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J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(8): 1299-302, 2015 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263126


Reported here are second-order rate constants of associative ligand exchanges of Au25L18 nanoparticles (L = phenylethanethiolate) of various charge states, measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance at room temperature and below. Differences in second-order rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) of ligand exchange (positive clusters ∼1.9 × 10(-5) versus negative ones ∼1.2 × 10(-4)) show that electron depletion retards ligand exchange. The ordering of rate constants between the ligands benzeneselenol > 4-bromobenzene thiol > benzenethiol reveals that exchange is accelerated by higher acidity and/or electron donation capability of the incoming ligand. Together, these observations indicate that partial charge transfer occurs between the nanoparticle and ligand during the exchange and that this is a rate-determining effect in the process.

J Am Chem Soc ; 136(31): 11182-7, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25068483


Electron transfers (ETs) in mixed-valent ferrocene/ferrocenium materials are ordinarily facile. In contrast, the presence of ~1:1 mixed-valent ferrocenated thiolates in the organothiolate ligand shells of <2 nm diameter Au225, Au144, and Au25 monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs) exerts a retarding effect on ET between them at and below room temperature. Near room temperature, in dry samples, bimolecular rate constants for ET between organothiolate-ligated MPCs are diminished by the addition of ferrocenated ligands to their ligand shells. At lower temperatures (down to ~77 K), the thermally activated (Arrhenius) ET process dissipates, and the ET rates become temperature-independent. Among the Au225, Au144, and Au25 MPCs, the temperature-independent ET rates fall in the same order as at ambient temperatures: Au225 > Au144 > Au25. The MPC ET activation energy barriers are little changed by the presence of ferrocenated ligands and are primarily determined by the Au nanoparticle core size.

J Am Chem Soc ; 136(9): 3385-7, 2014 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24564781


The electronic conductivity of films of iridium oxide (IrO(x)) composed of ca. 2 nm nanoparticles (NPs) is strongly dependent on the film oxidation state. The Ir(IV)O(x) NPs can be electrochemically converted to several oxidation states, ranging from Ir(III) to Ir(V) oxides. The NP films exhibit a very high apparent conductivity, e.g., 10(-2) S cm(-1), when the NPs are in the oxidized +4/+5 state. When the film is fully reduced to its Ir(III) state, the apparent conductivity falls to 10(-6) S cm(-1).

J Am Chem Soc ; 135(30): 11351-6, 2013 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23869914


This work examines the temperature dependence of electron transfer (ET) kinetics in solid-state films of mixed-valent states of monodisperse, small (<2 nm) Au monolayer protected clusters (MPCs). The mixed valent MPC films, coated on interdigitated array electrodes, are Au25(SR)18(0/1-), Au25(SR)18(1+/0), and Au144(SR)60(1+/0), where SR = hexanethiolate for Au144 and phenylethanethiolate for Au25. Near room temperature and for ca. 1:1 mol:mol mixed valencies, the bimolecular ET rate constants (assuming a cubic lattice model) are ~2 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for Au25(SR)18(0/1-), ~3 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for Au25(SR)18(1+/0), and ~1 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for Au144(SR)60(1+/0). Their activation energy ET barriers are 0.38, 0.34, and 0.17 eV, respectively. At lowered temperatures (down to ca. 77 K), the thermally activated (Arrhenius) ET process dissipates revealing a tunneling mechanism in which the ET rates are independent of temperature but, among the different MPCs, fall in the same order of ET rate: Au144(+1/0) > Au25(0/1-) > Au25(1+/0).

J Phys Chem B ; 114(34): 11261-71, 2010 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20690669


There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu(2+) by Abeta. However, the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu(2+)-induced aggregation of Abeta. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the Cu(2+) coordination spheres to human and rat Abeta and an extensive set of Abeta(16) mutants. EPR of the mutant peptides is consistent with a 3N1O binding geometry, like the native human peptide at pH 7.4. The thermodynamic data reveal an equilibrium between three coordination spheres, {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(-)}, {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(Im)(His13)}, and {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(Im)(His14)}, for human Abeta(16) but one dominant coordination for rat Abeta(16), {NH(2), O, N(Im)(His6), N(-)}, at pH 7.4-6.5. ITC and CD data establish that the mutation R5G is sufficient for reproducing this difference in Cu(2+) binding properties at pH 7.4. The substitution of bulky and positively charged Arg by Gly is proposed to stabilize the coordination {NH(2), O-, N(Im)(His6), N(-)} that then results in one dominating coordination sphere for the case of the rat peptide. The differences in the coordination geometries for Cu(2+) by the human and rat Abeta are proposed to contribute to the variation in the ability of Cu(2+) to induce aggregation of Abeta peptides.

Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Cobre/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Calorimetria , Dicroísmo Circular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Termodinâmica
Cell Signal ; 17(7): 891-9, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15763431


Shiga toxins (Stxs) cause irreversible damage to eukaryotic ribosomes, yet cellular intoxication of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) results in increased synthesis of selected proteins, notably cytokines. How mRNA translation is maintained in this circumstance is unclear. This study was designed to assess whether Stx-induced alterations in host signal transduction machinery permit translation despite protein synthesis inhibition. A key step of translation is recruitment of initiation machinery to the 5' mRNA cap. This event occurs in part via interaction of the 5' cap with the cap binding protein, eIF4E, whose activity is positively regulated by phosphorylation and negatively regulated by binding to the translational repressor 4E-BP1. Following Stx treatment of IECs, eIF4E phosphorylation was detected by Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies. Treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB202190, or either of the ERK1/2 inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, partially blocked Stx1-induced eIF4E phosphorylation. The Mnk1 inhibitor, CGP57380, blocked both basal and Stx-induced eIF4E phosphorylation. Interestingly, pretreatment with CGP57380 did not alter basal protein synthesis, but diminished the ability of cells to maintain translation following Stx1 challenge. Stx1 also induced hyperphosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and phosphorylation of S6Kinase; both effects were blocked by rapamycin. These data are novel observations showing that Stxs regulate multiple signal transduction pathways controlling translation in host cells, and support a role for eIF4E phosphorylation in maintaining host cell translation despite ribosomal intoxication.

Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Toxinas Shiga/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Purinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Toxinas Shiga/farmacologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores