Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 121
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226016

RESUMO

Lipid levels are important markers for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Although hundreds of associated loci have been identified through genetic association studies, the contribution of genetic factors to variation in lipids is not fully understood, particularly in U.S. minority groups. We performed genome-wide association analyses for four lipid traits in over 45,000 ancestrally diverse participants from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, followed by a meta-analysis with several European ancestry studies. We identified nine novel lipid loci, five of which showed evidence of replication in independent studies. Furthermore, we discovered one novel gene in a PrediXcan analysis, minority-specific independent signals at eight previously reported loci, and potential functional variants at two known loci through fine-mapping. Systematic examination of known lipid loci revealed smaller effect estimates in African American and Hispanic ancestry populations than those in Europeans, and better performance of polygenic risk scores based on minority-specific effect estimates. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of lipid traits and highlight the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Front Genet ; 10: 494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178898

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and disproportionally burdens United States ethnic minorities. Its genetic determinants may differ by disease severity and clinical stages. To uncover genetic factors associated CKD severity among high-risk ethnic groups, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations within the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Methods: We assembled multi-ethnic genome-wide imputed data on CKD non-overlapping cases [4,150 mild to moderate CKD, 1,105 end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)] and non-CKD controls for up to 41,041 PAGE participants (African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, East Asian, Native Hawaiian, and American Indians). We implemented a generalized estimating equation approach for GWAS using ancestry combined data while adjusting for age, sex, principal components, study, and ethnicity. Results: The GWAS identified a novel genome-wide associated locus for mild to moderate CKD nearby NMT2 (rs10906850, p = 3.7 × 10-8) that replicated in the United Kingdom Biobank white British (p = 0.008). Several variants at the APOL1 locus were associated with ESKD including the APOL1 G1 rs73885319 (p = 1.2 × 10-9). There was no overlap among associated loci for CKD and ESKD traits, even at the previously reported APOL1 locus (p = 0.76 for CKD). Several additional loci were associated with CKD or ESKD at p-values below the genome-wide threshold. These loci were often driven by variants more common in non-European ancestry. Conclusion: Our genetic study identified a novel association at NMT2 for CKD and showed for the first time strong associations of the APOL1 variants with ESKD across multi-ethnic populations. Our findings suggest differences in genetic effects across CKD severity and provide information for study design of genetic studies of CKD in diverse populations.

4.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 76-87, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética
6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(1): 103-112, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tamoxifen is widely used to reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC) recurrence and extend disease-free survival among women with estrogen-sensitive breast cancers. Tamoxifen efficacy is thought to be attributable to its active metabolite, which is formed through a reaction catalyzed by the P450 enzyme, CYP2D6. Inhibition of tamoxifen metabolism as a result of germline genetic variation and/or use of CYP2D6-inhibiting medications ("inhibitors") is hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse BC outcomes among women taking tamoxifen. METHODS: The present cohort study of 960 women diagnosed with early-stage BC between 1993 and 1999 examined the association between concomitant use of CYP2D6 inhibitors and adjuvant tamoxifen and the risk of adverse BC outcomes (recurrence, second primary BC, BC mortality), both overall and according to CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype. RESULTS: Six or more months of CYP2D6 inhibitor use concomitant with tamoxifen was not associated with any appreciable increase in risk of recurrence or second primary BC or BC mortality, and there was no clear evidence of variation by CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the relatively few other large, population-based studies conducted to date that have not observed an increased risk of adverse BC outcomes associated with CYP2D6 inhibition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fenótipo
7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 146-157, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. METHODS: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery-replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10-8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10-8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 8(10): 3255-3267, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131328

