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J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 14(1): 155-164, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081362


The flash glucose monitoring (FGM) system FreeStyle Libre® is a device that measures interstitial glucose in a very simple way and indicates direction and speed of glucose change. This allows persons with diabetes to prevent hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events. Scientific evidence indicates that the system can improve glycemic control and quality of life. To obtain the maximum benefit, it is necessary to properly handle glucose values and trends. Due to the generalization of the system use, the purpose of the document is to provide recommendations for the optimal use of the device, not only in the management of glucose values and trends but also in the prevention of hypoglycemia, actuation in exercise, special situations, and retrospective analysis of the glucose data, among others.

Pediatr Diabetes ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797499


OBJECTIVE: To establish whether diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or HbA1c at onset is associated with year-three HbA1c in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Children with T1D from the SWEET registry, diagnosed <18 years, with documented clinical presentation, HbA1c at onset and follow-up were included. Participants were categorized according to T1D onset: (a) DKA (DKA with coma, DKA without coma, no DKA); (b) HbA1c at onset (low [<10%], medium [10 to <12%], high [≥12%]). To adjust for demographics, linear regression was applied with interaction terms for DKA and HbA1c at onset groups (adjusted means with 95% CI). Association between year-three HbA1c and both HbA1c and presentation at onset was analyzed (Vuong test). RESULTS: Among 1420 children (54% males; median age at onset 9.1 years [Q1;Q3: 5.8;12.2]), 6% of children experienced DKA with coma, 37% DKA without coma, and 57% no DKA. Year-three HbA1c was lower in the low compared to high HbA1c at onset group, both in the DKA without coma (7.1% [6.8;7.4] vs 7.6% [7.5;7.8], P = .03) and in the no DKA group (7.4% [7.2;7.5] vs 7.8% [7.6;7.9], P = .01), without differences between low and medium HbA1c at onset groups. Year-three HbA1c did not differ among HbA1c at onset groups in the DKA with coma group. HbA1c at onset as an explanatory variable was more closely associated with year-three HbA1c compared to presentation at onset groups (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Year-three HbA1c is more closely related to HbA1c than to DKA at onset; earlier hyperglycemia detection might be crucial to improving year-three HbA1c.

Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668682


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate frequency of hypoglycaemia unawareness (HU) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) transferred from Paediatrics following a specific therapeutic education programme (TEP) in an adult hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Young patients transferred from 2009-2011 were evaluated. The TEP included a coordinated transfer process, individual appointments and a group course. At baseline and at 12 months we evaluated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) frequency of severe (SH) hypoglycaemia/patient/year and non severe hypoglycaemia (NSH). The patients were classified into two groups and compared: hypoglycaemia awareness (HA) and HU according to the Clarke Test <3R or>3R respectively. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (age 18.1±0.3 years, 46% females, HbA1c 8.0±1.2%) underwent the TEP. In the baseline evaluation 16% presented HU. The number of SH was higher in the HU Group (0.33±0.50 vs. 0.09±0.28 P<.05). The percentage of patients with>2 NSH/week was higher, albeit not significantly, in the HU group (66% vs. 34%, p=0.06). At 12 months 11% of the patients continued to present HU. The number of SH remained higher in the HU group (0.38±1.06 vs. 0.02±0.15 P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of young people with T1D with HU is quite high at transfer. Although the TEP improves hypoglycaemia awareness it does not solve this important problem. Patients with HU more frequently present SH. It is necessary to identify HU in order to reduce SH which continues to be a problem in people with T1D.

Rev. Rol enferm ; 42(7/8): 526-532, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2435


El traslado de los jóvenes con diabetes tipo 1 desde los centros pediátricos a las unidades de adultos se realiza durante la adolescencia, periodo caracterizado por cambios fisiológicos y psicológicos que los hace especialmente vulnerables. En este periodo se aconseja que las familias y/o cuidadores trasladen, en parte, la responsabilidad del manejo de la diabetes a los jóvenes de forma progresiva. El cambio de rol en el autocuidado, de centro y de profesionales añadido a la gran vulnerabilidad se relaciona con el empeoramiento del control metabólico y pérdida de seguimiento asistencial. Se requieren programas educativos específicos, estructurados y coordinados con los centros pediátricos para minimizar los posibles efectos adversos del traslado y mantener y/o mejorar el control metabólico y la calidad de vida de estos jóvenes. Siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Diabetes y la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología Pediátrica, presentamos la estructura, el proceso y los resultados del programa de acogida a los jóvenes con diabetes tipo 1 trasladados desde el centro pediátrico de Sant Joan de Déu al Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, durante el primer año después del traslado

