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1.
Mol Genet Metab ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to the deficit of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, the first step of dopamine synthesis. If not early treated the disease results in severe neurological impairment. Minor neurological signs have been reported in early treated PKU (ETPKU) subjects. Prolactin level is affected by (and reflects) brain dopamine availability. Object of the study was to assess the occurrence, age at onset, distribution, associated neurological signs, and possible pathogenetic biomarkers of tremor in ETPKU. METHODS: Fifty-nine ETPKU and 43 control subjects (age range 7-54) underwent individual and familiar tremor history, clinical assessment of tremor by means of the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale, and IQ evaluation. Historical and concomitant biochemical data (blood levels of Phe) and serum prolactin were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-two percent of ETPKU patients were affected by postural and kinetic tremor. We found a significant correlation between severity of tremor and: prolactin level at the day of examination (part A: rs = 0.320; p = .014; part C: rs = 0.319; p = .014), Phe fluctuations from 12 years onwards (part B: rs = 0.300; p = .036). We also found a significant correlation between prolactin (18.2 ±â€¯9.6 ng/ml) and Phe levels (852 ±â€¯472 µmol/l) on the day of assessment (rs = 0.470; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The main clinical features of tremor in ETPKU evoke those of essential tremor, although with a higher prevalence and an earlier onset than in general population. The severity of tremor was related to concomitant prolactin rather than Phe levels. This pattern suggests that metabolic alterations associated with PKU may result in an anticipation of the tremor onset in subjects who are possibly prone to this disorder.

2.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 128-139, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how the current practice of newborn screening (NBS) for homocystinurias compares with published recommendations. METHODS: Twenty-two of 32 NBS programmes from 18 countries screened for at least one form of homocystinuria. Centres provided pseudonymised NBS data from patients with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (CBSD, n = 19), methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency (MATI/IIID, n = 28), combined remethylation disorder (cRMD, n = 56) and isolated remethylation disorder (iRMD), including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (MTHFRD) (n = 8). Markers and decision limits were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) to allow comparison between centres. RESULTS: NBS programmes, algorithms and decision limits varied considerably. Only nine centres used the recommended second-tier marker total homocysteine (tHcy). The median decision limits of all centres were ≥ 2.35 for high and ≤ 0.44 MoM for low methionine, ≥ 1.95 for high and ≤ 0.47 MoM for low methionine/phenylalanine, ≥ 2.54 for high propionylcarnitine and ≥ 2.78 MoM for propionylcarnitine/acetylcarnitine. These decision limits alone had a 100%, 100%, 86% and 84% sensitivity for the detection of CBSD, MATI/IIID, iRMD and cRMD, respectively, but failed to detect six individuals with cRMD. To enhance sensitivity and decrease second-tier testing costs, we further adapted these decision limits using the data of 15 000 healthy newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the favorable outcome of early treated patients, NBS for homocystinurias is recommended. To improve NBS, decision limits should be revised considering the population median. Relevant markers should be combined; use of the postanalytical tools offered by the CLIR project (Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports, which considers, for example, birth weight and gestational age) is recommended. tHcy and methylmalonic acid should be implemented as second-tier markers.

4.
Mol Genet Metab ; 124(1): 39-49, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661557

RESUMO

Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) results in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, which can be partially prevented by an early and rigorous limitation of phenylalanine (Phe) intake. Enzyme substitution therapy with recombinant Anabaena variabilis Phe Ammonia Lyase (rAvPAL) proved to be effective in reducing blood Phe levels in preclinical and clinical studies of adults with PKU. Aims of present study were: a) to gather proofs of clinical efficacy of rAvPAL treatment in preventing neurological impairment in an early treated murine model of PKU; b) to test the advantages of an alternative delivering system for rAvPAL such as autologous erythrocytes. BTBR-Pahenu2-/- mice were treated from 15 to 64 post-natal days with weekly infusions of erythrocytes loaded with rAvPAL. Behavioral, neurochemical, and brain histological markers denoting untreated PKU were examined in early treated adult mice in comparison with untreated and wild type animals. rAvPAL therapy normalized blood and brain Phe; prevented cognitive developmental failure, brain depletion of serotonin, dendritic spine abnormalities, and myelin basic protein reduction. No adverse events or inactivating immune reaction were observed. In conclusion present study testifies the clinical efficacy of rAvPAL treatment in a preclinical model of PKU and the advantages of erythrocytes as carrier of the enzyme in term of frequency of the administrations and prevention of immunological reactions.

