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1.
J Gambl Stud ; 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091781

RESUMO

Responsible gambling (RG) tools are globally widespread; they aim to prevent or decrease the harm caused by gambling. However, existing research suggests that several included features do not decrease gambling or significantly reduce the subsequent harm. Most of the previous studies have used gambling data to understand the changes in gambling behavior. However, the literature lacks research regarding gamblers' experience and perception of RG tools, which may provide insight into increasing the usage and effectiveness of RG tools. This mixed-methods study aimed to explore gamblers' perception of their risk assessment in the RG tool Playscan regarding developing harmful gambling problems. Overall, 757 participants rated the perceived accuracy of their risk assessment and their perception of the overall RG tool that conducted the assessment. Participants were also allowed to leave a comment providing feedback, which was analyzed using thematic analysis. Quantitative data was analyzed using logistic regression and structural equation modeling. Qualitative analyses revealed that most of the participants were pleased with the risk assessment and found it helpful. Moderated mediation analysis showed that participants' assessment agreement partially mediated the association between expressing a negative view and their general view of Playscan. These results highlight the need to decrease the level of disagreement for promoting a better general view of RG tools to potentially increase their usage and effectiveness.

2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(6): 500-511, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is a viable delivery format of CBT for depression. However, iCBT programmes include training in a wide array of cognitive and behavioural skills via different delivery methods, and it remains unclear which of these components are more efficacious and for whom. METHODS: We did a systematic review and individual participant data component network meta-analysis (cNMA) of iCBT trials for depression. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published from database inception to Jan 1, 2019, that compared any form of iCBT against another or a control condition in the acute treatment of adults (aged ≥18 years) with depression. Studies with inpatients or patients with bipolar depression were excluded. We sought individual participant data from the original authors. When these data were unavailable, we used aggregate data. Two independent researchers identified the included components. The primary outcome was depression severity, expressed as incremental mean difference (iMD) in the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores when a component is added to a treatment. We developed a web app that estimates relative efficacies between any two combinations of components, given baseline patient characteristics. This study is registered in PROSPERO, CRD42018104683. FINDINGS: We identified 76 RCTs, including 48 trials contributing individual participant data (11 704 participants) and 28 trials with aggregate data (6474 participants). The participants' weighted mean age was 42·0 years and 12 406 (71%) of 17 521 reported were women. There was suggestive evidence that behavioural activation might be beneficial (iMD -1·83 [95% credible interval (CrI) -2·90 to -0·80]) and that relaxation might be harmful (1·20 [95% CrI 0·17 to 2·27]). Baseline severity emerged as the strongest prognostic factor for endpoint depression. Combining human and automated encouragement reduced dropouts from treatment (incremental odds ratio, 0·32 [95% CrI 0·13 to 0·93]). The risk of bias was low for the randomisation process, missing outcome data, or selection of reported results in most of the included studies, uncertain for deviation from intended interventions, and high for measurement of outcomes. There was moderate to high heterogeneity among the studies and their components. INTERPRETATION: The individual patient data cNMA revealed potentially helpful, less helpful, or harmful components and delivery formats for iCBT packages. iCBT packages aiming to be effective and efficient might choose to include beneficial components and exclude ones that are potentially detrimental. Our web app can facilitate shared decision making by therapist and patient in choosing their preferred iCBT package. FUNDING: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 342-348, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901837

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive training may enhance well-being. Yet, mixed findings imply that individual differences and training characteristics may interact to moderate training efficacy. To investigate this possibility, the current paper describes a protocol for a data-driven individual-level meta-analysis study aimed at developing personalized cognitive training. To facilitate comprehensive analysis, this protocol proposes criteria for data search, selection and pre-processing along with the rationale for each decision. Twenty-two cognitive training datasets comprising 1544 participants were collected. The datasets incorporated diverse training methods, all aimed at improving well-being. These training regimes differed in training characteristics such as targeted domain (e.g., working memory, attentional bias, interpretation bias, inhibitory control) and training duration, while participants differed in diagnostic status, age and sex. The planned analyses incorporate machine learning algorithms designed to identify which individuals will be most responsive to cognitive training in general and to discern which methods may be a better fit for certain individuals.

4.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(3): 204-216, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595414

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented consequences. Transdiagnostic factors, such as anxiety sensitivity, could be an important component to understand how individuals experience COVID-19 specific fear, depression and anxiety. A US representative sample (5,023) completed measures including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and the Patient Health Questionnaire-8. Analyses controlled for age, sex, race, marital status, education level, working status, household income, and COVID-19 exposure. Results were consistent with prediction. First, higher ASI-3 Total scores were associated with above average COVID-19 fear (ß = 0.19). Second, the ASI-3 physical concerns subscale was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 fear; one SD increase on the ASI-3 physical concerns subscale was associated with almost a twofold risk of reaching above average levels of COVID-19 (OR = 1.93). Third, higher ASI-3 Total scores were associated with higher anxiety (ß = 0.22) and depression (ß = 0.20). Finally, COVID-19 fear mediated the relationship between ASI-3 Total scores and anxiety (17% of effect mediated) as well as ASI-3 Total scores and depression (16% of effect mediated). These data support the role of anxiety sensitivity in predicting fear of COVID-19 and resulting mental health.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e21445, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical professionals are exposed to multiple and often excessive demands in their work environment. Low-intensity internet interventions allow them to benefit from psychological support even when institutional help is not available. Focusing on enhancing psychological resources-self-efficacy and perceived social support-makes an intervention relevant for various occupations within the medical profession. Previously, these resources were found to operate both individually or sequentially with self-efficacy either preceding social support (cultivation process) or following it (enabling process). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to compare the efficacy of 4 variants of Med-Stress, a self-guided internet intervention that aims to improve the multifaceted well-being of medical professionals. METHODS: This study was conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N=1240) were recruited mainly via media campaigns and social media targeted ads. They were assigned to 1 of the following 4 groups: experimental condition reflecting the cultivation process, experimental condition reflecting the enabling process, active comparator enhancing only self-efficacy, and active comparator enhancing only perceived social support. Outcomes included 5 facets of well-being: job stress, job burnout, work engagement, depression, and job-related traumatic stress. Measurements were taken on the web at baseline (time 1), immediately after intervention (time 2), and at a 6-month follow-up (time 3). To analyze the data, linear mixed effects models were used on the intention-to-treat sample. The trial was partially blinded as the information about the duration of the trial, which was different for experimental and control conditions, was public. RESULTS: At time 2, job stress was lower in the condition reflecting the cultivation process than in the one enhancing social support only (d=-0.21), and at time 3, participants in that experimental condition reported the lowest job stress when compared with all 3 remaining study groups (ds between -0.24 and -0.41). For job-related traumatic stress, we found a significant difference between study groups only at time 3: stress was lower in the experimental condition in which self-efficacy was enhanced first than in the active comparator enhancing solely social support (d=-0.24). The same result was found for work engagement (d=-0.20), which means that it was lower in exactly the same condition that was found beneficial for stress relief. There were no differences between study conditions for burnout and depression neither at time 2 nor at time 3. There was a high dropout in the study (1023/1240, 82.50% at posttest), reflecting the pragmatic nature of this trial. CONCLUSIONS: The Med-Stress internet intervention improves some components of well-being-most notably job stress-when activities are completed in a specific sequence. The decrease in work engagement could support the notion of dark side of this phenomenon, but further research is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03475290; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03475290. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-019-3401-9.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Estresse Ocupacional/terapia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Profissional/terapia , COVID-19 , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho
6.
J Gambl Stud ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512624

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of new technologies have allowed for the introduction of new forms of gambling. Problem online gambling has specific characteristics, and its prevalence may differ from traditional forms of gambling. This paper systematically reviews studies that include data relevant to problem online gambling and to the sociodemographic and comorbidity variables related to it. A systematic literature search was conducted from Medline database. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, preliminary search resulted in 427 articles, from which 20 were included in this systematic review based on pre-determined criteria. The reported prevalence of problem online gambling varied widely across the different studies. This heterogeneity is due to large variations in settings, instruments, and definitions of problem online gambling, which rules out a meta-analytic approach to the results. The sources of variability in the prevalence, the sociodemographic and comorbidity factors, and the implications for future research are discussed.

7.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 44: 105-120, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483252

RESUMO

There is a recurring debate on the role of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the moderation of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in anxiety disorders. Results, however, are still inconclusive. We here aim to perform a meta-analysis on the role of 5-HTTLPR in the moderation of CBT outcome in anxiety disorders. We investigated both categorical (symptom reduction of at least 50%) and dimensional outcomes from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Original data were obtained from ten independent samples (including three unpublished samples) with a total of 2,195 patients with primary anxiety disorder. No significant effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype on categorical or dimensional outcomes at post and follow-up were detected. We conclude that current evidence does not support the hypothesis of 5-HTTLPR as a moderator of treatment outcome for CBT in anxiety disorders. Future research should address whether other factors such as long-term changes or epigenetic processes may explain further variance in these complex gene-environment interactions and molecular-genetic pathways that may confer behavioral change following psychotherapy.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0234097, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296385

RESUMO

Despite the popularity of New Year's resolutions, current knowledge about them is limited. We investigated what resolutions people make when they are free to formulate them, whether different resolutions reach differing success rates, and whether it is possible to increase the likelihood of a resolution's success by administering information and exercises on effective goal setting. Participants (N = 1066) from the general public were randomized into three groups: active control, some support, and extended support. The most popular resolutions regarded physical health, weight loss, and eating habits. At a one-year follow-up, 55% of responders considered themselves successful in sustaining their resolutions. Participants with approach-oriented goals were significantly more successful than those with avoidance-oriented goals (58.9% vs. 47.1%). The group that received some support was exclusively and significantly more successful compared to the other two. This study reveals that New Year's resolutions can have lasting effects, even at a one-year follow-up.

9.
Behav Res Ther ; 136: 103767, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249272

RESUMO

Though therapist-guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) appears to be efficacious for depression, social anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, relatively little is known about real-world settings and predictors of treatment effects derived from cognitive-behavioral theory. We examined treatment effectiveness and predictors of improvement in a prospective cohort study where patients took part in 10 weeks of ICBT for depression (n = 114), social anxiety disorder (n = 150), or panic disorder (n = 106) at a teaching clinic. Patients self-reported symptoms before, during, and after treatment. Effect sizes were large for improvement in the primary symptom domain of each treatment group: depression (d = 1.48), social anxiety disorder (d = 1.01), and panic disorder (d = 1.15). In ICBT for depression, having no previous experience of psychological treatment (r = 0.21), and more frequent baseline negative automatic thoughts (r = 0.20) predicted larger improvement. In ICBT for panic disorder, having more baseline safety behaviors (r = 0.25) predicted larger improvement. Predictors remained significant when baseline symptoms were included in the statistical models. We conclude that ICBT can be effective in a real-world teaching clinic, and that patients with greater deficits at baseline benefit the most.

10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 554542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117770

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak will likely have a public health impact beyond immediate disease transmission. Little is known about whether social distancing and other societal changes has provoked an increase in gambling, whether decreased betting opportunities due to paused sports events spurred gamblers to transition to online casino gambling, or whether any of these factors have had an impact on problem gambling. Methods: Data on lookup queries against the Swedish Gambling Paus registry, logging all initiated gambling sessions by all licensed gambling providers, from 2019-01-01 (start of registry) to 2020-04-08 (well into the first phase of the outbreak) were analyzed using TBATS time series forecasting to estimate trends after the first domestic COVID-19 death. Obfuscated data on daily total wagered and deposited amounts, split by modality (casino or betting, and low and high intensity, respectively) for the equivalent period were supplied by a licensed online gambling provider. Results: Total gambling activity decreased by 13.29% during the first phase of the outbreak compared to forecast. Analyses of online gambling data revealed that although betting decreased substantially in synchrony with a slight increase in online casino gambling, there was no increase in likely problematic, high-intensity gambling and neither did total online gambling increase. Conclusions: This first, preliminary study revealed no increase in Swedish gambling activity, total or specifically online, in the first phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Future research should examine whether pandemic-induced transitioning between gambling modalities and/or increased participation in gambling, leads to long-term effects on prevalence of problem gambling.

11.
J Gambl Stud ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955693

RESUMO

Telephone and letter-based motivational interventions with high expenditure gamblers have significant short and long term positive effects on gambling and use of responsible gambling tools. This report examines how different subtypes of gamblers, based upon patterns of play, are differentially affected. A randomized controlled trial design with three conditions (n = 1003 in each): feedback intervention by letter, telephone or a no-contact control condition. Subtypes of gamblers were derived by latent class analyses (LCA) based upon gambling behavior pre intervention. The participants were customers of Norsk Tipping gambling platforms. 1003 statistical triplets from the top 0.5% of customers based upon annual expenditure, matched on sex, age, and net losses. Primary outcome measure was gambling theoretical loss (TL), derived from the Norsk Tipping customer database. The LCA identified six subtypes: High Casino, High Sport, High Lottery, High Video lottery terminal (VLT), Lottery/Mix and Bingo/Casino. There were almost no differences in change in TL between the six subtypes of gamblers receiving the letter or telefone interventions respectively. However, the choice of contact by letter or telephone did have different effects for the different gambling subtypes. Sending a letter seems like a cost effective alternative to telephone contact for the High Lottery type, but telephone contact performs better for High Casino, High Sport and High VLT customers. Responsible gambling interventions can be improved by subtyping of gamblers.

12.
Internet Interv ; 21: 100338, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944504

RESUMO

Perfectionism is characterized by setting high standards and striving for achievement, sometimes at the expense of social relationships and wellbeing. Despite sometimes being viewed as a positive feature by others, people with perfectionism tend to be overly concerned about their performance and how they are being perceived by people around them. This tends to create inflexible standards, cognitive biases, and performance-related behaviors that maintain a belief that self-worth is linked to accomplishments. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to be a viable treatment for perfectionism, both in terms of reducing levels of perfectionism and improving psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, a number of recent studies indicate that it can be successfully delivered via the Internet, both with regular support and guidance on demand from a therapist. In the present study protocol, a clinical trial for perfectionism is described and outlined. In total, 128 participants will be recruited and randomized to either a treatment that has already been demonstrated to have many benefits, Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism (iCBT-P), or an active comparison condition, Internet-based Unified Protocol (iUP), targeting the emotions underlying depression and anxiety disorders. The results will be investigated with regard to self-reported outcomes of perfectionism, psychiatric symptoms, self-compassion, and quality of life, at post-treatment and at six- and 12-month follow-up. Both iCBT-P and iUP are expected to have a positive impact, but the difference between the two conditions in terms of their specific effects and adherence are currently unknown and will be explored. The clinical trial is believed to lead to a better understanding of how perfectionism can be treated and the specificity of different treatments.

13.
Internet Interv ; 21: 100334, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904341

RESUMO

Background: Attentional bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce anxiety by attenuating bias towards threatening information. The current study incorporated virtual reality (VR) technology and 3-dimensional stimuli with a person-identity-matching (PIM) task to evaluate the effects of a VR-based ABM training on attentional bias and anxiety symptoms. Methods: One hundred participants with elevated social anxiety were randomised to four training groups. Attentional bias was assessed at pre- and post-training, and anxiety symptoms were assessed at pre-training, post-training, 1-week follow-up, and 3-month follow-up. Results: Change in anxiety did not correlate with change in bias (r = -0.08). A repeated-measures ANOVA showed no significant difference in bias from pre- to post-ABM, or between groups. For anxiety symptoms, a linear mixed-effects model analysis revealed a significant effect of time. Participants showed reduction in anxiety score at each successive assessment (p < .001, Nagelkerke's pseudo r 2 = 0.65). However, no other significant main effect or interactions were found. A clinically significant change analysis revealed that 4% of participants were classified as 'recovered' at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: A single session of VR-based PIM task did not change attentional bias. The significant reduction in anxiety was not specific to active training, and the majority of participants remained clinically unchanged.

14.
Cogn Behav Ther ; : 1-21, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870126

RESUMO

Virtual Reality (VR) can be used as a therapeutic tool to conduct efficacious in-session exposure therapy by presenting virtual equivalents of phobic stimuli, yet past hardware restrictions hindered implementation in routine care and effectiveness studies. The current study examines the effectiveness of a VR-assisted treatment protocol for public speaking anxiety with demonstrated efficacy, this time in routine care, using affordable VR hardware. Participants (n = 23) were recruited via a private clinic and treated by one of four psychologists with only minimal VR-training. Using a single-subject design and dual-slope modeling (adjusting the treatment-onset slope for treatment effects), we found a significant, large decrease in self-rated public speaking anxiety following the primary three-hour session, similar in magnitude to the previous efficacy trial. Multilevel modeling of in-session process measures suggests that the protocol works as intended, by decreasing catastrophic belief expectancy and distress, and increasing perceived performance quality. Adherence to the online transition program that followed-encouraging in-vivo exposure-was relatively poor, yet symptoms decrease continued. No change was observed over the three-month follow-up period. We conclude that VR exposure therapy can be effective under routine care conditions and is an attractive approach for future, large-scale implementation and effectiveness trials.

15.
Psychother Res ; : 1-13, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799772

RESUMO

Objective: Sudden gains (SGs) have often been found associated with better treatment outcome across different psychiatric disorders. However, no studies have evaluated SGs in internet-based treatment targeting adolescent depression. Method: The sample consisted of 66 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder, attending psychodynamic internet-based treatment. Effects of SGs were evaluated at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. We also evaluated effects of large intersession improvements (LIIs; sudden and relatively large gains, between sessions, without the stability criterion). Effects of SGs and LIIs early in treatment were also investigated. Results: A total of 17 patients (25.75%) experienced an SG. The effect of having an SG or early SG was non-significant after treatment (d = 0.48) and at follow-up (d = 0.66). However, having an LII was related to better outcome after treatment (d = 0.97) and at follow-up (d = 0.76). Early LIIs were associated with significantly better results at end of treatment (d = 0.72). Conclusions: The original criteria of SGs might be overly conservative and thus miss important improvements in depression. Relatively large intersession gains, regardless of stability, seem to be predictive of outcome.

16.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(8): e17145, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption poses risks to individual health and society. Previous alcohol interventions have mainly focused on high-risk consumers or young adults in school-based settings. Since the majority of the adult population is in the workforce, the workplace can be considered a favorable arena for implementing interventions. OBJECTIVE: This protocol describes a project aimed at increasing knowledge of the effectiveness of combining the implementation of an organizational alcohol policy with skills training for managers as a workplace alcohol prevention program, by evaluating the intervention and exploring managers' perceptions of the intervention. METHODS: Organizations with at least 100 employees were invited to take part in the project. A total of 11 organizations (744 managers and 11,761 employees) were included in the project. Data are collected through self-administered online surveys at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. The primary outcome is managers' inclination to initiate an early alcohol intervention (eg, by initiating a dialogue) when concern regarding employees' hazardous alcohol consumption arises. The secondary outcomes of interest are managers' and employees' organizational alcohol policy knowledge and changes in alcohol consumption, as measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score. A linear mixed-model framework will be used to model variability on different levels. Primary analysis will follow an intention-to-treat approach. Additionally, managers' responses from semistructured interviews will be analyzed using thematic analysis to explore managers' experiences regarding the prevention program. RESULTS: This study is ongoing. The overall study start was on January 2018, and the study is planned to end in December 2020. Baseline and 12-month follow-up measurements have been collected. CONCLUSIONS: This project is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an alcohol prevention program regarding higher inclination to initiate early alcohol interventions after policy implementation and skills training among managers, compared to the usual practices in the workplace. The results from this study can contribute to increased knowledge about alcohol interventions and future prevention programs in the workplace. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17250048; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN17250048. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/17145.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765315

RESUMO

Objective: Although psychodynamic psychotherapy is efficacious in the treatment of depression, research on mechanisms of change is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate if and how emotion regulation affects outcome both as a time-invariant and a lagged time-varying predictor. Method: The sample consisted of 67 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder, attending affect-focused psychodynamic internet-based treatment (IPDT). Linear mixed models were used to analyze emotion regulation as a baseline predictor and to assess the effect of within-person changes in emotion regulation on depression. Results: Analyses suggested that emotion regulation at baseline was a significant predictor of outcome, where participants with relatively larger emotion regulation deficits gained more from IPDT. Further, the results showed a significant effect of improved emotion regulation on subsequent depressive symptomatology. When not controlling for time, increased emotion regulation explained 41.23% of the variance in subsequent symptoms of depression. When detrending the results were still significant, but the amount of explained variance was reduced to 8.7%. Conclusion: The findings suggest that patients with relatively larger deficits in emotion regulation gain more from IPDT. Decreased emotion regulation deficits seem to act as a mechanism of change in IPDT as it drives subsequent changes in depression.Clinical Trial Registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 16206254, https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN16206254.

18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107371, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Insomnia has adverse effects on people with epilepsy. We aimed to test a novel cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) app-based intervention on insomnia symptoms and social psychological factors in people with epilepsy and to examine the possible mechanisms among the factors. METHODS: Participants were recruited from neurology clinics in Iran and comprised individuals diagnosed with epilepsy and having moderate to severe insomnia. A two-arm randomized controlled trial design was used, consisting of a treatment group (CBT-I; n = 160) and control group (patient education; n = 160). Primary outcomes were self-reported sleep quality, insomnia severity, and sleep hygiene behavior and objective sleep characteristics measured by actigraphy. Secondary outcomes were attitude, perceived behavioral control, intention, action planning, coping planning, behavioral automaticity, self-monitoring, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL). All outcomes were measured at baseline, and at one, three, and six months postintervention, except objective sleep, which was assessed at baseline, and one and six months postintervention. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Current findings showed that sleep quality, insomnia severity, sleep hygiene behavior, and sleep onset latency were significantly improved in the CBT-I group compared with the patient education group at all measurement points. Also, the CBT-I group had significantly improved anxiety, depression, and QoL compared with the patient education group. Mediation analyses showed that attitude, intention, coping planning, self-monitoring, and behavioral automaticity significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on sleep outcomes. CONCLUSION: Results support the use of the CBT-I app to improve sleep outcomes among people with epilepsy.

19.
Trials ; 21(1): 587, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression is a common mental health problem and there is an urgent need for effective and accessible treatments. Internet-based interventions solve many obstacles for seeking and receiving treatment, thus increasing access to effective treatments. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) for adolescent depression has demonstrated efficacy in previous trials. In order to broaden the range of evidence-based treatments for young people, we evaluated a newly developed affect-focused Internet-based psychodynamic treatment (IPDT) in a previous study with promising results. The purpose of the planned study is to evaluate the efficacy of IPDT for adolescent depression in a non-inferiority trial, comparing it to ICBT. METHODS: The study will employ a parallel randomized non-inferiority design (ratio 1:1; n = 270). Eligible participants are adolescents 15-19 years suffering from depression. The primary hypothesis is that IPDT will be non-inferior to ICBT in reducing depressive symptoms from pre-treatment to end of treatment. Secondary research questions include comparing outcomes of IPDT and ICBT regarding anxiety symptoms, emotion regulation and self-compassion. Additional data will be collected to evaluate cost-effectiveness as well as investigating predictors, moderators and mediators of outcome. In addition, we will examine long-term outcome up to 1 year after end of treatment. Diagnostic interviews with MINI 7.0 will be used to establish primary diagnosis of depression as well as ruling out any exclusion criteria. Both treatments consist of eight modules over 10 weeks, complemented with therapist support through text messages and weekly chat sessions. Primary outcome measure is the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology in Adolescents Self-Rated (QIDS-A17-SR). Primary outcome will be analysed using data from all participants entering the study using a multilevel growth curve strategy based on the weekly measurements of QIDS-A17-SR. The non-inferiority margin is defined as d = 0.30. DISCUSSION: This trial will demonstrate whether IPDT is non-inferior to ICBT in the treatment of adolescent depression. The study might therefore broaden the range of evidence-based treatment alternatives for young people struggling with depression. Further analyses of data from this trial may increase our knowledge about "what works for whom" and the pathways of change for two distinct types of interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN12552584 , Registered on 13 August 2019.

20.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 6: 106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699645

RESUMO

Background: Problem gambling and gambling disorder are major public health concerns worldwide, and awareness of associated negative consequences is rising. In parallel, treatment demand has increased, and Internet interventions offer a promising alternative for providing evidence-based treatment at scale to a low cost. Method: We developed a novel Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment for gambling, based on qualitative interviews with treatment-seeking gamblers, behavioral research on gambling behavior, and the pathway model for problem gambling. This research protocol describes a non-randomized pilot and feasibility trial conducted in routine addiction care with adult treatment-seeking patients (max N = 25) with problem gambling. The primary aim is to ensure acceptability and safety, measured by satisfaction, credibility, working alliance, and possible negative effects. Secondary aims are feasibility of study procedures in terms of recruitment and measurement procedures as well as potential effectiveness measured weekly by gambling symptoms as primary outcome and gambling behavior, quality of life, symptoms of depression and anxiety, alcohol, and drug use as secondary outcomes. Potential mediators measured weekly are loss of control, verbal rules, and well-being. Discussion: This study is innovative in several respects, regarding both treatment development and implementation. The results of the study will guide a future randomized controlled trial, as well as the development of the intervention and intervention implementation within ordinary addiction care. Trial registration: Clinical trials.gov, NCT ID: NCT03946098. Registered 10 May 2019.

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