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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910813

RESUMO

C4 photosynthesis concentrates CO2 around Rubisco in the bundle sheath, favouring carboxylation over oxygenation and decreasing photorespiration. This complex trait evolved independently in over 60 angiosperm lineages. Its evolution can be investigated in genera such as Flaveria (Asteraceae) that contain species representing intermediate stages between C3 and C4 photosynthesis. Previous studies have indicated the first major change in metabolism probably involved relocation of glycine decarboxylase and photorespiratory CO2 release to the bundle sheath and establishment of intercellular shuttles to maintain nitrogen stoichiometry. This was followed by selection for a CO2 concentrating cycle between phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the mesophyll and decarboxylases in the bundle sheath, and relocation of Rubisco to the latter. We have profiled 52 metabolites in nine Flaveria species and analysed 13CO2 labelling patterns for four species. Our results point to operation of multiple shuttles, including movement of aspartate in C3-C4 intermediates and a switch towards a malate/pyruvate shuttle in C4-like species. The malate/pyruvate shuttle increases from C4-like to complete C4 species, accompanied by a rise in ancillary organic acid pools. Our findings support current models and uncover further modifications of metabolism along the evolutionary path to C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064272

RESUMO

Biostimulants have rapidly and widely been adopted as growth enhancers and stress protectants in agriculture, however, due to the complex nature of these products, their mechanism of action is not clearly understood. By using two algal based commercial biostimulants in combination with the Solanum lycopersicum cv. MicroTom model system, we assessed how the modulation of nitrogen metabolites and potassium levels could contribute to mediate physiological mechanisms that are known to occur in response to salt/and or osmotic stress. Here we provide evidence that the reshaping of amino acid metabolism can work as a functional effector, coordinating ion homeostasis, osmotic adjustment and scavenging of reactive oxygen species under increased osmotic stress in MicroTom plant cells. The Superfifty biostimulant is responsible for a minor amino acid rich-phenotype and could represent an interesting instrument to untangle nitrogen metabolism dynamics in response to salinity and/or osmotic stress.

3.
Foods ; 10(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922497

RESUMO

The effect of plant biostimulation on fruits of traditional tomato germplasm is largely unknown. We examined how a tropical plant-derived biostimulant impacts the nutritional, functional, and compositional characteristics of tomato fruits from four landraces, collected in the San Marzano (SM) tomato Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) region, by profiling primary and secondary metabolites. Biostimulation was not able to completely reshuffle the morpho-physiological and nutritional profile of the four landraces. Their distinct phytochemical profile indicated a genotype-specific tuning of the analyzed traits, which also included an improved yield and fruit quality. Biostimulation of SM1 and SM3 increased photosynthetic accumulation of carbohydrate reserves, improved mineral nutrient use efficiency and consequently, yield (+21% and 34%, respectively). Moreover, biostimulation augmented the nutraceutical properties of the SM2 landrace. Interestingly, the plant-derived product increased in all genotypes lycopene, but not polyphenol accumulation in fruits. Our results show the potential of biostimulatory applications towards optimizing the fruit quality of the acclaimed SM landraces, which is suitable to satisfy both the rising consumer demand for premium traditional tomatoes and the technological needs of the food industry.

4.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562862

RESUMO

Hordeum maritimum With. is a wild salt tolerant cereal present in the saline depressions of the Eastern Tunisia, where it significantly contributes to the annual biomass production. In a previous study on shoot tissues it was shown that this species withstands with high salinity at the seedling stage restricting the sodium entry into shoot and modulating over time the leaf synthesis of organic osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. However, the tolerance strategy mechanisms of this plant at root level have not yet been investigated. The current research aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes occurring at root level in H. maritimum and in the salt sensitive cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Lamsi during five-weeks extended salinity (200 mM NaCl), salt removal after two weeks of salinity and non-salt control. H. maritimum since the first phases of salinity was able to compartmentalize higher amounts of sodium in the roots compared to the other cultivar, avoiding transferring it to shoot and impairing photosynthetic metabolism. This allowed the roots of wild plants to receive recent photosynthates from leaves, gaining from them energy and carbon skeletons to compartmentalize toxic ions in the vacuoles, synthesize and accumulate organic osmolytes, control ion and water homeostasis and re-establish the ability of root to grow. H. vulgare was also able to accumulate compatible osmolytes but only in the first weeks of salinity, while soon after the roots stopped up taking potassium and growing. In the last week of salinity stress, the wild species further increased the root to shoot ratio to enhance the root retention of toxic ions and consequently delaying the damages both to shoot and root. This delay of few weeks in showing the symptoms of stress may be pivotal for enabling the survival of the wild species when soil salinity is transient and not permanent.