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 40(6): 793-799, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836033

RESUMO

Long-term cognitive outcome and treatment of adult early treated (ET)PKU patients is a main issue in PKU research. We questioned whether the intellectual development of ETPKU patients is stable and to what extent its variation may be predicted by the quality of metabolic control. The aims of the present longitudinal retrospective study were to assess in young adult ETPKU patients: i) the relationship between IQ and metabolic control during the first two decades of life; and ii) the intra- and interindividual variability in the developmental trajectory which cannot be predicted by the disease's biomarkers. We collected biochemical data from 65 ETPKU patients (diagnostic blood Phe > 360 µmol/l) who were assessed twice for IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale) during their lifetime (mean age: 10.2 and 19.6 years, respectively). Results show that in ETPKU patients IQ over the second decade of life remained stable in about half of the patients (51%); while the rest experienced a gain (7 to 15 points) or loss (7 to 28 points) in IQ scores (23 and 26% respectively) whatever the quality of metabolic control was. The main factor affecting the second IQ was the value of the first IQ (p < 0.000) whose effect overruled that of the markers of metabolic control. Looking at the developmental trajectory of our ETPKU patients, the present study disclosed a remarkable interindividual variability in their cognitive outcome and also an inconsistent linkage between cognitive performances and biochemical control, thus supporting the hypothesis of an individual resilience or vulnerability to Phe in young adult ETPKU.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenilcetonúrias/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur J Pediatr ; 176(7): 917-924, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28540433

RESUMO

The tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor is essential for the activity of various enzymes, including phenylalanine (Phe) hydroxylase. In phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, who are chronically exposed to high Phe levels, high urinary excretion of BH4 metabolites neopterin and biopterin is observed. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate consistence and variability of the urinary excretion of pterins (neopterin and biopterin) in PKU patients in relation to age and concomitant blood Phe and tyrosine levels. The study was based on the result of 274 pterin examinations (3-13 exams per subject) performed in 47 PKU patients (aged 6 days to 37 years). Multivariate analysis showed that urinary biopterin and neopterin excretion was affected by age and concomitant blood Phe concentration. The influence of blood Phe on both biopterin and neopterin levels was greater in patients younger than 4 months. Later on, interindividual variability was higher than intraindividual variability for both biopterin and neopterin. CONCLUSION: Common metabolic (blood Phe levels) and individual (age) factors implicated in the assessment of PKU outcome account only marginally and transiently for the variability of neopterin and biopterin excretion in PKU patients. Other unknown homeostatic factors may probably affect the individual response to chronically elevated Phe levels. What is Known: • In PKU patients, a high urinary excretion of biopterin and neopterin is found. • Biopterin and neopterin excretion is influenced by age and phenylalanine levels. W hat is New: • Blood phenylalanine concentration is the major determinant on pterin excretion in PKU patients in the first months of life. • In older PKU patients, the influence of phenylalanine on pterin excretion is less prominent.


Assuntos
Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Neopterina/urina , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/metabolismo , Tirosina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biopterina/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Chim Acta ; 466: 145-151, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28109742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies are rare inherited defects of synthesis or regeneration of BH4. Due to the resulting hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), some of them are detected by newborn screening and require the assessment of the pattern of neopterin (Neo) and biopterin (Bio) excretion in urine to be confirmed. Aim of present study was to develop a method for the measurement of these diagnostic biomarkers in dried blood spot (DBS). METHODS: After DBS extraction, samples were filtered and injected into the UPLC column coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer working in positive electrospray ionization. RESULTS: The chromatographic separation was accomplished in 6min. The LoQ was 0.57 and 1.45nmol/l of blood for Neo and Bio respectively and the response was linear over the range 0-100nmol/l of blood. The within- and between-day imprecision was <6.4 and 10.8% respectively. Reference ranges for newborns, infants and children/adult were established. The method was tested in 11 patients affected by BH4 defects. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of Neo and Bio in DBS is reliable and sensitive and may be proposed as a second tier test for the newborns with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) as well as a new potential diagnostic tool for symptomatic subjects with BH4 deficiencies.


