults and 6,708 children. In the health outcomes the studies employed the proportion of positive patients and some diagnostic validity parameters such as sensitivity and specificity, while costs were limited to inputs and salaries. These findings show the low application of the theoretical and methodological resources of health economics in the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Conclusion: The economic evaluations of tests for the diagnosis of geohelminths and intestinal parasites in general are meager worldwide and the few available studies have limitations of internal and external validity that prevent the application of their results to other areas.

10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(10): e00193617, 2018 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30329003

RESUMO

Bacteria belonging to Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Coxiella genera are considered emerging pathogens and livestock is one of the contexts where the transmission of these microorganisms can occur. The goal of this study was to determine serological evidence for the exposure to these bacteria in cattle and humans with occupational exposure to livestock in the subregions North and Magdalena Medio, Antioquia, Colombia, and to explore related factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 livestock farms distributed in six municipalities from both subregions: Belmira, Entrerríos and San Pedro de los Milagros (North), and Puerto Berrío, Puerto Nare and Puerto Triunfo (Magdalena Medio). Blood samples from 332 people and 384 bovines were evaluated by serology (IgM and IgG) screening for bacteria from the Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Coxiella genera. Seropositivity in humans from both regions was 42.4% (95%CI: 31.2-55.1) for Anaplasma, 74.2% (95%CI: 66.0-84.4) for Ehrlichia, 72.5% (95%CI: 62.1-82.0) for Rickettsia, and 60.7% (95%CI: 59.7-69.1) for Coxiella burnetii. In cattle, seropositivity was 31.6% (95%CI: 19.9-44.2), 66.8% (95%CI: 55.2-78.1), 64.6% (95%CI: 53.8-74.5), and 61.6% (95%CI: 51.9-69.2), respectively. History of biting by ticks, milking, vaccination, having dogs and hens in the residence, as well as the consumption of raw milk derivatives were some factors associated with the infection by the bacteria studied. The results suggest a previous and recent exposure to these zoonotic bacteria genera in people with occupational exposure to livestock, as well as in cattle in the two studied subregions.

11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(10): e00193617, oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952356

RESUMO

Bacteria belonging to Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Coxiella genera are considered emerging pathogens and livestock is one of the contexts where the transmission of these microorganisms can occur. The goal of this study was to determine serological evidence for the exposure to these bacteria in cattle and humans with occupational exposure to livestock in the subregions North and Magdalena Medio, Antioquia, Colombia, and to explore related factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 livestock farms distributed in six municipalities from both subregions: Belmira, Entrerríos and San Pedro de los Milagros (North), and Puerto Berrío, Puerto Nare and Puerto Triunfo (Magdalena Medio). Blood samples from 332 people and 384 bovines were evaluated by serology (IgM and IgG) screening for bacteria from the Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Coxiella genera. Seropositivity in humans from both regions was 42.4% (95%CI: 31.2-55.1) for Anaplasma, 74.2% (95%CI: 66.0-84.4) for Ehrlichia, 72.5% (95%CI: 62.1-82.0) for Rickettsia, and 60.7% (95%CI: 59.7-69.1) for Coxiella burnetii. In cattle, seropositivity was 31.6% (95%CI: 19.9-44.2), 66.8% (95%CI: 55.2-78.1), 64.6% (95%CI: 53.8-74.5), and 61.6% (95%CI: 51.9-69.2), respectively. History of biting by ticks, milking, vaccination, having dogs and hens in the residence, as well as the consumption of raw milk derivatives were some factors associated with the infection by the bacteria studied. The results suggest a previous and recent exposure to these zoonotic bacteria genera in people with occupational exposure to livestock, as well as in cattle in the two studied subregions.


