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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113139, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726679

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inflammatory skin diseases presents high prevalence and lack of alternatives that can be used for self-care by the population. Casearia sylvestris is a plant used topically in different communities in Brazil, to treat wounds or promote cutaneous healing. To evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory activity for the crude hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia sylvestris (HCE-CS) in the models of single or multiple administration of chroton oil to induce ear edema in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study using male Swiss mice (25-35g) kept under constant conditions in the Laboratory of Experimental Neuroscience (LaNEx)-UNISUL. Edema was induced in both models, respectively, by the single or multiple application of croton oil (CO, 2.5%, in 20 µl) on the external surface of the ear. The different groups of animals (n = 8) received different treatments: vehicle, dexamethasone (DEXA) or different doses of HCE-CS. Edema was evaluated macroscopically for 6 h (early edema) or 8 days (late edema) after the first application of the CO and immediately after the animals were submitted to euthanasia for the collection of the samples (treated ears). For early edema, the tissue was biochemically evaluated for myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and levels of nitrite/nitrate. In the late edema model, the ears were histologically evaluated for general morphometry, degranulated and non-degranulated mast cells, as well as acanthosis. RESULTS: Topic treatment with HCE-CS significantly reduced the early and late edema, as well as MPO activity and tissue levels of nitrite/nitrate. Finally, in the late edema model there was a lower density of degranulated mast cells in relation to the vehicle treated group and decreased thickness of the epidermis (acanthosis). CONCLUSION: These results suggest a possible benefit of topical treatment with HCE-CS in inflammatory conditions of the skin.

2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(2 suppl 1): 2211-2222, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066747

RESUMO

Silicone breast implant is associated with complications inherent to the surgical procedure. Prosthesis coating with polyurethane, however, commonly reduces the incidence of such complications. In this paper, the authors evaluated the inflammatory histomorphometric profile and oxidative damage associated to the implant of polyester urethane sheets. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into Sham or polyester urethane groups (n = 8/group) and underwent a polyester urethane implant in the dorsal skinfold. Tissue samples were collected on days seven, 30, and 90 after surgery and subjected to histomorphometric analysis and biochemical tests. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Peri-implant tissue samples exhibited characteristic inflammatory response associated with the biomaterial, with increased vascularization on day seven and augmented levels of IL1-b and TNF-a after 30 days. Peri-implant fibrocystic population was small on day seven, but increased considerably after 90 days. A rise in the carbonyl group levels of skin samples in the polyester urethane group was observed on day seven. Findings suggest that polyester urethane sheets undergo biodegradation at an early stage after implantation, followed by increased vascularity and microencapsulation of biomaterial fragments, without persistent oxidative damage. Fiber arrangement inside the collagen matrix results in a fibrotic scar because of polyester urethane degradation.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliuretanos/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Feminino , Modelos Animais , Poliuretanos/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(7): 6155-6168, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250715

RESUMO

Although training programs with regular eccentric (ECC) exercise are more commonly used for improving muscular strength and mobility, ECC exercise effects upon functional recovery of the sciatic nerve has not yet been determined. After sciatic nerve crush, different mice groups were subjected to run on the treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 6, 10, or 14 m/min with - 16° slope, 5 days per week, over 8 weeks. During the training time, neuropathic pain-like behavior (mechanical and cold hyperalgesia) was assessed and functional recovery was determined with the grip strength test and the Sciatic Functional and Static indexes (SFI and SSI). After 9 weeks, triceps surae muscle weight and morphological alterations were assessed. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and markers pro- and anti-inflammatory and regeneration, respectively, were quantified in the muscle and sciatic nerve on day 14 post-crushing. Exercised groups presented less neuropathic pain-like behavior and better functional recovery than non-exercised groups. Biochemically, ECC exercise reduced TNF-α increase in the muscle. ECC exercise increased sciatic nerve IGF-1 levels in sciatic nerve crush-subjected animals. These findings provide new evidence indicating that treatment with ECC might be a potential approach for neuropathy induced by peripheral nerve injury.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Neuralgia/patologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/patologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Regeneração Nervosa , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/patologia
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 950-957, Sept. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893079

RESUMO

The present study describes the morphology and histology of the digestive tract of juvenile pirarucu, which is a Neotropical fish species with great potential for aquaculture in the Amazon region. Three size classes of pirarucu juveniles from commercial fish farms were sampled for histological examination of the oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca, intestine and liver. The morphological and histological features of the pirarucu digestive tract are similar to other carnivorous teleosts and enable the species to ingest, store and digest large food items. Acidic and neutral mucins are secreted by the mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine to protect the mucosal epithelium and to lubricate and facilitate food passage along the digestive tract. Complex transverse folds are predominant in the intestinal mucosa and most likely contribute to optimization of the digestion and nutrient absorption processes, thereby offsetting the relatively short length of the intestine. The exocrine pancreas appears diffuse in the liver and mesentery around the pyloric region of the stomach, pyloric caeca and initial part of the intestine. The digestive tract morphology and thickness become increasingly developed with the size of pirarucu.