Assuntos
Biopterina/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Neopterina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Valores de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mol Genet Metab ; 117(1): 12-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26655635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric symptoms are a challenging aspect in adolescent and adult early treated phenylketonuric (ETPKU) patients. To assess the occurrence of psychiatric disorders we explored the presence of symptoms requiring intervention and further investigated the link between psychiatric disorders, the quality of biochemical control and cognitive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-six ETPKU patients (aged 12 to 44) and 30 age-matched healthy controls were subjected to cognitive and psychiatric assessment by means of self-report questionnaires and psychiatric interview. Psychiatric diagnoses, if detected, were made according to DSM-5 criteria. Concomitant IQ, historical and concurrent biochemical metabolic controls were included in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-five out of 46 ETPKUs showed clinical scores on at least one scale of the psychiatric assessment (7/30 in controls); anxiety and withdrawal were the most frequent self-reported symptoms. Seventeen patients (and no controls) met criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, most of them belonging to the Anxiety Disorders category. The occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was not associated with the life-long and concurrent quality of metabolic control but patients with good metabolic control (≤ 500 µM) in the first 11 years of life showed higher frequency of psychiatric diagnosis (Fisher's exact p=.0300). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: ETPKUs show a higher than normal vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, which cannot be explained by the usual biochemical alterations influencing intellectual outcome. Our data support the hypothesis that the burden of the disease acts as psychological stress for children and their families. Possible involvement of neuromediators in the pathogenesis of these complex symptoms requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Fenilcetonúrias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mol Genet Metab ; 116(3): 171-7, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26283467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis and clinical consequences of white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in phenylketonuric (PKU) patients are incompletely known. OBJECTIVE: To study white matter alterations progression and outcome and its relationships with phenylalanine levels and intelligence quotient (IQ) in early treated PKU subjects who underwent serial MRIs during a prolonged follow-up. METHODS: 47 early treated PKU patients (mean age 25.1 ± 5.6 years; range 12-37 years) have been enrolled when two or more consecutive brain MRIs, a complete biochemical history, and MRI-concurrent blood phenylalanine levels were available. The severity and extension of white matter abnormalities were expressed in a computed score. Consecutive IQ assessments were available in 24 patients. We analyzed intra- and interindividual white matter alterations variations and their relationship with quality of biochemical control and cognitive outcome. RESULTS: Early treated PKU patients showed a high rate of white matter alterations with a relevant increase in frequency/severity from the second decade of life onwards. Age and quality of dietary control before or between subsequent examinations showed an independent cumulative effect on white matter alterations outcome. No significant association was found between white matter alterations and cognitive outcome. A remarkable interindividual variability was found and several patients disclosed incongruity between the trajectory of white matter alterations and biochemical control. About 30% of white matter alterations variability remains unexplained by the disease-associated determinants. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of white matter alterations is not significantly affected by intellectual outcome and is affected by aging, chronic exposure to phenylalanine, and unknown individual factors.


Assuntos
Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/patologia , Fenilcetonúrias/terapia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mol Genet Metab ; 115(4): 157-60, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123188

RESUMO

Sepiapterin reductase deficiency (SRD) causes depletion of biogenic amines in the brain, early onset motor disorder, and intellectual disability. The diagnostic marker for this rare disease is increased sepiapterin and biopterin in CSF. Through a new analytic methodology we demonstrated accumulation of sepiapterin in urine of four SRD patients several times greater than that found in healthy controls and carriers, regardless of age or treatment. Our findings suggest a new interpretation of current theories of peripheral pterin metabolism and provide a new noninvasive diagnostic tool for children with early onset cryptogenetic developmental delay and/or movement disorder.