Las bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia y Coxiella son consideradas patógenos emergentes y la ganadería es uno de los contextos donde se puede producir la transmisión de este tipo de microorganismos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la evidencia serológica, debida a la exposición a estas bacterias en bovinos y humanos con exposición ocupacional a ganadería en las subregiones Norte y Magdalena Medio, Antioquia, Colombia, además de estudiar los factores relacionados. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 48 fincas ganaderas, distribuidas en seis municipios de ambas subregiones: Belmira, Entrerríos y San Pedro de los Milagros (Norte), y Puerto Berrío, Puerto Nare y Puerto Triunfo (Magdalena Medio). Las muestras de sangre de 332 personas y 384 bovinos fueron evaluadas mediante tamización serológica (IgM e IgG) para la detección de bacterias de los géneros Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, y Coxiella. La seropositividad en humanos de ambas regiones fue 42,4% (IC95%: 31,2-55,1) en el caso de Anaplasma, un 74,2% (IC95%: 66,0-84,4) en Ehrlichia, un 72,5% (IC95%: 62,1-82,0) en Rickettsia, y un 60,7% (IC95%: 59,7-69,1) en Coxiella burnetii. En los bovinos, la seropositividad fue 31,6% (IC95%: 19,9-44,2), 66,8% (IC95%: 55,2-78,1), 64,6% (IC95%: 53,8-74,5), y 61,6% (IC95%: 51,9-69,2), respectivamente. El antecedente de haber sido mordido por garrapatas, ordeñar, vacunación, tener perros y gallinas en la residencia, así como el consumo de derivados de leche cruda fueron algunos de los factores asociados con la infección por las bacterias estudiadas. Los resultados sugieren la exposición previa y reciente a estas bacterias en personas con una exposición ocupacional a la ganadería, así como a los bovinos en las dos subregiones estudiadas.


As bactérias dos gêneros Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia e Coxiella são considerados patógenos emergentes, e a transmissão desses microrganismos pode ocorrer no contexto da pecuária. O estudo teve como objetivos determinar as evidências sorológicas de exposição a essas bactérias em bovinos e em humanos com exposição ocupacional ao gado nas sub-regiões Norte e Magdalena Médio, Antióquia, Colômbia, e explorar fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em 48 fazendas de gado bovino distribuídas em seis municípios nas duas sub-regiões: Belmira, Entrerríos e San Pedro de los Milagros (Norte) e Puerto Berrío, Puerto Nare e Puerto Triunfo (Magdalena Médio). Amostras de sangue de 332 humanos e 384 bovinos foram analisadas com sorologia (IgM e IgG) para bactérias dos gêneros Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia e Coxiella. Os níveis de sorologia positiva em humanos das duas regiões foram de 42,4% (IC95%: 31,2-55,1) para Anaplasma, 74,2% (IC95%: 66,0-84,4) para Ehrlichia, 72,5% (IC95%: 62,1-82,0) para Rickettsia e 60,7% (IC95%: 59,7-69,1) para Coxiella burnetii. Nos bovinos, os níveis foram 31,6% (IC95%: 19,9-44,2), 66,8% (IC95%: 55,2-78,1), 64,6% (IC95%: 53,8-74,5) e 61,6% (IC95%: 51,9-69,2), respectivamente. Os fatores associados às bactérias estudadas foram: história de picada de carrapato, ordenha, vacinação, presença de cães e galinhas no domicílio e consumo de laticínios feitos com leite cru, entre outros. Os resultados sugerem exposição prévia e recente a esses gêneros bacterianos zoonóticos em pessoas com contato ocupacional com gado, assim como nos próprios animais, nas duas sub-regiões estudadas.

12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 922018 09 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the world scientific literature, analytical research on tuberculosis has not been meta-analyzed. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for tuberculosis infection with drug resistance and meta-analyze the causal relationship of prior antibiotic use. METHODS: Systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies, in five databases. An ex ante, exhaustive and reproducible protocol of search and selection was applied; with criteria of inclusion, exclusion and evaluation of methodological quality. Were performed a qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the articles that evaluated the previous consumption of antibiotics. The PRISMA guide applied and a meta-analysis of random effects was performed for the odds ratios, with analysis of Galbraith, Funelt Plot, Forest plot and sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: We included 36 articles for the qualitative synthesis and 16 in the meta-analysis. We found a wide heterogeneity in the risk factors that include sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, schooling, occupation and prison; Clinics as contact with infected, absence of BCG vaccine, hospitalization, chronic comorbidities, malnutrition, HIV coinfection; And microbiological variables such as infection by Beijing genotype and therapeutic adherence. In the studies that evaluated previous consumption of antibiotic, 1880 cases and 5291 controls were studied, most with moderate or low methodological quality, with a combined measure that shows that the odds of developing resistance in patients with previous antibiotic use are 12 (95% = 6.0-23.7) times found for the non-exposed, in the meta-regression the odds were 16.6 (95% CI = 4.1-67.8) for the moderate quality studies and 5.0 (95% CI = 2.9, 8.7) for those with high methodological quality. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis revealed a strong causal association between the prior use of anti-tuberculosis antibiotics and drug-resistant Micobacterium tuberculosis infection.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/etiologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Infectio ; 22(3): 124-130, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-953979

