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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 213-228, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639323

RESUMO

Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.

2.
Afr Health Sci ; 18(1): 147-156, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977268

RESUMO

Background: Truncus arteriosus communis (TAC) is a congenital heart defect in which the physiologic arterial common trunk was not divided into aorta and pulmonary artery trunk. Objectives: In this paper, we report on three observed cases from which we looked for (in conjunction with literature review) the different causes of TAC many of which have genetic origins. Methods: We collected three clinical files of fetuses having a TAC. Two of them were examinated after a medical termination of pregnancy motivated by severe cardiopathy. The malformation had been diagnosed based on different techniques: echocardiography, skeletal radiography, arteriography, fetal autopsy, karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Imaging and fetopathological examination revealed the presence of TAC type 3 and 4 in the Van Praaghs classification. FISH analysis showed a 22q11.2 deletion in one fetus in favour of Digeorge syndrome. The karyotype analysis performed in two cases was normal. Conclusion: Truncus arteriosus is a rare pathology caused by numerous etiologies from which many of them have genetic origin. This malformation can be diagnosed early during prenatal period. Postmortem fetopathological examination allows a better diagnosis approach and eventually a genetic counseling in recurrent cases such as case of consanguinity.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Angiografia , Autopsia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Masculino
3.
Urology ; 89: 132-3, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657689

RESUMO

Prenatal testicular torsion is a very rare morbid entity, described in the literature to occur when the testicle is intrascrotal, around the 34th week of gestation. Here we report a case of early testicular necrosis. This male fetus was the product of a medical abortion at 27 weeks. During evisceration, a left testicular nubbin free in the peritoneal cavity was found. Histologically, it was extensively necrotic. Because of the location, the size, and the histological features of this necrotic testicle, we conclude that it was the result of torsion of the pedicle that occurred around the 20th week of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Torção do Cordão Espermático/embriologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 15: 137, 2015 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26081109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) defined as ADAMTS-13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 domain 13) activity <10 % is a rare aetiology of thrombocytopenia during pregnancy, although the precise incidence is unknown. During pregnancy, the diagnosis of TTP is crucial as it has high feto-maternal morbidity-mortality and requires urgent plasma exchange. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of TTP retrospectively and to describe case presentations and follow-up. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective study (2008-2009) was conducted among pregnant women followed in a tertiary care obstetrical unit who experienced at least one episode of severe thrombocytopenia (platelets ≤75 G/L) during 2008 and 2009. In cases of uncertain aetiology of thrombocytopenia, ADAMTS-13 activity was assessed by the full length technique. RESULTS: Among 8,908 deliveries over the 2 year period, 79 women had a platelet count nadir ≤75 G/L. Eighteen had a known aetiology of thrombocytopenia and 11 were lost to follow-up. Among 50 remaining patients, ADAMTS-13 activity was undetectable (<5 %) in 4, consistent with the diagnosis of TTP. Platelet count spontaneously normalized in 3 patients after delivery. None presented focal cerebral involvement. Three of the four, who were primipara patients, had a sustained severe deficiency in the absence of anti-ADAMTS-13 antibodies, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing indicated a constitutive deficiency. The fourth, a multipara patient, had an acquired, auto-immune TTP. Placental pathology in the three primipara patients showed severe and non-specific ischemic lesions. Two patients lost their babies shortly after birth. In subsequent pregnancies in these two patients, prophylactic plasma infusion initiated early with increasing volume throughout pregnancy prevented TTP relapse, improved placental pathology, and led to normal delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of TTP among thrombocytopenic pregnant women is high, up to 5 % in a tertiary unit. Platelet count normalization after delivery does not eliminate TTP. Clinicians should be aware of TTP during pregnancy, and, even if assessed retrospectively, ADAMTS-13 assessment is of particular importance for identifying patients with congenital TTP. In these patients, preventive plasma infusion and/or exchange can dramatically improve foetal prognosis, resulting in successful childbirth.


Assuntos
Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/epidemiologia , Proteínas ADAM/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas ADAM/sangue , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Paridade , Morte Perinatal , Placenta/patologia , Plasmaferese , Contagem de Plaquetas , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/sangue , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 171: 4-11, 2015 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26023031

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Centaurium erythraea Rafn (CE), Artemisia herba-alba Asso (AHA) and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (TFG) are traditionally used to treat type 2 diabetes in Algeria, previous studies have found that extracts of these plants were effective to treat or prevent experimental diabetes induced by high-fat diet (HFD). AIM OF THE STUDY: Describe the additional effects of these extracts on lipid tissue deposition in HFD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD to induce type 2 Diabetes. Groups of mice were given plant extracts orally at 2g/kg/bodyweight daily for 20 weeks during establishment of diabetes, or for 18 weeks after confirmation of diabetes at the 17th week. Liver and other tissue samples were stained with Oil Red O. RESULTS: Liver steatosis was confirmed with HFD. CE, AHA and TFG extracts improved liver steatosis by the end of the preventive (20 weeks) and curative periods (35 weeks). This was most marked for CE extract (p<0.05), less so with TFG and AHA. No steatosis was found in other tissues. CONCLUSION: CE extract had a clear hepatoprotective effect in this mouse model of diet-induced type 2 diabetes. AHA and TFG had a minimal or no significant effect on steatosis. Beyond its effect as an antidiabetic agent, CE may also be promising to prevent or treat non-alcoholic liver steatosis.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Centaurium , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Trigonella , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes
6.
Ann Pathol ; 34(2): 119-23, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24703021

RESUMO

Of all the gestational trophoblastic tumors, the gestational choriocarcinomas have the worst prognosis and the most uncommon. We report a case diagnosed on a full-term placenta, discovered incidentally. The patient, gravida 2, para 1, delivered a hypotrophic infant at 38 weeks gestation. The placenta was examined in the laboratory to perform anatomo-pathological examination in order to explain the growth retardation. This study revealed the presence of an intraplacental choriocarcinoma. Disease staging was negative for both mother and child, and beta-HCG levels remained at zero. These two factors are rather good prognosis for choriocarcinoma. With this observation, we highlight the added-value of placental examination, which seems essential for any fetal pathology, pathological pregnancy and intrapartum complications. Anatomo-pathological examination must be meticulous and systematized in order to not overlook an intraplacental tumor.


Assuntos
Coriocarcinoma/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Gravidez , Nascimento a Termo
7.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 17(2): 102-6, 2014 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24575782

RESUMO

Feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) is the cause of late fetal death in 1.6%-11% of cases. In spite of this high frequency, its pathological features have received little attention. The definitive diagnosis of lethal FMH requires confirmation of sufficient fetal blood volume loss. This is determined by tests such as the Kleihauer-Betke test, which may not have been obtained or not have been available before the autopsy. The pathologist may offer a tentative diagnosis of FMH from the autopsy findings. The objective of this study was to better characterize the placental and fetal autopsy findings in lethal FMH. This was a retrospective study of 17 cases of FMH proven by a positive Kleihauer-Betke test. The cases were selected from the autopsy files of the Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux. The pathological reports as well as the placental and fetal photographs and the microscopic slides of each case were systematically reviewed. The fetal autopsy findings in FMH are characterized by a eutrophic pale macerated fetus, low liver weight, absent intrathoracic petechiae, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and kidney, and increased circulating nucleated red blood cells. The placenta shows an increased frequency of intervillous thrombi. Although nonpathognomonic, some of the pathological features are strongly suggestive of FMH. When the latter is present, a Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed, even some days after the delivery.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal/etiologia , Feto/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Adulto , Autopsia/métodos , Feminino , Morte Fetal/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Gravidez
8.
Ann Pathol ; 33(4): 230-6, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23954115

RESUMO

The indications of the pathological examination of the placenta are mainly represented by uteroplacental vascular deficiency. The clinical context is often evocative, but it can sometimes be solely an intra-uterine growth retardation or an unexplained in utero fetal death. So, the pathological lesions of this uteroplacental vascular deficiency must be well-known to be correctly interpreted, for none of these lesions is truly specific. The pathological diagnosis is based on a group of macroscopic and microscopic arguments. Various physiopathological mechanisms, often imperfectly known, can be at the origin of an uteroplacental vascular insufficiency, but in the current position, the pathological examination does not allow etiopathogenic orientation. The development of the trophoblastic biopsies gives us access to a new material which, in parallel with the cytogenetic analysis, often allows us, in front of an unexplained intra-uterine growth retardation, to direct the diagnosis towards uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. The histological analysis of the chorionic villous sampling taken precociously during pathological pregnancies is thus a major diagnostic contribution. But especially, this analysis gives access to new information which, in the near future, will enable us to better define the pathological evolution of the lesions of hypoxic chorionic villous and to contribute to a better knowledge of this pathology which, under many aspects, still conceals many mysteries.


Assuntos
Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Circulação Placentária , Útero/patologia , Vilosidades Coriônicas/química , Vilosidades Coriônicas/patologia , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , Cistos/patologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/patologia , Hipóxia Fetal/etiologia , Fibrina/análise , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Infarto/patologia , Necrose , Tamanho do Órgão , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Trofoblastos/patologia , Útero/irrigação sanguínea
9.
Acta Neuropathol ; 126(3): 427-42, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23820807

RESUMO

L1 syndrome results from mutations in the L1CAM gene located at Xq28. It encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, X-linked hydrocephalus being the most severe phenotype detected in utero, and whose pathophysiology is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to report detailed neuropathological data from patients with mutations, to delineate the neuropathological criteria required for L1CAM gene screening in foetuses by characterizing the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the cardinal signs, and to discuss the main differential diagnoses in non-mutated foetuses in order to delineate closely related conditions without L1CAM mutations. Neuropathological data from 138 cases referred to our genetic laboratory for screening of the L1CAM gene were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-seven cases had deleterious L1CAM mutations. Of these, 100 % had hydrocephalus, 88 % adducted thumbs, 98 % pyramidal tract agenesis/hypoplasia, 90 % stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius and 68 % agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Two foetuses had L1CAM mutations of unknown significance. Seventy-nine cases had no L1CAM mutations; these were subdivided into four groups: (1) hydrocephalus sometimes associated with corpus callosum agenesis (44 %); (2) atresia/forking of the aqueduct of Sylvius/rhombencephalosynapsis spectrum (27 %); (3) syndromic hydrocephalus (9 %), and (4) phenocopies with no mutations in the L1CAM gene (20 %) and in whom family history strongly suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. These data underline the existence of closely related clinical entities whose molecular bases are currently unknown. The identification of the causative genes would greatly improve our knowledge of the defective pathways involved in these cerebral malformations.


Assuntos
Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo/anormalidades , Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Gravidez
10.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e54013, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23326560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas collected at delivery from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency. Placental telomere length measurement during ongoing pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction has never been reported. This was the main objective of our study. METHODS: In our center, late chorionic villus samplings were performed between 18 and 37 weeks of amenorrhea in 24 subjects with severe intrauterine growth restriction (cases) and in 28 subjects with other indications for prenatal diagnosis (controls). Placental insufficiency was assessed by histo-pathological examination. Relative measurement of telomere length was carried out prospectively by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using fluorescent Peptide Nucleic Acid probes on interphase nuclei obtained from long-term cultured villi and with an automated epifluorescent microscope. A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was performed to confirm the quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization results. The number of copies of gene loci encoding the RNA template (hTERC) and the catalytic subunit (hTERT) of the enzyme complex telomerase were also estimated in these placentas by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. RESULTS: Mean fluorescence intensity of telomere probes estimated by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization was significantly less for cases compared to controls (p<0.001). This result indicated that mean telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Reduced telomere length was confirmed by the quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. No copy number variation of the hTERC and hTERT loci was noticed for cases, or for controls. CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrates a reduction of placental telomere length in ongoing pregnancies (from 18 to 37 weeks of amenorrhea) complicated by severe intrauterine growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Placenta/citologia , Insuficiência Placentária , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Adulto , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Placentária/genética , Insuficiência Placentária/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , RNA/genética , Telomerase/genética
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 91(6): 1135-43, 2012 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23217329

RESUMO

Cobblestone lissencephaly is a peculiar brain malformation with characteristic radiological anomalies. It is defined as cortical dysplasia that results when neuroglial overmigration into the arachnoid space forms an extracortical layer that produces agyria and/or a "cobblestone" brain surface and ventricular enlargement. Cobblestone lissencephaly is pathognomonic of a continuum of autosomal-recessive diseases characterized by cerebral, ocular, and muscular deficits. These include Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, and Fukuyama muscular dystrophy. Mutations in POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, LARGE, FKTN, and FKRP identified these diseases as alpha-dystroglycanopathies. Our exhaustive screening of these six genes, in a cohort of 90 fetal cases, led to the identification of a mutation in only 53% of the families, suggesting that other genes might also be involved. We therefore decided to perform a genome-wide study in two multiplex families. This allowed us to identify two additional genes: TMEM5 and ISPD. Because TMEM has a glycosyltransferase domain and ISPD has an isoprenoid synthase domain characteristic of nucleotide diP-sugar transferases, these two proteins are thought to be involved in the glycosylation of dystroglycan. Further screening of 40 families with cobblestone lissencephaly identified nonsense and frameshift mutations in another four unrelated cases for each gene, increasing the mutational rate to 64% in our cohort. All these cases displayed a severe phenotype of cobblestone lissencephaly A. TMEM5 mutations were frequently associated with gonadal dysgenesis and neural tube defects, and ISPD mutations were frequently associated with brain vascular anomalies.


Assuntos
Lissencefalia Cobblestone/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Alelos , Lissencefalia Cobblestone/diagnóstico , Consanguinidade , Éxons , Família , Feto/metabolismo , Feto/patologia , Ordem dos Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Íntrons
12.
Ann Pathol ; 32(3): 217-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22748341

RESUMO

Tamponade is a rare but particularly serious complication of central venous catheters in the newborn. Tamponade can be due to the endocardic aggression caused by the continuous flow of a hyperosmotic solution or by a mechanical injury that can result in perforation of the atrial wall. The risk of tamponade is present whatever is the position of the tip of the catheter, although it has been shown that this risk is increased when this tip is in the right auricle. The originality of our observation is the discovery at the post-mortem examination of an anterior interventricular vein thrombosis, without any lesion of the atrial wall. In the event of the diagnosis of tamponade in living newborn, this etiology must be required because of its therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Tamponamento Cardíaco/patologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Doenças em Gêmeos/etiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/patologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
13.
J Med Genet ; 49(6): 373-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22577225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Otocephaly or dysgnathia complex is characterised by mandibular hypoplasia/agenesis, ear anomalies, microstomia, and microglossia; the molecular basis of this developmental defect is largely unknown in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study reports a large family in which two cousins with micro/anophthalmia each gave birth to at least one child with otocephaly, suggesting a genetic relationship between anophthalmia and otocephaly. OTX2, a known microphthalmia locus, was screened in this family and a frameshifting mutation was found. The study subsequently identified in one unrelated otocephalic patient a sporadic OTX2 mutation. Because OTX2 mutations may not be sufficient to cause otocephaly, the study assayed the potential of otx2 to modify craniofacial phenotypes in the context of known otocephaly gene suppression in vivo. It was found that otx2 can interact genetically with pgap1, prrx1, and msx1 to exacerbate mandibular and midline defects during zebrafish development. However, sequencing of these loci in the OTX2-positive families did not unearth likely pathogenic lesions, suggesting further genetic heterogeneity and complexity. CONCLUSION: Identification of OTX2 involvement in otocephaly/dysgnathia in humans, even if loss of function mutations at this locus does not sufficiently explain the complex anatomical defects of these patients, suggests the requirement for a second genetic hit. Consistent with this notion, trans suppression of otx2 and other developmentally related genes recapitulate aspects of the otocephaly phenotype in zebrafish. This study highlights the combined utility of genetics and functional approaches to dissect both the regulatory pathways that govern craniofacial development and the genetics of this disease group.


Assuntos
Holoprosencefalia/genética , Anormalidades Maxilomandibulares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Feminino , Holoprosencefalia/patologia , Humanos , Anormalidades Maxilomandibulares/patologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Brain ; 135(Pt 2): 469-82, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22323514

RESUMO

Cobblestone lissencephaly represents a peculiar brain malformation with characteristic radiological anomalies, defined as cortical dysplasia combined with dysmyelination, dysplastic cerebellum with cysts and brainstem hypoplasia. Cortical dysplasia results from neuroglial overmigration into the arachnoid space, forming an extracortical layer, responsible for agyria and/or 'cobblestone' brain surface and ventricular enlargement. The underlying mechanism is a disruption of the glia limitans, the outermost layer of the brain. Cobblestone lissencephaly is pathognomonic of a continuum of autosomal recessive diseases with cerebral, ocular and muscular deficits, Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain and Fukuyama muscular dystrophy. Mutations in POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, LARGE, FKTN and FKRP genes attributed these diseases to α-dystroglycanopathies. However, studies have not been able to identify causal mutations in the majority of patients and to establish a clear phenotype/genotype correlation. Therefore, we decided to perform a detailed neuropathological survey and molecular screenings in 65 foetal cases selected on the basis of histopathological criteria. After sequencing the six genes of α-dystroglycanopathies, a causal mutation was observed in 66% of cases. On the basis of a ratio of severity, three subtypes clearly emerged. The most severe, which we called cobblestone lissencephaly A, was linked to mutations in POMT1 (34%), POMT2 (8%) and FKRP (1.5%). The least severe, cobblestone lissencephaly C, was linked to POMGNT1 mutations (18%). An intermediary type, cobblestone lissencephaly B, was linked to LARGE mutations (4.5%) identified for the first time in foetuses. We conclude that cobblestone lissencephaly encompasses three distinct subtypes of cortical malformations with different degrees of neuroglial ectopia into the arachnoid space and cortical plate disorganization regardless of gestational age. In the cerebellum, histopathological changes support the novel hypothesis that abnormal lamination arises from a deficiency in granule cells. Our studies demonstrate the positive impact of histoneuropathology on the identification of α-dystroglycanopathies found in 66% of cases, while with neuroimaging criteria and biological values, mutations are found in 32-50% of patients. Interestingly, our morphological classification was central in the orientation of genetic screening of POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, LARGE and FKRP. Despite intensive research, one-third of our cases remained unexplained; suggesting that other genes and/or pathways may be involved. This material offers a rich resource for studies on the affected neurodevelopmental processes of cobblestone lissencephaly and on the identification of other responsible gene(s)/pathway(s).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Lissencefalia Cobblestone/genética , Lissencefalia Cobblestone/patologia , Distroglicanas/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lissencefalia Cobblestone/metabolismo , Distroglicanas/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Manosiltransferases/genética , Manosiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo
15.
Hum Reprod ; 26(10): 2651-7, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21840909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of referent pathologists (RPs) to the quality of diagnosis of trophoblastic diseases and to study the level of diagnostic agreement between the initial pathologists and the RPs. METHODS: This observational retrospective study was carried between 1 November 1999 and 11 January 2011 using the database of the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Centre in Lyon. All files for hydatiform moles (HMs), trophoblastic tumours and non-molar pregnancies for which there was an initial suspicion of trophoblastic disease were included, whenever there was rereading of the slides by an RP. A total of 1851 HMs and 150 gestational trophoblastic tumours were analysed. RESULTS: When the initial pathologist diagnosed a complete mole, the RP confirmed the diagnosis in 96% of cases. When the initial pathologist diagnosed a partial mole, the RP confirmed the diagnosis in only 64% of cases. For trophoblastic tumours, when the initial pathologist diagnosed a choriocarcinoma, the RP confirmed the diagnosis in 86% of cases. When the initial anatomopathology suggested an invasive mole, the diagnosis was confirmed in 96% of cases. Finally, when the initial diagnosis was a placental site trophoblastic tumour or an epithelioid trophoblastic tumour, the RP confirmed the diagnosis in 60 and 100% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: A systematic policy of rereading of slides for all suspicious moles improves the quality of management of trophoblastic diseases at a national level.


Assuntos
Doença Trofoblástica Gestacional/diagnóstico , Mola Hidatiforme/diagnóstico , Patologia/métodos , Neoplasias Trofoblásticas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Coriocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Mola Hidatiforme Invasiva/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Int J Angiol ; 19(2): e73-7, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22477593

RESUMO

The physiopathology of venous symptoms, such as pain, leg heaviness or swelling sensations, in chronic venous disease (CVD) remains unclear. Localized release of proinflammatory mediators appears to play a key role but the presence of nociceptors sensitive to inflammatory mediators, such as unmyelinated C fibres, needs to be demonstrated. The present study included 10 patients with documented CVD who underwent surgery for saphenectomy. For each patient, five segments of the great saphenous vein were immunostained with anti-S100 protein and anti-CD45 to identify nerve fibres and inflammatory cells, respectively. Light microscopy was completed by electron microscopy. In all patients, S100 immunopositive nerve fibres and CD45 immunopositive cells were observed. Under an electron microscope, advanced signs of wall remodelling were systematically observed. The density of nerve fibres was low and variable from one sample to another. Unmyelinated C fibres were mainly located in the external part of the media and to a lesser extent in the internal part of the adventitia. Inflammatory cells, mainly histiocytes, were scattered in the media. Mast cells were observed in three patients. In conclusion, unmyelinated C fibres and inflammatory cells are present in the varicose saphenous vein wall. Their linked roles in symptoms of CVD should be further explored.

17.
Ann Pathol ; 29(5): 424-7, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20004848

RESUMO

A case of maze-like angiomatoid anomaly in villi obtained by chorionic villous sampling (CVS) is described. This feature is pathognomonic of partial mole (triploid syndrome) and it was later confirmed by chromosomal analysis. Maze-like angiomatoid anomaly was previously described on specimen submitted after spontaneous or induced abortions, but it was never reported on CVS. This report emphasized that microscopic investigation of CVS cannot be conclusive for cytogenetic anomaly in almost all cases excepted for partial mole where diagnosis criteria are usually characteristic.


Assuntos
Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , Mola Hidatiforme/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
18.
Bull Acad Natl Med ; 193(3): 675-89; discussion 689-90, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19883018

RESUMO

Chorionic villous sampling (CVS) has been available for more than twenty years. Together with amniocentesis, it helps the cytogenetician to determine the fetal karyotype for prenatal diagnosis. The choice between these two methods depends on the team and the indication. CVS can now provide sufficient material for both histopathologic and cytogenetic analyses. We evaluated the accuracy of microscopic examination of CVS for detecting primary ovular, uteroplacental vascular (preeclampsia) and inflammatory disorders. Four hundred CVS were examined in the pathology laboratory of Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, France, from January 1995 to February 2008. The results were analyzed according to the indication, the karyotype, the results of placental examination, pregnancy outcome and, when available (following spontaneous or medical termination), fetoplacental findings. The sample was representative of patients requiring CVS for prenatal diagnosis, with respect to maternal age, the stage of pregnancy, and the indications. When used to screen for preeclamsia (prevalence 29.6% in the sample), the sensitivity and specificity of placental biopsy were respectively 56.8% and 87.2% (76.9% in case of intra-uterine growth retardation). When used to screen for chromosomal aberrations (prevalence 7.4%), the specificity was 14.3% and the sensitivity 93.2%. The prevalence of other disorders, and particularly chronic intervillitis, was too low for meaningful analysis. This study shows that histopathologic analysis of chorionic villous samples is useful for detecting the utero-placental vascular origin of intrauterine growth retardation in the absence of other clinical, biological or ultrasound signs, and that it is complementary to cytogenetic analysis. Being a simple and inexpensive examination, histopathologic analysis of CVS could be performed systematically in this indication. Its value and diagnostic signs in other settings need to be determined in larger series.


Assuntos
Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , Adolescente , Adulto , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , França , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Comp Hepatol ; 8: 5, 2009 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19602240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adult liver, the mesenchymal cells, portal fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells can transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts, and are involved in portal fibrosis. Differential expression of markers, such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA), h-caldesmon and cellular retinol-binding protein-1 allows their phenotypic discrimination. The aim of our study was to explore the phenotypic evolution of the mesenchymal cells during fetal development in normal liver and in liver with portal fibrosis secondary to ductal plate malformation in a series of Meckel-Gruber syndrome, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and Ivemark's syndrome. RESULTS: At the early steps of the portal tract maturation, portal mesenchymal cells expressed only ASMA. During the maturation process, these cells were found condensed around the biliary and vascular structures. At the end of maturation process, only cells around vessels expressed ASMA and cells of the artery tunica media also expressed h-caldesmon. In contrast, ASMA positive cells persisted around the abnormal biliary ducts in fibrous livers. CONCLUSION: As in adult liver, there is a phenotypic heterogeneity of the mesenchymal cells during fetal liver development. During portal tract maturation, myofibroblastic cells disappear in normal development but persist in fibrosis following ductal plate malformation.

20.
Acta Neuropathol ; 117(2): 185-200, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19057916

RESUMO

Rhombencephalosynapsis is an uncommon cerebellar malformation defined by vermian agenesis with fusion of the hemispheres and of the dentate nuclei. Embryologic and genetic mechanisms are still unknown, and to date, no animal models are available. Ultrasound diagnosis is generally suspected after 22 weeks of gestation, and usually the abnormality is suggested by ventriculomegaly. Morphological analysis of 40 fetuses after medical termination of pregnancy allowed us to confirm that rhombencephalosynapsis was always associated with other brain abnormalities or malformations: Purkinje cell heterotopias, fusion of colliculi, forking and/or atresia of the aqueduct and of the third ventricle resulting in a fusion of the thalami, agenesis of the corpus callosum, lobar holoprosencephaly and neural tube defects. Pons and medulla were very infrequently abnormal. Furthermore, complete autopsy made it possible to separate either pure neurologic phenotypes, or associated with extraneural anomalies from syndromic forms: Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (1 case) and VACTERL-H syndrome (6 cases). The number of our fetal cases strongly suggests that VACTERL-H association related with rhombencephalosynapsis emerges as a non-random association. Furthermore, recurrence and consanguinity were noted in two different families, which argue for a sporadic or inherited cause. From our results, it could be suggested that rhombencephalosynapsis may be due to defective genes regulating formation of the roof plate and the development of midline cerebellar primordium at the junction of the mesencephalon and of the first rhombomere.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/embriologia , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Ventrículos Cerebrais/anormalidades , Feto/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cerebelo/embriologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/embriologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/embriologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/embriologia , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Síndrome
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