Assuntos
Distonia/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicomotores/diagnóstico , Pterinas/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Distonia/urina , Humanos , Lactente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/urina , Prognóstico , Transtornos Psicomotores/urina
11.
Mol Genet Metab ; 115(2-3): 84-90, 2015 Jun-Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25952249

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to explore the outcome of neurocognitive deficits and neuroimaging correlates in young adult early treated phenylketonuric (PKU) patients. We conducted a longitudinal study of 14 PKU patients that were assessed for IQ and neuropsychological functioning including executive functions (EF) over 14 years of follow-up (age range at 1st and 2nd assessments were 7.8-13.5 and 22.2-27.7 years, respectively). The IQ of all 14 PKU patients was within the normal range. With respect to the 1st assessment, mean IQ at follow-up did not decrease significantly. Compared to control subjects (n = 14), mean IQ of patients was significantly lower (p = .0005). Throughout adolescence and early adulthood there was an improvement of neuropsychological functioning of PKU patients in spite of the relaxation of diet, however some deficits were still detectable when compared to controls. All patients that underwent a second MRI scan showed white matter alterations ranging from mild to severe which was correlated neither with IQ nor with EF scoring. Cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging outcome was influenced from life-long and/or second decade of life metabolic control. Nevertheless patients' developmental trajectories were in some cases independent from metabolic control. Our results support the hypothesis of an individual vulnerability to phenylalanine. However, as long as individual factors that account for the vulnerability to Phe are not recognized, strict dietary control is recommended for all the patients also in the second decade of life.


Assuntos
Neuroimagem , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Fenilcetonúrias/patologia , Adulto , Transtornos Cognitivos/dietoterapia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0123772, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879532

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is still the principal cause of death caused by a single infectious agent, and the balance between the bacillus and host defense mechanisms reflects the different manifestations of the pathology. The aim of this work was to study the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) during active pulmonary tuberculosis at the site of infection. We observed an expansion of MDSCs in the lung and blood of patients with active TB, which are correlated with an enhanced amount of nitric oxide in the plasma. We also found that these cells have the remarkable ability to suppress T-cell response, suggesting an important role in the modulation of the immune response against TB. Interestingly, a trend in the diminution of MDSCs was found after an efficacious anti-TB therapy, suggesting that these cells may be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring anti-TB therapy efficacy.


Assuntos
Granulócitos/patologia , Células Mieloides/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Arginina/sangue , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue
13.
JIMD Rep ; 15: 39-45, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24788355

RESUMO

Two sisters were diagnosed in their adulthood with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency (OMIM#608643). They experienced early myasthenia-like manifestations, myoclonic jerks, oculogyric crises, tremors, and developmental delay during childhood; clinical stabilization afterwards; and spontaneous improvement during adolescence and young adulthood. Two novel pathogenic mutations on DDC gene [p.Tyr37Thrfs*5 (c.105delC) and p.F237S (c.710 T>C)] were associated with undetectable enzyme activity in plasma and only a mild reduction of biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The increase of both 3-O-methyldopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan on CSF was the most relevant biochemical alteration denoting AADC defect in these subjects. Transdermal rotigotine remarkably improved their gross motor functions and the asthenic status they complained. The present cases broaden the phenotypic spectrum of AADC deficiency and suggest that (1) AADC defect is not a progressive neurological disease and behaves rather as a neurodevelopmental disorder that improves during the second decade of life; (2) treatment-naïve adults can still respond well to neurotransmitter therapy; and (3) the possibility of a mild presentation of AADC deficiency should be considered when examining young adults with asthenic and parkinsonian symptoms.

14.
J Neurol ; 261(11): 2204-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25182701

RESUMO

The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) is not supported by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) using dopamine transporter radioligand in 4-15 % of patients. It has been hypothesized that this phenomenon, named "Scans Without Evidence of Dopaminergic Deficiency" (SWEDD), may be an adult-onset dystonia. We investigated the hypothesis that these patients might be affected by Dopa-Responsive Dystonia (DRD). We enrolled eleven unrelated patients (8 F and 3 M) with clinical parkinsonism and normal [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT. The GTP-cyclohydrolase1 (GCH1) gene was sequenced in all patients; urine biopterin and neopterin analysis was carried out in nine and oral phenylalanine (Phe) loading in seven. Neurological examination showed bradykinesia and resting/postural tremor in all patients, and rigidity in ten, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of PD. We detected mild dystonic signs in eight cases. In particular, five of them presented cranial dyskinesias. No mutation of the GCH1 gene was found. The results of the urine biopterin and neopterin analysis and the oral Phe loading did not reveal biochemical abnormalities suggestive of reduced GCH1 activity. We confirm that some clinical features, namely the presence of focal or segmental dystonia, suggest an adult-onset dystonia in SWEDD cases. However, we exclude DRD caused by GCH1 gene mutations in the present series.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Distônicos/diagnóstico , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , GTP Cicloidrolase/genética , Testes Genéticos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Control Release ; 194: 37-44, 2014 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25151978

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by defects in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) could be an effective alternative for the treatment of PKU. The aim of this study is to investigate if erythrocytes loaded with PAL may act as a safe delivery system able to overcome bioavailability issues and to provide, in vivo, a therapeutically relevant concentration of enzyme. Murine erythrocytes were loaded with recombinant PAL from Anabaena variabilis (rAvPAL) and their ability to perform as bioreactors was assessed in vivo in adult BTBR-Pah(enu2) mice, the genetic murine model of PKU. Three groups of mice were treated with a single i.v. injection of rAvPAL-RBCs at three different doses to select the most appropriate one for assessment of efficacy. Repeated administrations at 9-10 day-intervals of the selected dose for 10 weeks showed that the therapeutic effect was persistent and not affected by the generation of antibodies induced by the recombinant enzyme. This therapeutic approach deserves further in vivo evaluation either as a potential option for the treatment of PKU patients or as a possible model for the substitutive enzymatic treatment of other inherited metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/uso terapêutico , Fenilcetonúrias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/administração & dosagem , Fenilcetonúrias/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
16.
Front Pediatr ; 2: 57, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25003100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by the inherited defect of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme, which converts phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). Neonatal screening programs and early treatment have radically changed the natural history of PKU. Nevertheless, an increased risk of neurocognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood remains a challenging aspect of the disease. In order to assess the vulnerability of complex skills to Phe, we explored: (a) the effect of a rapid increase in blood Phe levels on event-related potentials (ERP) in PKU subjects during their second decade of life; (b) the association (if existing) between psychophysiological and neurocognitive features. METHODS: Seventeen early-treated PKU subjects, aged 10-20, underwent ERP [mismatch negativity, auditory P300, contingent negative variation (CNV), and Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials] recording before and 2 h after an oral loading of Phe. Neurocognitive functioning, historical and concurrent biochemical values of blood Phe, Tyr, and Phe/Tyr ratio, were all included in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Event-related potential components were normally detected in all the subjects. In subjects younger than 13 CNV amplitude, W2-CNV area, P3b latency, and reaction times in motor responses were negatively influenced by Phe-loading. Independently from the psychophysiological vulnerability, some neurocognitive skills were more impaired in younger patients. No correlation was found between biochemical alterations and neurocognitive and psychophysiological findings. CONCLUSION: The vulnerability of the emerging neurocognitive functions to Phe suggests a strict metabolic control in adolescents affected by PKU and a neurodevelopmental approach in the study of neurocognitive outcome in PKU.

17.
Brain ; 137(Pt 4): 1107-19, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24613933

RESUMO

Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome due to SLC6A3 mutations is the first inherited dopamine 'transportopathy' to be described, with a classical presentation of early infantile-onset progressive parkinsonism dystonia. In this study we have identified a new cohort of patients with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome, including, most significantly, atypical presentation later in childhood with a milder disease course. We report the detailed clinical features, molecular genetic findings and in vitro functional investigations undertaken for adult and paediatric cases. Patients presenting with parkinsonism dystonia or a neurotransmitter profile characteristic of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were recruited for study. SLC6A3 mutational analysis was undertaken in all patients. The functional consequences of missense variants on the dopamine transporter were evaluated by determining the effect of mutant dopamine transporter on dopamine uptake, protein expression and amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux using an in vitro cellular heterologous expression system. We identified eight new patients from five unrelated families with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 13 years (range 1.5-34 years). Most significantly, the case series included three adolescent males with atypical dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome of juvenile onset (outside infancy) and progressive parkinsonism dystonia. The other five patients in the cohort presented with classical infantile-onset parkinsonism dystonia, with one surviving into adulthood (currently aged 34 years) and labelled as having 'juvenile parkinsonism'. All eight patients harboured homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in SLC6A3, of which the majority are previously unreported variants. In vitro studies of mutant dopamine transporter demonstrated multifaceted loss of dopamine transporter function. Impaired dopamine uptake was universally present, and more severely impacted in dopamine transporter mutants causing infantile-onset rather than juvenile-onset disease. Dopamine transporter mutants also showed diminished dopamine binding affinity, reduced cell surface transporter, loss of post-translational dopamine transporter glycosylation and failure of amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux. Our data series expands the clinical phenotypic continuum of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome and indicates that there is a phenotypic spectrum from infancy (early onset, rapidly progressive disease) to childhood/adolescence and adulthood (later onset, slower disease progression). Genotype-phenotype analysis in this cohort suggests that higher residual dopamine transporter activity is likely to contribute to postponing disease presentation in these later-onset adult cases. Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome remains under-recognized and our data highlights that dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis for both infantile- and juvenile-onset movement disorders, including cerebral palsy and juvenile parkinsonism.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/deficiência , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/complicações , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e84697, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24376837

RESUMO

Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) refers to all clinical conditions characterized by increased amounts of phenylalanine (PHE) in blood and other tissues. According to their blood PHE concentrations under a free diet, hyperphenylalaninemic patients are commonly classified into phenotypic subtypes: classical phenylketonuria (PKU) (PHE > 1200 µM/L), mild PKU (PHE 600-1200 µM/L) and persistent HPA (PHE 120-600 µM/L) (normal blood PHE < 120 µM/L). The current treatment for hyperphenylalaninemic patients is aimed to keep blood PHE levels within the safe range of 120-360 µM/L through a PHE-restricted diet, difficult to achieve. If untreated, classical PKU presents variable neurological and mental impairment. However, even mildly elevated blood PHE levels, due to a bad compliance to dietary treatment, produce cognitive deficits involving the prefrontal cortical areas, extremely sensible to PHE-induced disturbances. The development of animal models of different degrees of HPA is a useful tool for identifying the metabolic mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits induced by PHE. In this paper we analyzed the behavioral and biochemical phenotypes of different forms of HPA (control, mild-HPA, mild-PKU and classic-PKU), developed on the base of plasma PHE concentrations. Our results demonstrated that mice with different forms of HPA present different phenotypes, characterized by increasing severity of behavioral symptoms and brain aminergic deficits moving from mild HPA to classical PKU forms. In addition, our data identify preFrontal cortex and amygdala as the most affected brain areas and confirm the highest susceptibility of brain serotonin metabolism to mildly elevated blood PHE.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fenilcetonúrias/classificação , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Movimento/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Recognição (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Serotonina/metabolismo
20.
JIMD Rep ; 7: 67-75, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23430498

RESUMO

Background. The diagnosis of autosomal dominant GTP-cyclohydrolase deficiency relies on the examination of the GCH1 gene and/or pterins and neurotransmitters in CSF. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic value, if any, of pterins in urine and blood phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) under oral Phe loading test. Methods. We report on two new pedigrees with four symptomatic and four asymptomatic carriers whose pattern of urinary pterins and blood Phe/Tyr ratio under oral Phe loading pointed to GTP-cyclohydrolase deficiency. The study was then extended to 3 further patients and 90 controls. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of these metabolic markers were analysed by backwards logistic analysis. Results. Two genetic alterations segregated alternatively in Family 1 (c.631-632 del AT and c.671A > G), while exon 1 deletion was transmitted along three generations in Family 2. Neopterin and biopterin concentrations in urine clustered differently in controls under and over the age of 15. Therefore patients and controls were sub grouped according to this age. Neopterin was significantly reduced in GCH1 mutated subjects younger than 15, and both neopterin and biopterin in those older than 15. Moreover, the Phe/Tyr ratios at the second and third hour were both significantly higher in patients than in controls. Backwards logistic regression demonstrated the high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of combined values of neopterin concentration and Phe/Tyr ratio at the second hour. Conclusions. Pterins in urine and Phe loading test are non-invasive and reliable tools for the biochemical diagnosis of GTP-cyclohydrolase deficiency.

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