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Realizar un metanalisis sobre el efecto de la tuberculosis sobre las dimensiones del SF-36. Material y métodos: Revisión sistemática y metanálisis según la guía PRISMA, garantizando reproducibilidad y calidad metodológica con la guía STROBE. Se realizó metanálisis aplicando Dersimonian y Laird's, Begg, Egger y análisis de sensibilidad, en el software EPIDAT 3.1. Resultados: Se incluyeron 35 estudios con 12.159 personas y ocho constructos diferentes de calidad de vida. En el SF-36 los enfermos presentaron peor calidad de vida frente a individuos sanos, con diferencias de 51,5 puntos en función física y salud mental, 47,1 en desempeño social, 41,1 en salud general, 33,7 en energía, 27,4 en desempeño emocional, 24,9 en desempeño físico y 5,7 en el dolor corporal. Conclusión: Existe una alta disponbilidad de constructos de calidad de vida en tuberculosis, la enfermedad impacta negativamente la función física, salud mental y desempeño social, lo que evidencia la necesidad de un enfoque de atención multidimensional e interdisciplinar.


Abstract Objective: To perform a metanalysis on the effect of the tuberculosis on the dimensions of the SF-36. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis, following the PRISMA guide. The reproducibility was guaranteed and methodological quality was evaluated with STROBE guide. Random effects meta-analysis was performed using the Dersimonian and Laird's tests, Begg, Egger and sensitivity analyzes in EPIDAT 3.1. Results: We included 35 studies with 12 159 people and eight different constructs of quality of life. In the SF-36, people with tuberculosis had a lower score than healthy controls, with differences of 51.5 points in physical function and mental health, 47.1 in social performance, 41.1 in general health, 33.7 in energy, 27.4 in emotional performance, 24.9 in physical performance and 5.7 in body pain. Conclusion: There is a high availability of quality of life constructs for people with tuberculosis, the disease generates negative impacts on physical function, mental health and social performance, which evidences the need for a multidimensional and interdisciplinary approach for this population.

14.
Rev. Fac. Nac. Salud Pública ; 36(1): 5-16, ene.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-957191

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: sistematizar las publicaciones científicas que describen la relación del índice de desarrollo humano con indicadores de morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles. Metodología: revisión sistemática en siete bases de datos multidisciplinarias de las investigaciones que reportan coeficientes de correlación, regresión o determinación entre el índice de desarrollo humano del Programa de Naciones unidas para el Desarrollo y la morbilidad o mortalidad por eventos en salud. Resultados: Se identificaron 21 investigaciones que evaluaron la relación entre desarrollo humano y más de 35 eventos de interés en salud pública. Las enfermedades neoplásicas (con excepción del cáncer de mama y ovario) y transmisibles presentaron correlaciones inversas con el índice que van desde -0,85 hasta -0,40. El suicidio, el sedentarismo, el consumo de drogas, el cáncer de mama y ovario presentaron correlaciones directas que van desde 0,27 hasta 0,89. Se identificó que el índice constituye un excelente predictor en la ocurrencia de tuberculosis, suicidio y malaria. Conclusión: Se evidencia que el desarrollo humano discurre en paralelo con mejores condiciones de salud representadas por la reducción en la morbilidad y mortalidad por cáncer y enfermedades transmisibles; lo que da luces para que los países con bajo índice de desarrollo no aplacen inversiones socialmente importantes por ausencia de recursos, sino que inviertan simultáneamente en dimensiones económicas y servicios sociales, particularmente la promoción y atención de salud y educación básica.