El presente trabajo describe la morfología e histología del tracto digestivo de una especie juvenil de paiche, un pez neotropical con gran potencial acuícola en la region Amazónica. Se tomaron muestras de tres clases de tamaño de juveniles de paiche de granjas acuícolas comerciales para examen histológico del esófago, estómago, ciego pilórico, intestino e hígado. El tracto digestivo del paiche tiene características morfológicas e histológicas comunes a otros teleósteos carnívoros que permiten a la especie la ingestión, el almacenamiento y la digestión de grandes alimentos. Mucinas ácidas y neutras son secretadas por la capa mucosa del esófago, estómago, ciego pilórico e intestino para proteger el epitelio de esta capa, además de lubricar y facilitar el paso de los alimentos a lo largo del tracto. Pliegues complejos y de orientación transversal son predominantes en la mucosa intestinal, contribuyendo, probablemente, a la optimización de los procesos de digestión y absorción de nutrientes, y compensando la longitud relativamente corta del intestino. El páncreas exócrino se encuentra difuso dentro del hígado y en el mesenterio alrededor de la región pilórica del estómago, ciego pilórico y porción inicial del intestino. La morfología y el espesor del tubo digestorio se desarrollan de forma gradual a medida que el paiche crece.


Assuntos
Animais , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
5.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 20(10): 1337-1349, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26481104

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic and chondroprotective effects of diacerein (DIA) in a model of joint inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), as well as to investigate the involvement of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and glial cells in DIA's action mechanism. METHODS: Complete Freund's adjuvant was injected into the knee joint of male rats. We observed mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, vocalization and spontaneous pain-related behaviors, as well as edema of the knee. Tissue samples of the knee were stained with Cason`s technique and the thickness of the condilus cartilage was measured. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the spinal cord using anti-GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), anti-MMP and anti-TRPV1 antibodies. Sections of the dorsal horns of the spinal cord were captured and an optical density was obtained. RESULTS: Complete Freund's adjuvant induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, as well as joint edema and changes in the synovial membrane and cartilage. DIA (30 mg/kg, orally, daily) significantly inhibited mechanical (58 ± 10-87 ± 3%) and thermal (66 ± 12-87 ± 8%) hypersensitivity, vocalization (83 ± 5-41 ± 11%), spontaneous pain score, joint swelling (60 ± 6-40 ± 9%), as well as the histological changes induced by CFA. In addition, DIA inhibited astrocyte activation, and prevented the increase of MMP-9 and TRPV1 expression in the spinal cord of the animals subjected to CFA injections. CONCLUSIONS: In short, this study shows that DIA reduces joint damage and hypersensitivity associated with inflammation induced by CFA through the inhibition of astroglial activation and decreases the expression of TRPV1 and MMP-9 in the rat spinal cord.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Artrite Experimental/enzimologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Experimental/psicologia , Edema/enzimologia , Edema/patologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Adjuvante de Freund , Articulações/patologia , Masculino , Neuroglia/enzimologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Dor Nociceptiva/induzido quimicamente , Dor Nociceptiva/enzimologia , Dor Nociceptiva/patologia , Dor Nociceptiva/psicologia , Ratos Wistar , Medula Espinal/enzimologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Sensação Térmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Vocalização Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 169: 79-89, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26519834