5.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578910

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses will be one of the major challenges for worldwide food supply in the near future. Therefore, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms that mediate plant responses to abiotic stresses. When subjected to UV, salinity or drought stress, plants accumulate specialized metabolites that are often correlated with their ability to cope with the stress. Among them, anthocyanins are the most studied intermediates of the phenylpropanoid pathway. However, their role in plant response to abiotic stresses is still under discussion. To better understand the effects of anthocyanins on plant physiology and morphogenesis, and their implications on drought stress tolerance, we used transgenic tobacco plants (AN1), which over-accumulated anthocyanins in all tissues. AN1 plants showed an altered phenotype in terms of leaf gas exchanges, leaf morphology, anatomy and metabolic profile, which conferred them with a higher drought tolerance compared to the wild-type plants. These results provide important insights for understanding the functional reason for anthocyanin accumulation in plants under stress.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 597823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324439

RESUMO

Ranunculus asiaticus is a quantitative long day plant grown for cut flowers and flowering potted plants production. We evaluated the influence of light spectrum of three light sources for end-of-day photoperiodic treatments, with different phytochrome photoequilibria (PPE) induced at plant level, on the metabolic profiling of two hybrids of R. asiaticus L., MBO and MDR, in plants from vernalized tuberous roots. The following treatments were compared with natural day length (NL): white fluorescence lamp (FL, PPE 0.84), light emitting diodes (LEDs) Red:Far Red light at 3:1 ratio (R:FR 3:1, PPE 0.84), and LEDs Red:Far Red light at 1:3 ratio (R:FR 1:3, PPE 0.63). Measurements were carried out to evaluate the time course of carbohydrate, amino acid, and protein levels throughout the growing cycle in tuberous roots and leaves, in relation to the different plant stages (pre-planting, vegetative phase, and flowering). The study of metabolic profiling suggested that the differences between the tuberous root reserves of the two R. asiaticus hybrids could be responsible for the capacity of MBO to exert an early flowering. In particular, the proton-consuming synthesis during the pre-planting of two amino acids, alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is able to buffer the cytoplasmic acidosis and pH altered by the vernalization process, and GABA itself can efficiently scavenge reactive oxygen species. This fast response to the stress caused by vernalization allows MBO plants to accelerate the process of vegetative development and flowering. Some other changes in metabolites profile were certainly related to the different responses to day length and photoperiodic light quality in the two hybrids, such as dose exerted by low R:FR lighting in both MBO and MDR. However, most of the responses are under a strict genetic control.

7.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872247

RESUMO

Algal biomass, extracts, or derivatives have long been considered a valuable material to bring benefits to humans and cultivated plants. In the last decades, it became evident that algal formulations can induce multiple effects on crops (including an increase in biomass, yield, and quality), and that algal extracts contain a series of bioactive compounds and signaling molecules, in addition to mineral and organic nutrients. The need to reduce the non-renewable chemical input in agriculture has recently prompted an increase in the use of algal extracts as a plant biostimulant, also because of their ability to promote plant growth in suboptimal conditions such as saline environments is beneficial. In this article, we discuss some research areas that are critical for the implementation in agriculture of macro- and microalgae extracts as plant biostimulants. Specifically, we provide an overview of current knowledge and achievements about extraction methods, compositions, and action mechanisms of algal extracts, focusing on salt-stress tolerance. We also outline current limitations and possible research avenues. We conclude that the comparison and the integration of knowledge on the molecular and physiological response of plants to salt and to algal extracts should also guide the extraction procedures and application methods. The effects of algal biostimulants have been mainly investigated from an applied perspective, and the exploitation of different scientific disciplines is still much needed for the development of new sustainable strategies to increase crop tolerance to salt stress.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575500

RESUMO

Many Trichoderma are successfully used to improve agriculture productivity due to their capacity for biocontrol and to stimulate plant growth and tolerance to abiotic stress. This research elucidates the effect of applications with Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 (T22), or biopolymer (BP) alone or in combination (BP + T22 or BP + 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP); a Trichoderma secondary metabolite) on the crop performance, nutritional and functional quality of greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cultivar Pixel). T22 elicited significant increases in total yield (+40.1%) compared to untreated tomato. The content of lycopene, an important antioxidant compound in tomatoes, significantly increased upon treatment with T22 (+ 49%), BP + T22 (+ 40%) and BP + 6PP (+ 52%) compared to the control. T22 treatments significantly increased the content of asparagine (+37%), GABA (+87%) and MEA (+102%) over the control; whereas BP alone strongly increased GABA (+105%) and MEA (+85%). The synthesis of these compounds implies that tomato plants are able to reuse the photorespiratory amino acids and ammonium for producing useful metabolites and reduce the pressure of photorespiration on plant metabolism, thus optimizing photosynthesis and growth. Finally, these metabolites exert many beneficial effects for human health, thus enhancing the premium quality of plum tomatoes.

9.
Physiol Plant ; 170(2): 187-201, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468630

RESUMO

Photoperiodic light quality affects flowering of long day plants, by influencing the phytochrome photoequilibria (PPE) at plant level; however, the most effective light spectrum to promote flowering is still unknown for most of the flower crops. We evaluated the influence of light spectrum of three light sources, with different induced PPE, on photosynthesis, metabolic profiling, plant growth and flowering in two hybrids of Ranunculus asiaticus L., MBO (early flowering) and MDR (medium earliness). Three photoperiodic treatments were compared to natural day length (NL): white fluorescent light (PPE 0.84), light emitting diodes (LEDs) with red:far red (R:FR) light at 3:1 ratio (PPE, 0.84) and LEDs with R:FR light at 1:3 ratio (PPE 0.63). Under natural light, net photosynthesis was higher in MDR than in MBO, while photochemistry was similar in the hybrids. Compared to NL, photoperiodic treatments did not affect net photosynthesis, while they promoted the quantum yield of PSII and reduced the non-photochemical quenching. Under NL, plant growth was greater in MBO, while flowering started earlier in MDR and flowers characteristics were similar in the hybrids. Despite the greater sensitivity of MDR plants in terms of metabolism, photoperiodic lighting improved plant growth and reduced the flowering time only in MBO, with a stronger effect under R:FR 3:1 light. MDR plants were characterized by higher soluble sugars, polyphenols, photosynthetic pigments and proteins, while MBO plants by higher starch and amino acid content. The morphological effects of photoperiodic light quality and the hybrid-specific response should be taken into account to optimize lighting protocols in commercial farms.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Ranunculus , Flores , Fotoperíodo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1507, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867024

RESUMO

Omeprazole is a selective proton pump inhibitor in humans that inhibits the H+/K+-ATPase of gastric parietal cells. Omeprazole has been recently shown to act as a plant growth regulator and enhancer of salt stress tolerance. Here, we report that omeprazole treatment in hydroponically grown maize improves nitrogen uptake and assimilation. The presence of micromolar concentrations of omeprazole in the nutrient solution alleviates the chlorosis and growth inhibition induced by low nitrogen availability. Nitrate uptake and assimilation is enhanced in omeprazole treated plants through changes in nitrate reductase activity, primary metabolism, and gene expression. Omeprazole enhances nitrate assimilation through an interaction with nitrate reductase, altering its activation state and affinity for nitrate as a substrate. Omeprazole and its targets represent a novel method for enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in plants.

11.
Life (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337144

RESUMO

Plant production is crucial for space journeys self-autonomy by contributing to the dietary intake necessary to sustain the physical and psychological well-being of space colonists, as well as for contributing to atmospheric revitalization, water purification and waste product recycling. Choosing the appropriate cultivar is equally important as the species selection, since cultivar influences the obtained fresh biomass, water use efficiency (WUE), growing cycle duration, qualitative features and postharvest performance. Two differently pigmented butterhead Lactuca sativa L. (red and green Salanova) cultivars were assessed in terms of morphometric, mineral, bioactive and physiological parameters. The experiment was carried out in a controlled environment growth chamber using a closed soilless system (nutrient film technique). Red Salanova registered a biomass of 130 g at harvest, which was 22.1% greater than green Salanova, and a water uptake of 1.42 L during the full growing period corresponding to WUE of 91.9 g L-1, which was 13.8% higher than that of green Salanova. At harvest, green Salanova had accumulated more P, K, Ca, Mg and 37.2% more nitrate than red Salanova, which however had higher relative water content, leaf total and osmotic potential and higher SPAD index. Red Salanova also exhibited at harvest around two-fold higher lipophilic antioxidant activity and total phenols, and around six-fold higher total ascorbic acid levels. These latter characteristics improved the antioxidant capacity of red Salanova enabling it to use light more efficiently and deliver better overall performance and yield than green Salanova. Moreover, the higher phenolics and total ascorbic acid contents of red Salanova constitute natural sources of antioxidants for enriching the human diet and render it an optimal candidate cultivar for near-term missions.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 742, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214238