Abstract Objective: Systematize scientific publications that describe the relationship of the human development index and morbidity and mortality indicators caused by communicable and non-communicable diseases. Methodology: A systematic review of 6 multidisciplinary databases research studies that report correlation, regression or determination coefficients in the human development index of the United Nations program for development and morbidity or mortality for healthcare events. Results: 21 studies that evaluated the relation between human development and more than 35 events of interest in public health were identified. Neoplastic diseases (except breast and ovarian cancer) and communicable diseases presented inverted correlations with an index ranging from -0.85 to -0.40. Suicide, physical inactivity, drug use, breast cancer and ovarian cancer presented direct correlations ranging from 0.27 to 0.89. This study identified that the index constitutes an excellent predictor regarding the occurrence of tuberculosis, suicide and malaria. Conclusion: The study evidenced that human development paralleled the best health conditions represented by a decrease in morbidity and mortality resulting from cancer and communicable diseases; this shed a light so that countries with a low development index do not delay socially important Investments because of a lack of resources. They should invest simultaneously in economic dimensions and social services, particularly promoting health care and basic education.


Resumo Objetivo: Sistematizar publicações científicas que descrevem a relação do índice de desenvolvimento humano com indicadores de morbidade e mortalidade por doenças transmissíveis e não transmissíveis. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática em sete bases de dados multidisciplinares de pesquisa que reportam coeficientes de correlação, regressão ou determinação entre o índice de desenvolvimento humano do Programa para o Desenvolvimento das Nações Unidas e morbidade ou mortalidade devido a eventos de saúde. Resultados: Foram identificadas 21 pesquisas que avaliaram a relação entre desenvolvimento humano e mais de 35 eventos de interesse em saúde pública. As doenças neoplásicas (com exceção do câncer de mama e ovário) e doenças transmissíveis apresentaram correlações inversas com o índice variando de -0,85 para -0,40. Suicídio, sedentarismo, uso de drogas, câncer de mama e ovário apresentaram correlações diretas entre 0,27 e 0,89. Identificou-se que o índice constitui um excelente preditor na ocorrência de tuberculose, suicídio e malária. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se que o desenvolvimento humano é paralelo com melhores condições de saúde representadas pela redução da morbimortalidade por câncer e doenças transmissíveis; o que dá luzes para que os países com baixo índice de desenvolvimento não adiem investimentos socialmente importantes por falta de recursos, que invistam simultaneamente em dimensões econômicas e serviços sociais, particularmente na promoção, atenção da saúde e educação básica.

15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 41: e143, 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Characterize the publications on social determinants of intestinal parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia at the global level. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature in Pubmed, Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS, and Google Scholar with eight search strategies, guaranteeing completeness and replicability, following the phases of the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: The review included 18 studies on malnutrition, three on parasitism, three on anemia, and two on both parasitism and malnutrition; 65.4% of the studies were from South America and 69.2% were carried out among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism ranged between 30.6% and 83.3%; anemia, 19.7% to 48.0%; and malnutrition, 0.0% to 67.8%. It was found that biological and psychosocial determinants were most frequently studied; the most frequently studied intermediate determinants were related to housing and income; and structural determinants were least investigated. The social determinants common to the three conditions include: living in homes with poor sanitary conditions, rural areas, inadequate housing, inadequate water supply, access barriers to the medical system, young parents with little schooling, precarious employment, and low income. CONCLUSION: The majority of publications do not conduct a multilevel analysis for individual, intermediate, or structural determinants. Greater efforts are needed in health policies that address the social determinants of inequality with respect to parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia, mainly in categories as macroeconomic policy, social class, labor market, culture, values, and territory.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 185, 2018 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis causes a high disease burden in Colombia, and available treatments present systemic toxicity, low patient compliance, contraindications, and high costs. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of thermotherapy versus Glucantime in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness study from an institutional perspective in 8133 incident cases. Data on therapeutic efficacy and safety were included, calculating standard costs; the outcomes were disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and the number of patients cured. The information sources were the Colombian Public Health Surveillance System, disease burden studies, and one meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Incremental cost-effectiveness was determined, and uncertainty was evaluated with tornado diagrams and Monte Carlo simulations. RESULTS: Thermotherapy would generate costs of US$ 501,621; the handling of adverse effects, US$ 29,224; and therapeutic failures, US$ 300,053. For Glucantime, these costs would be US$ 2,731,276, US$ 58,254, and US$ 406,298, respectively. With thermotherapy, the cost would be US$ 2062 per DALY averted and US$ 69 per patient cured; with Glucantime, the cost would be US$ 4241 per DALY averted and US$ 85 per patient cured. In Monte Carlo simulations, thermotherapy was the dominant strategy for DALYs averted in 67.9% of cases and highly cost-effective for patients cured in 72%. CONCLUSION: In Colombia, thermotherapy can be included as a cost-effective strategy for the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Its incorporation into clinical practice guidelines could represent savings of approximately US$ 10,488 per DALY averted and costs of US$ 116 per additional patient cured, compared to the use of Glucantime. These findings show the relevance of the incorporation of this treatment in our country and others with similar parasitological, clinical, and epidemiological patterns.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida/economia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/terapia , Colômbia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Meglumina/economia , Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Antimoniato de Meglumina , Compostos Organometálicos/economia , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. tab, mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177617