RESUMO

Phenanthrene (PHE) is an abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), widely distributed in aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and molecular effects in the native oyster Crassostrea brasiliana(Lamarck, 1819) exposed to 100 and 1000 µg L(-1) PHE for 1, 5 and 10 days. Histological and chemical analyses were performed to evaluate, respectively, alterations in oyster tissues and bioaccumulation. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to assess tissue distribution of CYP2AU1, a gene formerly identified as activated by PHE exposure in this species.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in mantle was carried out to validate ISH data. Oysters bioaccumulated PHE increasingly along the exposure period in both exposure concentrations. Histologic changes, like tubular atrophy in digestive diverticula (digestive gland) and increased number of mucous cells in the mantle were observed in animals exposed to PHE for 10 days. ISH showed the presence of CYP2AU1transcripts in gills, digestive diverticula, mantle, intestine and gonads, but significant differences in transcript detection by ISH between treatments occurred only in gills, mantle and intestine. A positive and significant correlation between tubular atrophy and CYP2AU1hybridization signal was observed in digestive diverticula, suggesting that this gene product might be involved in energetic metabolism in C. brasiliana. Increased mucous cells and CYP2AU1transcript levels were observed in the mantle, where the inner and middle lobes showed higher intensity of hybridization signal. Mantle should be considered as a target organ for CYP2AU1 transcript evaluation and histological alterations in biomonitoring studies. CYP2AU1 signal in female gonads was observed in all follicular cells from different gonadic stages, while in male only the spermatic follicle cells of the wall in the pre-spawning stage showed this signal. ISH was an effective technique to evaluate the effects of PHE exposure and to locate CYP2AU1 transcripts in different tissues of oyster C. brasiliana.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Crassostrea/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Brânquias/patologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/enzimologia , Estômago/patologia
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 159: 267-75, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25569847

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 family (CYP) is a group of proteins virtually found in all living organisms. The main role of most CYPs is to metabolize endo and xenobiotics. Most of the studies on CYP have been carried out in mammals and other vertebrates, however recently a growing interest has been devoted to the identification of CYP isoforms in invertebrates. A gene belonging to the CYP sub-family, CYP356A1, was identified in sanitary sewage-exposed Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Through heterologous expression, we produced CYP356A1 purified protein and raised a mouse polyclonal antibody. Dot blot tests showed that oysters exposed in situ for 14 days to untreated urban effluent discharges had significantly higher levels of CYP356A1 in digestive gland. Using immunohistochemical techniques we observed that the lining epithelial cells of mantle, stomach and intestine showed a strong CYP356A1 staining, but the mucus and secretory cells were negative. Digestive diverticulum parenchyma and gills lining cells showed strong CYP356A1 reaction, while the filamentary rod (connective tissue) was negative. Free cells, as hemocytes and brown cells also showed CYP356A1 immunoreactions indicating the presence of biotransformation activity in these cells. Male germ cells at early stages expressed CYP356A1 but not sperm mature cells, suggesting that this protein could be involved in the male gonadal development. This study shows the use of a specific antibody to a mollusk CYP isoform and that this protein is inducible in oysters environmentally exposed to urban sewage effluents.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Esgotos/química , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e95293, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24740104

RESUMO

Electrospun materials have been widely explored for biomedical applications because of their advantageous characteristics, i.e., tridimensional nanofibrous structure with high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and pore interconnectivity. Furthermore, considering the similarities between the nanofiber networks and the extracellular matrix (ECM), as well as the accepted role of changes in ECM for hernia repair, electrospun polymer fiber assemblies have emerged as potential materials for incisional hernia repair. In this work, we describe the application of electrospun non-absorbable mats based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in the repair of abdominal defects, comparing the performance of these meshes with that of a commercial polypropylene mesh and a multifilament PET mesh. PET and PET/chitosan electrospun meshes revealed good performance during incisional hernia surgery, post-operative period, and no evidence of intestinal adhesion was found. The electrospun meshes were flexible with high suture retention, showing tensile strengths of 3 MPa and breaking strains of 8-33%. Nevertheless, a significant foreign body reaction (FBR) was observed in animals treated with the nanofibrous materials. Animals implanted with PET and PET/chitosan electrospun meshes (fiber diameter of 0.71 ± 0.28 µm and 3.01 ± 0.72 µm, respectively) showed, respectively, foreign body granuloma formation, averaging 4.2-fold and 7.4-fold greater than the control commercial mesh group (Marlex). Many foreign body giant cells (FBGC) involving nanofiber pieces were also found in the PET and PET/chitosan groups (11.9 and 19.3 times more FBGC than control, respectively). In contrast, no important FBR was observed for PET microfibers (fiber diameter = 18.9 ± 0.21 µm). Therefore, we suggest that the reduced dimension and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the electrospun fibers caused the FBR reaction, pointing out the need for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying interactions between cells/tissues and nanofibrous materials in order to gain a better understanding of the implantation risks associated with nanostructured biomaterials.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Reação a Corpo Estranho/induzido quimicamente , Granuloma de Corpo Estranho/induzido quimicamente , Nanofibras/química , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Telas Cirúrgicas/veterinária , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Quitosana/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Reação a Corpo Estranho/patologia , Granuloma de Corpo Estranho/patologia , Hérnia Abdominal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/instrumentação , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenotereftalatos , Polipropilenos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Propriedades de Superfície , Suturas , Resistência à Tração
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 153: 27-38, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24745718