RESUMO

Callistemon citrinus and Viburnum lucidum are appreciated and widespread ornamental shrubs for their abundant flowering and/or brilliant foliage. The intrinsic tolerance to drought/salinity supports their use in urban areas and in xeriscaping. Despite adaptive responses of these ornamental species to sodium chloride (NaCl) have been extensively explored, little is known on the effects of other salt solution, yet iso-osmotic, on their growth, mineral composition and metabolism. The present research was aimed to assess responses at the biochemical, physiological and anatomical levels to iso-osmotic salt solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 to discriminate the effects of osmotic stress and ion toxicity. The two ornamental species developed different salt-tolerance mechanisms depending on the salinity sources. The growth parameters and biomass production decreased under salinization in both ornamental species, independently of the type of salt, with a detrimental effect of CaCl2 on C. citrinus. The adaptive mechanisms adopted by the two ornamental species to counteract the NaCl salinity were similar, and the decline in growth was mostly related to stomatal limitations of net CO2 assimilation rate, together with the reduction in leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD index). The stronger reduction of C. citrinus growth compared to V. lucidum, was due to an exacerbated reduction in net photosynthetic rate, driven by both stomatal and non stomatal limitations. In similar conditions, V. lucidum exhibited other additional adaptive response, such as modification in leaf functional anatomical traits, mostly related to the reduction in the stomata size allowing plants a better control of stomata opening than in C. citrinus. However, C. citrinus plants displayed an increased ability to retain higher Cl- levels in leaves than in roots under CaCl2 salinity compared to V. lucidum, thus, indicating a further attempt to counteract chloride toxicity through an increased vacuolar compartmentalization and to take advantages of them as chip osmotica.

13.
Food Chem ; 292: 166-175, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054662

RESUMO

Compositional characterization was performed on seven 'Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio' (PPV) tomato landraces, a signature product of Campania (Italy) threatened by genetic erosion. Characterization encompassed determinations of macro-minerals, soluble carbohydrates, starch, acidity, lycopene, polyphenols, anthocyanins, protein and free amino acids. Exceptionally high dry matter (13.0 ±â€¯0.2%) and sugar content (101.3 ±â€¯3.8 µmol g-1 fw) and very low (0.007-0.009) Na/K ratio were invariably obtained across landraces, contrasted by significant variation in acidity (28.5-3.9 g kg-1 dw). Giagiù, Acampora and Riccia San Vito differentiated by high polyphenols content (131.8 ±â€¯2.5 mg 100 g-1) while Acampora, Cozzolino and Fofò by high lycopene content (13.3 ±â€¯10.6 mg 100 g-1 fw). Glutamate, GABA and glutamine represented 65% of the 22 detected amino acids mean total content. Glutamate, linked to umami taste, was highest (19.2 µmol g-1 fw) in Fofò. Our results will contribute towards the systematic documentation of sensory and functional quality profiles of an important collection of tomato landraces.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Itália , Licopeno/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899269

RESUMO

Several halophytes and a few crop plants, including Poaceae, synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine (GB) in response to environmental constraints. GB plays an important role in osmoregulation, in fact, it is one of the main nitrogen-containing compatible osmolytes found in Poaceae. It can interplay with molecules and structures, preserving the activity of macromolecules, maintaining the integrity of membranes against stresses and scavenging ROS. Exogenous GB applications have been proven to induce the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses, with a restriction of ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation in cultured tobacco cells under drought and salinity, and even stabilizing photosynthetic structures under stress. In the plant kingdom, GB is synthesized from choline by a two-step oxidation reaction. The first oxidation is catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and the second oxidation is catalyzed by NAD+-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Moreover, in plants, the cytosolic enzyme, named N-methyltransferase, catalyzes the conversion of phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine. However, changes in CMO expression genes under abiotic stresses have been observed. GB accumulation is ontogenetically controlled since it happens in young tissues during prolonged stress, while its degradation is generally not significant in plants. This ability of plants to accumulate high levels of GB in young tissues under abiotic stress, is independent of nitrogen (N) availability and supports the view that plant N allocation is dictated primarily to supply and protect the growing tissues, even under N limitation. Indeed, the contribution of GB to osmotic adjustment and ionic and oxidative stress defense in young tissues, is much higher than that in older ones. In this review, the biosynthesis and accumulation of GB in plants, under several abiotic stresses, were analyzed focusing on all possible roles this metabolite can play, particularly in young tissues.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915088

RESUMO

Ranunculus asiaticus L. is a quantitative long-day geophyte, grown in a cold greenhouse for cut flowers and potted plants. Flowering in ranunculus is a complex process, strongly steered by temperature and photoperiodism. Vernalization of rehydrated tuberous roots anticipate sprouting and leaf rosette formation and flowering. It is known that the time for flowering and the sensitivity to cold treatment, in terms of flowering anticipation, varies in numerous hybrids, while no information seems to be available on the influence of hybrids and on the vernalization on the photosynthetic process and primary metabolite profiling. We investigated the influence of two ranunculus hybrids, MDR and MBO, and two preparation procedures of tuberous roots, only rehydration (Control, C) and rehydration followed by vernalization (V), on the photosynthesis and photochemistry of plants grown in a climatic chamber, under a controlled environment. In addition, in MBO plants, in which the vernalization showed the main effects, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein levels were also investigated. In control plants, the response of leaf photosynthesis, to increasing white light, revealed higher photosynthetic activity in MDR than in MBO. The quantum yield of PSII (ϕPSII), electron transport rate (ETR) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) did not differ between the two hybrids. The maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) was higher in MBO than in MDR and showed a decrease in both hybrids after vernalization. The preparation treatment of propagation material affected the light response of photosynthesis in the two hybrids differently, which increased in plants from vernalized tuberous roots, compared to those from only rehydrated in MBO and decreased in MDR, in accordance to the effects of vernalization observed in leaf photosynthetic pigments. In MBO vernalized tuberous roots, starch was rapidly degraded, and the carbon skeletons used to synthesize amino acids. Control plants of MBO, developed more leaves than those of MDR and a consequent larger plant leaf area. Compared to only rehydration, vernalization of rehydrated tuberous roots increased the plant leaf area in both the hybrids. Compared to the control, vernalized tuberous roots of MBO showed higher concentrations of sucrose and free amino acids, which could act as a long-distance signal promoting floral transition in young leaf primordia.

16.
Molecules ; 24(1)2019 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621323

RESUMO

Consumer demand for fresh and functional horticultural products is on the rise. Perilla frutescens, L. Britt (Lamiaceae) is a potential specialty/niche crop for consumption and therapeutic uses with high contents of phenolic and volatile compounds. Plant growth, mineral composition, polyphenol profile and aroma volatile components of two perilla genotypes in response to salinity (non-salt control, 10, 20 or 30 mM NaCl) applied as chemical eustressor were assessed. Salinity suppressed growth and yield of both genotypes, although the red-pigmented genotype was less sensitive than the green-pigmented one. Mild (10 mM NaCl) and moderate (20 and 30 mM NaCl) salinity suppressed foliar potassium, magnesium, nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations of both genotypes and increased the levels of rosmarinic acid, total polyphenols and target aroma volatile components. Green perilla showed higher yield and biomass production and higher content of protein, dry matter, calcium, magnesium, perilla ketone and cis-jasmone, whereas red perilla exhibited higher content of potassium, chlorophyll a, rosmarinic acid, total polyphenols, perilla aldehyde and benzaldehyde. Our findings support that chemical eustressors such as mild to moderate salinity offer valuable means to manipulate phytochemical and aroma profiles.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Perilla frutescens/química , Cálcio/química , Clorofila A/química , Cinamatos/química , Depsídeos/química , Análise de Alimentos , Magnésio/química , Nitratos/química , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/química , Potássio/química
17.
J Exp Bot ; 69(20): 4881-4895, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053131

RESUMO

Plants are exposed to varying irradiance and temperature within a day and from day to day. We previously investigated metabolism in a temperature-controlled greenhouse at the spring equinox on both a cloudy and a sunny day [daily light integral (DLI) of 7 mol m-2 d-1 and 12 mol m-2 d-1]. Diel metabolite profiles were largely captured in sinusoidal simulations at similar DLIs in controlled-environment chambers, except that amino acids were lower in natural light regimes. We now extend the DLI12 study by investigating metabolism in a natural light regime with variable temperature including cool nights. Starch was not completely turned over, anthocyanins and proline accumulated, and protein content rose. Instead of decreasing, amino acid content rose. Connectivity in central metabolism, which decreased in variable light, was not further weakened by variable temperature. We propose that diel metabolism operates better when light and temperature are co-varying. We also compared transcript abundance of 10 circadian clock genes in this temperature-variable regime with the temperature-controlled natural and sinusoidal light regimes. Despite temperature compensation, peak timing and abundance for dawn- and day-phased genes and GIGANTEA were slightly modified in the variable temperature treatment. This may delay dawn clock activity until the temperature rises enough to support rapid metabolism and photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Escuridão , Ambiente Controlado , Luz
18.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535755