RESUMO

Fundamentos: En la literatura científica mundial no se han metanalizado investigaciones analíticas en tuberculosis. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar factores de riesgo para la infección por tuberculosis con resistencia a medicamentos y meta-analizar la relación causal del uso previo de antibióticos. Métodos: Revisión sistemática con metanálisis de estudios de casos y controles, en cinco bases de datos. Se aplicó un protocolo de búsqueda y selección ex ante, exhaustivo y reproducible; con criterios de inclusión, exclusión y evaluación de calidad metodológica. Se realizó síntesis cualitativa de los artículos y cuantitativa para los estudios que evaluaron el consumo previo de antibióticos. Se cumplió la guía PRISMA y se realizó metanálisis de efectos aleatorios para las razones de odds, con análisis de Galbraith, Funelt Plot, Forest plot y análisis de sensibilidad. Resultados: Se incluyeron 36 artículos para la síntesis cualitativa y 16 en el metanálisis. Se encontró una amplia heterogeneidad en los factores de riesgo que incluyen características sociodemográficas como edad, sexo, escolaridad, ocupación y estar en prisión; clínicas como contacto con infectados, ausencia vacuna con BCG, hospitalización, comorbilidades crónicas, malnutrición, coinfección por VIH; y variables microbiológicas como infección por genotipo Beijing y adherencia terapéutica. En los estudios que evaluaron el consumo de antibióticos se estudiaron 1880 casos y 5291 controles, la mayoría con moderada o baja calidad metodológica, con una medida combinada que evidencia que la odds de desarrollar resistencia en quienes presentan consumo previo de antibióticos es 12 (IC95%= 6,0-23,7) veces la hallada para los no expuestos, en la meta-regresión la odds fue 16,6 (IC95%=4,1-67,8) para los estudios de calidad moderada y 5,0 (IC95%=2,9-8,7) para los de alta calidad metodológica. Conclusión: En este metanálisis se evidenció la asociación causal fuerte entre el uso previo de antibióticos antituberculosos y la infección por Micobacterium tuberculosis resistente a los fármacos


Background: In the world scientific literature, analytical research on tuberculosis has not been meta-analyzed. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for tuberculosis infection with drug resistance and meta-analyze the causal relationship of prior antibiotic use. Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies, in five databases. An ex ante, exhaustive and reproducible protocol of search and selection was applied; with criteria of inclusion, exclusion and evaluation of methodological quality. Were performed a qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the articles that evaluated the previous consumption of antibiotics. The PRISMA guide applied and a meta-analysis of random effects was performed for the odds ratios, with analysis of Galbraith, Funelt Plot, Forest plot and sensitivity analysis. Results: We included 36 articles for the qualitative synthesis and 16 in the meta-analysis. We found a wide heterogeneity in the risk factors that include sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, schooling, occupation and prison; Clinics as contact with infected, absence of BCG vaccine, hospitalization, chronic comorbidities, malnutrition, HIV coinfection; And microbiological variables such as infection by Beijing genotype and therapeutic adherence. In the studies that evaluated previous consumption of antibiotic, 1880 cases and 5291 controls were studied, most with moderate or low methodological quality, with a combined measure that shows that the odds of developing resistance in patients with previous antibiotic use are 12 (95% = 6.0-23.7) times found for the non-exposed, in the meta-regression the odds were 16.6 (95% CI = 4.1-67.8) for the moderate quality studies and 5.0 (95% CI = 2.9, 8.7) for those with high methodological quality Conclusion: this meta-analysis revealed a strong causal association between the prior use of anti-tuberculosis antibiotics and drug-resistant Micobacterium tuberculosis infection