The transfer of young people with type 1 diabetes from pediatric centers to adult units takes place during adolescence, a period characterized by physiological and psychological changes that make them especially vulnerable. In this period it is recommended that families and /or caregivers progressively leave the responsibility of managing diabetes to the young people themselves. The change of role in self-care, center and professionals in addition to the inherent vulnerability is related to the worsening of metabolic control and loss of these patients to follow-up care. Specific educational programs are required, which are structured and coordinated with the pediatric centers to minimize the possible adverse effects of the transfer and maintain and / or improve the metabolic control and the quality of life of these young people. Following the recommendations of the Spanish Society of Diabetes and the Spanish Society of Pediatric Endocrinology, we present the structure, process and results of the reception program for young people with type 1 diabetes transferred from the pediatric center of Sant Joan de Déu to the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona during the first year after the transfer

Pediatr Diabetes ; 19(8): 1441-1450, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105887


OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between height, demographics, and treatment in youths with type 1 diabetes participating in an international network for pediatric diabetes centers (SWEET). METHODS: Data were collected from 55 centers with documented patients' height. All subjects below 20 years of age, diabetes duration >1 year, and without celiac disease were included. World Health Organization growth charts were used to calculate height and body mass index z-scores. Multiple hierarchic regression models adjusting for known confounders were applied. RESULTS: Data on 22 941 subjects (51.8% male) were analyzed with a median and interquartile range for age 14.8 years (11.2, 17.6), diabetes duration 5.6 years (3.1, 8.9), and height z-score 0.34 (-0.37, 1.03). Children were taller in the youngest age groups: adjusted height z-scores of 0.31 (±0.06) and 0.39 (±0.06), respectively; with shorter diabetes duration (<2 years: 0.36 [±0.06]; 2-<5 years: 0.34 [±0.06]; ≥5 years: 0.21 [±0.06]) and if they were pump users: 0.35 ± 0.05 vs 0.25 ± 0.05 (>three injections/day and 0.19 ± 0.06 [0-3 injections daily]), respectively. High hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low to normal weight were associated with a lower height z-score. Trends were identical in all models except for gender. No gender differences were found except in the final height model where females exhibited higher z-score than males. CONCLUSION: For youths treated at centers offering modern diabetes management, major growth disturbances are virtually eliminated. For children with a young age at onset, high HbA1c, injections, and/or non-intensive diabetes, treatment still requires attention in order to attain normal growth.

Glicemia/metabolismo , Estatura , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Estatura/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino
Pediatr Diabetes ; 17 Suppl 23: 38-45, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417128


BACKGROUND: Intensified insulin delivery using multiple daily injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is recommended in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to achieve good metabolic control. OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of pump usage in T1D children treated in SWEET (Better control in Paediatric and Adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate CEnTers of Reference) centers and to compare metabolic control between patients treated with CSII vs MDI. METHODS: This study included 16 570 T1D children participating in the SWEET prospective, multicenter, standardized diabetes patient registry. Datasets were aggregated over the most recent year of treatment for each patient. Data were collected until March 2016. To assess the organization of pump therapy a survey was carried out. RESULTS: Overall, 44.4% of T1D children were treated with CSII. The proportion of patients with pump usage varied between centers and decreased with increasing age compared with children treated with MDI. In a logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender and diabetes duration, the use of pump was associated with both: center size [odd ratio 1.51 (1.47-1.55), P < .0001) and the diabetes-related expenditure per capita [odd ratio 1.55 (1.49-1.61), P < .0001]. Linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and diabetes duration showed that both HbA1c and daily insulin dose (U/kg/d) remained decreased in children treated with CSII compared to MDI (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Insulin pump therapy is offered by most Sweet centers. The differences between centers affect the frequency of use of modern technology. Despite the heterogeneity of centers, T1D children achieve relatively good metabolic control, especially those treated with insulin pumps and those of younger age.

Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
Acta Diabetol ; 51(2): 205-10, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23681558


We evaluated the long-term glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for at least 5 years in three diabetes centers from three different countries: Canada, Italy and Spain. This was an observational retrospective multicenter cohort study. Subjects were included if they were followed at one of the participating centers, had type 1 diabetes, age 5-20 years at time of data collection and used CSII for more than 5 years. Data collected included gender, age, disease duration, age at CSII initiation, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin requirement and serious adverse events (SAE) at baseline and every 12 months during follow-up. One hundred fifteen patients were included in the study (55% males), aged 5-20 years (mean: 13.5 ± 3.8 years), with mean diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years, using CSII for mean of 6.9 ± 1.2 years (range 5-12 years.). HbA1c significantly improved after 1 year of CSII treatment and during follow-up (p = 0.02). When HbA1c was compared between countries, a difference was observed, with slightly lower values in Italy than in Canada and Spain (p = 0.04). When evaluated by gender, HbA1c was similar at baseline, but significantly improved only in males during all follow-up (p = 0.004). No significant differences were observed for BMI, insulin requirement or SAE. Insulin pump therapy is safe and effective in the pediatric population, although in this study, the major benefit in HbA1c was seen in males. The use of advanced pump features was associated with greater improvement in HbA1c.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem