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1.
Meat Sci ; 160: 107975, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669863

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacement maniçoba hay by spineless cactus on the performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of confined lambs. Thirty-two male lambs, with an average body weight of 20.8 ±â€¯2.9 kg, were fed with different levels of spineless cactus in replacement for 0, 33, 66 or 100% of maniçoba hay (i.e. 0, 200, 400, 600 g kg-1 of dietary DM). The replacement maniçoba hay by spineless cactus did not influence dry matter intake (g d-1) and cold carcass weight (P > .05), but increased (P < .05) the carcass finishing fat but did not influence (P < .05) the physical characteristics of the lambs' meat. Lower values for odor, flavor and purchase intention of meat were observed with 66% of replacement. Therefore, replacement of 33% maniçoba hay by spineless cactus can be recommended as optimal level, because it improve the fattening of the carcass, without causing negative effects on performance or meat quality.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628590

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the replacement effect of cactus cladodes with cassava root and corn silage (CRCS) (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, dry matter basis) in diets of lactating dairy cows on nutrients intake and digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen balance, and milk yield. Ten Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 16 kg/day, an initial body weight (BW) of 670 ± 35 kg, and an average of 17 weeks in milking were assigned to an experiment using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design. The ratio of forage/concentrate was 82:18, and the ingredients used were cactus cladodes, cassava root, corn silage, soybean meal, wheat meal, urea, and mineral premix. The intake of dry matter, organic matter, and total digestible nutrients were not influenced by the replacement levels. On the other hand, the intake of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber increased while the intake of non-fiber carbohydrates decreased with addition of CRCS. The digestibility of the nutrients was not changed as the milk yield as fat-corrected milk production and milk content of fat, protein, lactose, and total solids. The microbial protein synthesis, microbial protein efficiency, nitrogen balance, and efficiency of N in milk were not changed. Therefore, we recommend the complete replacement of cactus cladodes by cassava root and corn silage in the diets of lactating cows with an average milk yield of 16 kg/day.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480148

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of the carmine cochineal-resistant spineless cactus genotypes cv. Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (Opuntia) and Miúda (Nopalea) on the intake and digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance and ultrasound measurements of growing lambs. Methods: Thirty-six male (non-castrated) Santa Inês lambs were used, with an average age of 6 months and an initial average weight of 22.0 ± 2.9 kg. They were distributed in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments (Tifton hay, Nopalea and Opuntia) and 12 replications, using initial weight as a covariate. The experimental period was 86 days, with the first 30 days used for the adaptation of the animals to the facilities, diets and management, and the remaining 56 days used for evaluation and data collection. Results: The intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total carbohydrates (TC), non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), and total digestible nutrients (TDN) showed a significant difference (P<0.05) as a function of the diets, with the Nopalea treatment (P<0.05) increasing DM intake (g/kg and %BW), CP, TDN and TC digestibility, whereas the Tifton hay diet led to a high (P<0.001) neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap) g/day intake, NDFap (BW%) and digestibility of said nutrient. There was no effect of treatments (P>0.05) on feeding time, however, rumination time and total chewing time were higher (P<0.05) for animals fed Tifton hay. The performance of the animals was similar (P>0.05). For the ultrasound measurements, Nopalea promoted an increase in the final loin eye area (FLEA), compared to Tifton hay. Conclusion: The use of spineless cactus variety Miúda leads to the greater intake and digestibility of nutrients. The evaluated carmine cochineal-resistant spineless cactus genotypes are alternatives to semi-arid regions as they do not negatively affect the performance of growing lambs.

4.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; : 1882-1888, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011007

RESUMO

Objective: An experiment was conducted to the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin (0, 6, 12 and 18%) used as a substitute for corn in lamb feed on the quantitative characteristics of the carcass. Methods: A total of 40 crossbred Santa Inês lambs that were four months old with a mean initial weight of 21.0 ± 0.8 kg were randomly distributed in four treatments with ten replicates. The animals were slaughtered after 66 days of confinement. The effects of crude glycerin as a replacement for corn in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield and carcass measurements were studied. Results: There was an increasing linear effect for body weight at slaughter with the replacement of corn by crude glycerin. The dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes, weight of the empty body, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight showed a quadratic effect, with maximum crude glycerin levels estimated at 10.9, 9.8, 10.83, 11.78 and 11.35%, respectively. The initial pH was not influenced by the substitution of corn for crude glycerin, while the final pH presented a quadratic effect. The other parameters of the carcass and the weights and yields of commercial cuts were not influenced. There was also no effect of the diets on carcass morphometric measurements, except for the thoracic perimeter and the carcass compactness index, which presented quadratic and linear effects, respectively. Conclusion: Crude glycerin can replace up to 18% of corn because favour the muscle tissue deposition without promoting changes in the main carcass characteristics of lambs.

5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1717-1723, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919319

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the substitution of Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon spp.) with spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera) on the intake, digestibility of nutrients and ingestive behaviour of sheep. Eight rumen-cannulated sheep were used, with an average body weight of 58.44 ± 13.5 kg. The treatments consisted of the replacement of Tifton 85 hay with cactus at levels of 0, 333, 666 and 1000 g/kg. Samples of food and leftovers were collected at the beginning of each trial period. Digestibility was estimated using indigestible acid detergent fibre. Ingestive behaviour was evaluated via scan sampling. The replacement of Tifton 85 hay with spineless cactus had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the intake and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and non-fibre carbohydrates. The rumination efficiency of neutral detergent fibre was not affected (P > 0.05) by the substitution of Tifton 85 hay with spineless cactus. However, plasma glucose, phosphorus and magnesium were linearly influenced by Tifton 85 hay replacement with spineless cactus. Therefore, spineless cactus can be used to replace up to 500 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay in complete diets for sheep.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cactaceae , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Rúmen/metabolismo
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1515-1521, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790159

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of corn by cassava dregs (0, 33, 66, and 100%) in the diet of lamb on physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, and sensory attributes of meat. Forty male non-castrated Santa Inês crossbred lambs with an initial average weight of 20 ± 1.87 kg were slaughtered after 70 days. The physicochemical parameters and chemical composition of meat were not affected by the diets. Eicosenoic (C20:1n-9) and linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids increased linearly and there was a linear decreasing effect for the flavor score with increasing cassava dregs in the diets. The replacement of corn by cassava dregs did not influence omega-6:omega-3 ration or the total desirable fatty acids, as well as the color, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, or overall evaluation scores. Cassava dregs may be added in the diets of lambs, without negative effects on physicochemical characteristics, chemical composition, and fatty acid indexes, with positive effects on unsaturated fatty acid content. However, the total replacement of corn altered the sensory attributes and decreased purchase intent of the meat.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Manihot , Carne/análise , Paladar , Animais , Peso Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos , Masculino , Carne/normas , Ovinos
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(8): 1807-1814, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804283

RESUMO

This aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, blood parameters, and performance of lambs fed two roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratios, with or without liquid residue of cassava (LRC). Forty lambs (19.5 ± 1.45 kg body weight) were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. The intake of dry matter (1311 g/day) and total digestible nutrients (755 g/day), and the intake (172 g/day) and digestibility (552 g/kg) of crude protein were higher for lambs fed R:C of 40:60. The R:C ratio of 80:20 promoted a higher intake (585 g/day) and digestibility (461 g/kg) of neutral detergent fiber. There was an intake of LRC of 1.37 L/day for lambs fed R:C of 80:20 and 0.42 L/day for lambs fed R:C of 40:60. The lambs fed R:C of 80:20 spent more time in feeding (326 m/day) and rumination (530 m/day). The metabolic profile and performance of lambs were not affected by LRC inclusion. The body weight gain (220 g/day) was higher in lambs fed R:C of 40:60. A roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60 is recommended for lambs because it resulted in the best performance, regardless of supplementation with liquid residue of cassava.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Fibras na Dieta , Manihot/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Verduras , Ganho de Peso
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 48(3): 539-44, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26739344

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing Tifton-85 hay (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % on a dry matter basis) with water hyacinth hay (Eichhornia crassipes) on intake and digestibility of nutrients, feeding behaviour, rumen and blood parameters of sheep. Five uncastrated male sheep, cannulated in the rumen, with an average body weight of 40 kg were assigned in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The water hyacinth hay contained 870 g/kg dry matter (DM), 159 g/kg crude protein (CP), 547 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 461 g/kg total digestible nutrients (TDN). The DM intake and digestibility of NDF and non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) were linearly reduced by replacing the Tifton-85 hay with water hyacinth hay. Similarly, there was a linear reduction of rumination time and efficiencies of feeding and rumination of DM and NDF. The concentrations of urea, glucose, AST and GGT in blood plasma were not changed by replacing the Tifton-85 hay with water hyacinth hay. Although water hyacinth hay reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients, the Tifton-85 hay replacement could be economically advantageous for sheep feeding.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Dieta/veterinária , Eichhornia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 47(6): 1083-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25899663

RESUMO

The effect of the replacement of corn with the liquid residue of cassava was evaluated at levels of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in the diets of sheep on the intake and nutrient digestibility, weight gain, and carcass characteristics. Forty non-castrated crossbred Santa Ines sheep at 4 months of age and an initial body weight of 19.5 ± 2.5 kg were slaughtered after 90 days at the feedlot. A quadratic effect was found for intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), and digestible OM, with estimated values of 1130, 1080, 558, and 777 g/day at 11.2, 11.9, 30.8, and 2.18% of replacing corn with liquid residue of cassava, respectively. However, the intake of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased linearly around 105 to 45.3 g CP/day and 413 to 284 g NDF/day. The same effect was found for digestibility of DM (715 to 649 g/kg), OM (725 to 669 g/kg), CP (801 to 759 g/kg), and NDF (486 to 379 g/kg), which decreased linearly as the dietary liquid residue of cassava increased. The maximum average daily gain (174 g/day) was estimated with a 22.4% replacement level. Liquid residue of cassava can replace up to 25% of the corn in the diets of sheep, since it was possible to obtain a gain above 100 g/day, which is considered to be satisfactory.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Manihot , Ovinos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays
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