RESUMO

Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 µM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively. Increasing NaCl concentration from 1 to 75 mM decreased the tomato shoot dry weight by 49% in the 0 µM OMP treatment, whereas the reduction was not significant at 10 or 100 µM of OMP. Treatment of salinized (75 mM NaCl) tomato plants with 10 and especially 100 µM OMP decreased Na+ and Cl- while it increased Ca2+ concentration in the leaves. However, OMP was not strictly involved in ion homeostasis since the K+ to Na+ ratio did not increase under combined salinity and OMP treatment. OMP increased root dry weight, root morphological characteristics (total length and surface), transpiration, and net photosynthetic rate independently of salinity. Metabolic profiling of leaves through UHPLC liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry facilitated identification of the reprogramming of a wide range of metabolites in response to OMP treatment. Hormonal changes involved an increase in ABA, decrease in auxins and cytokinin, and a tendency for GA down accumulation. Cutin biosynthesis, alteration of membrane lipids and heightened radical scavenging ability related to the accumulation of phenolics and carotenoids were observed. Several other stress-related compounds, such as polyamine conjugates, alkaloids and sesquiterpene lactones, were altered in response to OMP. Although a specific and well-defined mechanism could not be posited, the metabolic processes involved in OMP action suggest that this small bioactive molecule might have a hormone-like activity that ultimately elicits an improved tolerance to NaCl salinity stress.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 100, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456548

RESUMO

Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications. In this view, recently it has been found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) but not glycine betaine (GB) is accumulated in durum wheat plants under salinity only when it is combined with high nitrate and high light. In these conditions, plants show lower reactive oxygen species levels and higher photosynthetic efficiency than plants under salinity at low light. This is certainly relevant because the most of drought or salinity studies performed on cereal seedlings have been done in growth chambers under controlled culture conditions and artificial lighting set at low light. However, it is very difficult to interpret these data. To unravel the reason of GABA accumulation and its possible mode of action, in this review, all possible roles for GABA shunt under stress are considered, and an additional mechanism of action triggered by salinity and high light suggested.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 2004, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705684

RESUMO

Climate change will inevitably lead to environmental variations, thus plant drought tolerance will be a determinant factor in the success of plantations and natural forestry recovery. Some metabolites, such as soluble carbohydrates and amino acids, have been described as being the key to both embryogenesis efficiency and abiotic stress response, contributing to phenotypic plasticity and the adaptive capacity of plants. For this reason, our main objectives were to evaluate if the temperature during embryonal mass initiation in radiata pine was critical to the success of somatic embryogenesis, to alter the morphological and ultrastructural organization of embryonal masses at cellular level and to modify the carbohydrate, protein, or amino acid contents. The first SE initiation experiments were carried out at moderate and high temperatures for periods of different durations prior to transfer to the control temperature of 23°C. Cultures initiated at moderate temperatures (30°C, 4 weeks and 40°C, 4 days) showed significantly lower initiation and proliferation rates than those at the control temperature or pulse treatment at high temperatures (50°C, 5 min). No significant differences were observed either for the percentage of embryogenic cell lines that produced somatic embryos, or for the number of somatic embryos per gram of embryonal mass. Based on the results from the first experiments, initiation was carried out at 40°C 4 h; 50°C, 30 min; and a pulse treatment of 60°C, 5 min. No significant differences were found for the initiation or number of established lines or for the maturation of somatic embryos. However, large morphological differences were observed in the mature somatic embryos. At the same time, changes observed at cellular level suggested that strong heat shock treatments may trigger the programmed cell death of embryogenic cells, leading to an early loss of embryogenic potential, and the formation of supernumerary suspensor cells. Finally, among all the differences observed in the metabolic profile, it is worth highlighting the accumulation of tyrosine and isoleucine, both amino acids involved in the synthesis of abiotic stress response-related secondary metabolites.

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