RESUMO

The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 µm. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC50 (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total hemocyte count). At 24 h post exposure, decreased (-29%) glutathione reductase (GR) activity was observed in gills, but other biochemical responses were observed only after 48 h of exposure: lower GR activity (-28%) and levels of protein thiols (-21%), increased index of lipid peroxidation (+49%) and GPx activity (+26%). In accordance with ultrastructural changes and zinc load, digestive gland showed delayed biochemical responses. Except for a decreased GR activity (-47%) at 48 h post exposure, the biochemical alterations seen in gills were not present in digestive gland. The results indicate that gills are able to incorporate zinc prior (24 h) to digestive gland (48 h), leading to earlier mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress. Our data suggest that gills are the initial target of ZnONP and that mitochondria are organelles particularly susceptible to ZnONP in C. gigas.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/ultraestrutura , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 39(6): 1581-90, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23729202

RESUMO

This study assessed the morphological development of jundiá larvae's digestive system and digestive proteolytic activity. Specific serine proteinases activities varied over time, with the highest peak at 12 h after hatching (AH), which corresponded to 296.38 ± 84.20 mU mg⁻¹ for trypsin and 315.45 ± 42.16 mU mg⁻¹ for chymotrypsin. Specific aspartic proteinases activities increased up to the start of weaning, oscillated during that phase, but showed a consistent increase after that, resulting in the highest specific activity at 252 h AH (7.88 ± 0.68 mU mg⁻¹). Gel assays showed different molecular forms, especially of serine proteinases. Histology showed the gastrointestinal tract development onset at 0 h AH and open mouth at 4 h AH. At 16 h AH, the following differentiation of the digestive tract was evident: oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus, liver, pancreas, stomach, and intestine. At 40 h AH, zymogen granules in the pancreas were observed, and at 48 h AH, mucus in the digestive tract and gastric glands in the stomach. Findings indicate that jundiá has a functional stomach before the end of vitelline reserves. Therefore, jundiá larvae are probably capable to digest inert feed at the exogenous feeding onset.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Peixes-Gato/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia
11.
Pain ; 152(11): 2653-61, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21906878

RESUMO

An important issue in physical rehabilitation is how to protect from or to reduce the effects of peripheral nerve injury. In the present study, we examined whether ankle joint mobilization (AJM) would reduce neuropathic pain and enhance motor functional recovery after nerve injury. In the axonotmesis model, AJM during 15 sessions every other day was conducted in rats. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and motor performance deficit were measured for 5 weeks. After 5 weeks, we performed morphological analysis and quantified the immunoreactivity for CD11b/c and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), markers of glial activation, in the lumbar spinal cord. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and motor performance deficit were found in the Crush+Anesthesia (Anes) group (P<0.001), which was significantly decreased after AJM (P<0.001). In the morphological analysis, the Crush+Anes group presented reduced myelin sheath thickness (P<0.05), but the AJM group presented enhanced myelin sheath thickness (P<0.05). Peripheral nerve injury increased the immunoreactivity for CD11b/c and GFAP in the spinal cord (P<0.05), and AJM markedly reduced CD11b/c and GFAP immunoreactivity (P<0.01). These results show that AJM in rats produces an antihyperalgesic effect and peripheral nerve regeneration through the inhibition of glial activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These findings suggest new approaches for physical rehabilitation to protect from or reduce the effects of nerve injury.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/inervação , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Neuralgia/reabilitação , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Animais , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Microglia/fisiologia , Compressão Nervosa/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Medula Espinal/citologia
12.
Arch Virol ; 156(1): 9-16, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20878428

RESUMO

Despite the economic impact of the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) on shrimp farms in several countries, no method for immunological detection is currently available. With the aim of developing immunodiagnostic methods for IMNV detection in infected shrimps, a recombinant fragment of the IMNV major capsid protein gene encoding amino acids 105-297 (rIMNV105₋297 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize Balb/c mice, generating monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six hybridomas were obtained, and four of these recognized the presence of IMNV in tissue homogenates from naturally infected shrimps by immunodot blot assay. Among these MAbs, three were able to detect a ~100-kDa protein, which corresponds to the predicted mass of the IMNV major capsid protein, as well as viral inclusion bodies in muscle fibroses by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Two MAbs showed high specificity and sensitivity, showing no cross-reaction with healthy shrimp tissues in any assays, indicating their usefulness for IMNV detection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Penaeidae/virologia , Totiviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Imuno-Histoquímica , Tegumento Comum/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Viral
13.
J Virol Methods ; 169(1): 169-75, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20678523

RESUMO

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has been causing a progressive disease in farm-reared shrimps in Brazil and Indonesia. Immunodiagnostic methods for IMNV detection, although reliable, are not employed currently because monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against this virus are not available. In this study, a fragment of the IMNV major capsid protein gene, comprising amino acids 300-527 (IMNV(300-527)), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence of the recombinant IMNV(300-527) fragment displayed a high degree of identity to the major capsid protein of IMNV isolates from Brazil (99%) and Indonesia (98%). Ten MAbs were generated against the expressed fragment, and eight of these, mostly IgG(2a) or IgG(2b), were able to bind to IMNV in tissue extracts from shrimps infected naturally in immunodot-blot assays. Six of these MAbs recognized a approximately 100 kDa protein in a Western-blot, which is the predicted mass of IMNV major capsid protein, and also bound to viral inclusions present in muscle fibroses and in coagulative myonecrosis, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Among all those MAbs created, four did not cross-react with non-infected shrimp tissues; this observation supports their applicability as a sensitive and specific immunodiagnosis of IMNV infection in shrimps.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/análise , Penaeidae/virologia , Totiviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , Brasil , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Indonésia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peso Molecular , Músculos/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Rev. bras. eng. biomed ; 26(1): 33-47, abr. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-570337

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta uma abordagem de segmentação para o reconhecimento e quantificação de expressão de imunoistoquímica (IHC) através do aprendizado de uma métrica de distância. Este método é baseado em duas etapas: treinamento e segmentação. A etapa de treinamento é realizada pela seleção supervisionada de algumas áreas típicas de expressão de IHC na imagem. Nesta etapa o padrão esperado de IHC é estatisticamente caracterizado, onde ocorre o aprendizado da métrica de distância e um espaço característico é modelado. Através desse espaço são obtidos os mapas de similaridade para cada imagem de IHC, com os níveis de intensidade correspondendo ao grau da reação do biomarcador sobre o tecido. A etapa de segmentação é guiada por um parâmetro de escala que controla a quantidade de áreas marcadas com base nos valores de intensidade dos mapas de similaridade. O método é baseado no aprendizado da distância de Mahalanobis para produzir um espaço característico, para posteriormente ser utilizado na distinção entre marcações positivas de expressão de IHC e tecidos normais, bem como quantificar o grau de intensidade da reação. Os resultados obtidos pelo método proposto foram comparados com a classificação linear no espaço de cores HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) utilizando diferentes categorias de biomarcadores. Os resultados mostram que os limites da fronteira da distribuição dos padrões são mais bem definidos no método proposto, permitindo assim uma melhor discriminação entre tecidos normais e expressão de IHC.


This paper presents a segmentation approach to the recognition and quantification of immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression employing a distance metric learning method. This method is based in a two-step procedure, training and segmentation. The training step is performed by the supervised selection of a few IHC typical stained areas on image. In that step the desired IHC pattern is statistically characterized, where a distance metric is learned and a featured space is created. With this space, similarity maps are obtained by each IHC image with its intensity levels corresponding to degrees of reaction provided by the biomarker over the tissue. The segmentation step is guided by a scale-space parameter that controls the amount of labeled areas based on intensity values of the similarity maps. This method learns a Mahalanobis distance metric to produce a featured space used to distinguish between IHC positive staining and normal tissues, as well as quantifying the reaction intensity degrees. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared to the linear classification on HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) color space using different biomarkers categories. The comparison results show that the boundary limits of the pattern distributions are better defined in the proposed method, allowing better discrimination between normal tissues and IHC expression.


Assuntos
Imuno-Histoquímica , Análise por Conglomerados , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Biomarcadores
15.
Libyan J Med ; 52010 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21483585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant properties of phloroacetophenone (2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone - THA), an acetophenone derived from the plant Myrcia multiflora. MATERIAL #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHOD: The free radical scavenging activity in vitro and induction of oxidative hepatic damage by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) (0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) were tested in male Swiss mice (25±5 g). RESULTS: This compound exhibited in vitro antioxidant effects on FeCl(2)-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mouse liver homogenate, scavenging hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The in vivo assays showed that THA significantly (p<0.01) prevented the increases of hepatic LPO as measured by the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, mitochondrial swelling. It also protected hepatocytes against protein carbonylation and oxidative DNA damage. Consistent with these observations, THA pre-treatment normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in CCl(4)-treated mice. In addition, THA treatment significantly prevented the elevation of serum enzymatic activities of alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as histological alterations induced by CCl(4). Silymarin (SIL) (24 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective drug used for comparison, led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in activities of theses enzymes in way very similar to that observed in pre-treatment with THA. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the protective effects are due to reduction of oxidative damage induced by CCl(4) resulting from the antioxidant properties of THA.

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