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles
18.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34508

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la utilidad de ELISA, PCR e inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de chikungunya. Métodos. Se realizó un metanálisis de estudios que reportaran datos de validez diagnóstica, a partir de un protocolo ex-ante con seis estrategias de búsqueda en tres bases de datos multidisciplinarias. Se garantizó la reproducibilidad en la selección y extracción de información, se evaluó la calidad con la guía QUADAS (Quality Assessment of studies of Diagnostic Accuracy), los análisis se realizaron en MetaDisc con medidas puntuales, intervalos de confianza y resultados combinados bajo un modelo de efectos aleatorios. Resultados. Se incluyeron 19 estudios, uno con ELISA para anticuerpos IgG, dos con ELISA para antígenos, cinco con ELISA de anticuerpos IgM, ocho con qPCR y tres con inmunocromatografía. Los artículos fueron publicados entre 2009 y 2015, principalmente en India (37%), usando como prueba de referencia la combinación de sintomatología clínica, RT-PCR, ELISA, ensayo de neutralización o aislamiento viral. La población fue 1 108 individuos sanos, 394 con otra infección (principalmente dengue) y 1 288 con chikungunya. En ELISA para IgM y qPCR la sensibilidad y especificidad fueron mayores al 90%, el cociente de probabilidad positivo mayor a 10, el cociente de probabilidad negativo menor a 0,1; razón de Odds diagnóstica mayor a 100 y área bajo la curva de 0,99. Conclusión. Se halló una excelente utilidad diagnóstica de la ELISA IgM y qPCR, mientras que para inmunocromatografía la utilidad fue escasa.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Evaluate the usefulness of ELISA, PCR, and immunochromatography for the diagnosis of Chikungunya. Methods. A meta-analysis of studies reporting diagnostic validity data was performed, using an ex‑ante protocol with six search strategies in three multidisciplinary databases. Replicability in the selection and retrieval of information was guaranteed; quality was evaluated using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) guide; the analyses were performed in MetaDisc, with specific measures, confidence intervals, and combined results under a random-effects model. Results. A total of 19 studies were included, one with IgG ELISA, two with antigencapture ELISA, five with IgM ELISA, eight with qPCR, and three with immunochromatography. The articles were published primarily in India (37%) between 2009 and 2015, using a combination of clinical symptoms, RT-PCR, ELISA, neutralization assay, or viral isolation as the reference test. The population consisted of 1 108 healthy individuals, 394 with another infection (mainly dengue), and 1 288 with Chikungunya. In IgM ELISA and qPCR, the sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90%, the positive probability quotient was greater than 10, the negative probability quotient was less than 0.1, the diagnostic odds ratio was greater than 100, and the area under the curve was 0.99. Conclusion. IgM ELISA and qPCR were found to be excellent for diagnosis, while immunochromatography was only of limited usefulness.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a utilidade dos exames ELISA, PCR e imunocromatografia no diagnóstico de febre chikungunya. Métodos. Uma meta-análise de estudos com dados de validade diagnóstica foi conduzida em três bases de dados multidisciplinares segundo um protocolo de avaliação ex-ante contendo seis estratégias de busca. Foi garantida a reprodutibilidade na seleção e extração de informação e avaliada a qualidade segundo os critérios do guia QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy). As análises foram realizadas no programa Meta-DiSc com estimativas pontuais, intervalos de confiança e resultados combinados em um modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Resultados. A meta-análise incluiu 19 estudos, a saber: um sobre ELISA de anticorpos IgG, dois sobre ELISA de antígenos, cinco sobre ELISA de anticorpos IgM, oito sobre PCR quantitativa (qPCR) e três sobre imunocromatografia. Os artigos foram publicados entre 2009 e 2015, sobretudo na Índia (37%), e usaram como referência critérios clínicos, PCR em tempo real (RT-PCR), ELISA, ensaio de neutralização ou isolamento viral. A população abrangeu 1.108 indivíduos saudáveis, 394 que apresentavam outra infecção (mais comumente, dengue) e 1.288 com febre chikungunya. Com relação ao ELISA-IgM e qPCR, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram superiores a 90%, a razão de probabilidade positiva foi maior que 10 e a razão de probabilidade negativa menor que 0,1, a razão de chances diagnóstica foi maior que 100 e a área sob a curva foi de 0,99. Conclusão. Verificou-se excelente utilidade diagnóstica do ELISA-IgM e qPCR e baixa utilidade da imunocromatografia no diagnóstico de febre chikungunya.


Assuntos
Vírus Chikungunya , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Metanálise , Vírus Chikungunya , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Metanálise
19.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34366

RESUMO

Objetivo. Caracterizar las publicaciones relacionadas con los determinantes sociales del parasitismo intestinal, la desnutrición y la anemia en el ámbito mundial. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica en Pubmed, Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS y Google Scholar con ocho estrategias de búsqueda, garantizando exhaustividad y reproducibilidad en las fases de la guía PRISMA. Resultados. Se incluyeron 18 estudios en malnutrición, 3 en parasitismo, 3 en anemia y 2 evaluaron simultáneamente parasitosis y desnutrición; 65,4% de Suramérica y 69,2% fueron realizados en niños. La prevalencia en parasitismo intestinal osciló entre 30,6% y 83,3%; en anemia de 19,7% a 48,0%; y en desnutrición de 0,0% a 67,8%. Se halló una mayor frecuencia de análisis de determinantes biológicos o psicosociales, los determinantes intermedios más estudiados se relacionan con la vivienda y los ingresos, y los estructurales fueron los menos investigados. Los determinantes sociales comunes a los tres eventos incluyen: vivir en hogares sin condiciones sanitarias, zona rural, características inadecuadas de la vivienda, provisión inadecuada de agua, barreras de acceso al sistema médico, bajo nivel educativo y edad de los padres, empleo precario y bajos ingresos. Conclusión. La mayoría de publicaciones no desarrollan un análisis multinivel para los determinantes individuales, intermedios o estructurales. Se requieren mayores esfuerzos en políticas sanitarias relacionadas con el abordaje de los determinantes sociales de las desigualdades en parasitismo, desnutrición y anemia, principalmente en categorías como las políticas macroeconómicas, clase social, mercado de trabajo, cultura, valores y territorio.


Objective. Characterize the publications on social determinants of intestinal parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia at the global level. Methods. A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature in Pubmed, Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS, and Google Scholar with eight search strategies, guaranteeing completeness and replicability, following the phases of the PRISMA guidelines. Results. The review included 18 studies on malnutrition, three on parasitism, three on anemia, and two on both parasitism and malnutrition; 65.4% of the studies were from South America and 69.2% were carried out among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism ranged between 30.6% and 83.3%; anemia, 19.7% to 48.0%; and malnutrition, 0.0% to 67.8%. It was found that biological and psychosocial determinants were most frequently studied; the most frequently studied intermediate determinants were related to housing and income; and structural determinants were least investigated. The social determinants common to the three conditions include: living in homes with poor sanitary conditions, rural areas, inadequate housing, inadequate water supply, access barriers to the medical system, young parents with little schooling, precarious employment, and low income. Conclusion. The majority of publications do not conduct a multilevel analysis for individual, intermediate, or structural determinants. Greater efforts are needed in health policies that address the social determinants of inequality with respect to parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia, mainly in categories as macroeconomic policy, social class, labor market, culture, values, and territory.


Objetivo. Descrever as publicações internacionais relacionadas aos determinantes sociais de parasitismo intestinal, desnutrição e anemia. Métodos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura científica nas bases de dados PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS e Google Scholar seguindo oito estratégias de busca para assegurar a completude e a reprodutibilidade nas fases do método PRISMA. Resultados. Foram selecionados para a revisão 18 artigos sobre desnutrição, 3 sobre parasitismo intestinal, 3 sobre anemia e 2 sobre parasitismo e desnutrição. Destes estudos, 65,4% foram conduzidos na América do Sul e 69,2% em crianças. A prevalência de parasitismo intestinal variou entre 30,6% e 83,3%, de anemia entre 19,7% e 48,0% e de desnutrição entre 0 e 67,8%. A análise de determinantes biológicos ou psicossociais foi a mais frequentemente observada nos estudos, sendo os determinantes intermediários relacionados às condições de moradia e ao nível de renda os mais estudados e os determinantes estruturais os menos pesquisados. Entre os determinantes sociais comuns às três afecções destacam-se: viver em domicílios sem saneamento básico, viver na zona rural, condições inadequadas de moradia, abastecimento de água inadequado, barreiras de acesso aos serviços de saúde, baixa escolaridade, pais jovens, trabalho precário e baixo nível de renda. Conclusão. A maioria de publicações não apresenta uma análise multinível dos determinantes individuais, intermediários ou estruturais. Faz-se necessário investir mais esforços em políticas de saúde direcionadas aos determinantes sociais das desigualdades em saúde relativas a parasitismo intestinal, desnutrição e anemia, sobretudo no que se refere a políticas macroeconômicas, condição social, mercado de trabalho, contexto cultural, valores e área geográfica.


Assuntos
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Desnutrição , Anemia , Revisão , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Enteropatias , Desnutrição , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
20.
CES med ; 31(1): 27-37, ene.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889537

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: En Medellín se desconoce la magnitud de diversas infecciones de transmisión sexual en estudios poblacionales. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de reactividad a la VDRL y positividad para Chlamydia spp. y los virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, hepatitis B y C en una institución prestadora de servicios de salud en Medellín 2015. Métodos: Estudio transversal en la totalidad de personas tamizadas para reactividad a la VDRL (N = 10 288), Chlamydia spp. (N = 349), VIH (N = 5 386) y virus de la hepatitis B (N = 3 369) y C (N = 1 450). Se utilizaron registros del laboratorio, se hizo control de sesgos por verificación de rangos y reproducibilidad en la extracción de datos. Se emplearon pruebas con sensibilidad y especificidad mayor al 95 %. Se estimó la frecuencia de cada agente y se exploró su asociación con sexo y grupo etario usando pruebas de Fisher y chi cuadrado. Resultados: El rango de edad fue 0-98 años, con una mayor proporción de mujeres. La frecuencia de Chlamydia spp. fue 3,4 %, VDRL reactivo 2,7 %, virus hepatitis B 1,7 %, virus hepatitis C 0,6 % y VIH 0,2 %. La ocurrencia de VDRL reactivo, VIH y virus hepatitis B fue estadísticamente mayor en hombres. El grupo etario presentó asociación con la frecuencia de VDRL reactivo, VIH y virus hepatitis B y C. Por su parte, la VDRL reactiva fue mayor en niños y las infecciones virales en los mayores de 40 años. Conclusión: La frecuencia global fue similar a la reportada en otras poblaciones, con excepción de Chlamydia spp. que fue menor en esta población; las frecuencias específicas evidencian divergencias en la distribución de los agentes, lo que permite la identificación de los grupos con mayor ocurrencia para orientar estudios posteriores y medidas preventivas.


Abstract Introduction: In Medellin, the magnitude of various sexually transmitted diseases is unknown based on population studies. Objective: To determine frequency of VDRL reactivity and positivity for Chlamydia spp. HIV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in an institution health of Medellin, 2015. Methods: a cross-sectional study was done in all people screened for VDRL (N = 10 288), Chlamydia spp. (N = 349), HIV (N = 5 386), Hepatitis B Virus (N = 3369) and Hepatitis C Virus (N = 1450). Clinical laboratory records were used, the bias control was realized through verification for ranges and reproducibility in data extraction. Tests with sensitivity and specificity greater than 95 % were used. The frequency of each agent was estimated and its association with sex and age groups were explored using Fisher and chi-square. Results: The age range was 0-98 years, with a higher proportion of women. The frequency of Chlamydia spp. was 3.4 % (95% CI = 1.4- 5.4), reactive VDRL 2.7% (95% CI = 2.4-3.0), Hepatitis B Virus 1.7% (95% CI = 1.2-2.1), Hepatitis C Virus 0.6% (IC95 = 0.1-1.0) and HIV 0.2% (95% CI = 0.1-0.3). The occurrence of reactive VDRL, HIV and HBV was statistically higher in men compared with the women. The age group presented association with reactive VDRL, HIV and Hepatitis B and C Virus. Reactive VDRL was higher in children and viral infections in patients over 40 years. Conclusion: The overall frequency was similar to that reported in other populations, except for Chlamydia spp., which it was lower in the current study; meanwhile, the specific frequencies show differences in the distribution of agents by sex and age group, allowing the identification of the groups with major occurrence, for orientation of further studies and preventive measures in specific groups.

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