RESUMO

The emergence of very large cohorts in genomic research has facilitated a focus on genotype-imputation strategies to power rare variant association. These strategies have benefited from improvements in imputation methods and association tests, however little attention has been paid to ways in which array design can increase rare variant association power. Therefore, we developed a novel framework to select tag SNPs using the reference panel of 26 populations from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. We evaluate tag SNP performance via mean imputed r2 at untyped sites using leave-one-out internal validation and standard imputation methods, rather than pairwise linkage disequilibrium. Moving beyond pairwise metrics allows us to account for haplotype diversity across the genome for improve imputation accuracy and demonstrates population-specific biases from pairwise estimates. We also examine array design strategies that contrast multi-ethnic cohorts vs. single populations, and show a boost in performance for the former can be obtained by prioritizing tag SNPs that contribute information across multiple populations simultaneously. Using our framework, we demonstrate increased imputation accuracy for rare variants (frequency < 1%) by 0.5-3.1% for an array of one million sites and 0.7-7.1% for an array of 500,000 sites, depending on the population. Finally, we show how recent explosive growth in non-African populations means tag SNPs capture on average 30% fewer other variants than in African populations. The unified framework presented here will enable investigators to make informed decisions for the design of new arrays, and help empower the next phase of rare variant association for global health.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
JCI Insight ; 3(14)2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus-related (HPV-related) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have an excellent response rate to platinum-based chemoradiotherapy. Genomic differences between primary HPV-related OPSCCs that do or do not recur are unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear if HPV-related OPSCCs that recur share a genomic landscape with HPV-negative head and neck cancers (HNCs). METHODS: We utilized whole exome sequencing to analyze somatic nucleotide (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs) among a unique set of 51 primary HPV-related OPSCCs, including 35 that did not recur and 16 that recurred. We evaluated 12 metachronous recurrent OPSCCs (7 with paired primary OPSCCs) and 33 primary HPV-unrelated oral cavity and OPSCCs. RESULTS: KMT2D was the most frequently mutated gene among primary HPV-related OPSCCs (n = 51; 14%) and among metachronous recurrent OPSCCs (n = 12; 42%). Primary HPV-related OPSCCs that recurred shared a genomic landscape with primary HPV-related OPSCCs that did not recur. However, TSC2, BRIP1, NBN, and NFE2L2 mutations occurred in primary OPSCCs that recurred but not in those that did not recur. Moreover, primary HPV-related OPSCCs that recur harbor features of HPV-unrelated HNCs, notably including MAPK, JAK/STAT, and differentiation signaling pathway aberrations. Metachronous recurrent OPSCCs shared a genomic landscape with HPV-unrelated HNCs, including a high frequency of TP53, CASP8, FAT1, HLA-A, AJUBA, and NSD1 genomic alterations. CONCLUSION: Overall, primary HPV-related OPSCCs that recur share a genomic landscape with nonrecurrent OPSCCs. Metachronous recurrent OPSCCs share genomic features with HPV-negative HNCs. These data aim to guide future deescalation endeavors and functional experiments. FUNDING: This study is supported by the American Cancer Society (RSG TBG-123653), funding support for RAH (T32DC00018, Research Training in Otolaryngology, University of Washington), funds to EM from Seattle Translational Tumor Research (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center), and center funds from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center to EM. UD is supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development (BLR&D), grant IO1-oo23456, and funds from the Pittsburgh Foundation and PNC Foundation.


Assuntos
Genes Virais/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/virologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186518, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of less frequent genetic variants and their effect on complex disease pose new challenges for genomic research. To investigate whether epigenetic data can be used to inform aggregate rare-variant association methods (RVAM), we assessed whether variants more significantly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) were preferentially located in non-coding regulatory regions, and whether enrichment was specific to colorectal tissues. METHODS: Active regulatory elements (ARE) were mapped using data from 127 tissues and cell-types from NIH Roadmap Epigenomics and Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) projects. We investigated whether CRC association p-values were more significant for common variants inside versus outside AREs, or 2) inside colorectal (CR) AREs versus AREs of other tissues and cell-types. We employed an integrative epigenomic RVAM for variants with allele frequency <1%. Gene sets were defined as ARE variants within 200 kilobases of a transcription start site (TSS) using either CR ARE or ARE from non-digestive tissues. CRC-set association p-values were used to evaluate enrichment of less frequent variant associations in CR ARE versus non-digestive ARE. RESULTS: ARE from 126/127 tissues and cell-types were significantly enriched for stronger CRC-variant associations. Strongest enrichment was observed for digestive tissues and immune cell types. CR-specific ARE were also enriched for stronger CRC-variant associations compared to ARE combined across non-digestive tissues (p-value = 9.6 × 10-4). Additionally, we found enrichment of stronger CRC association p-values for rare variant sets of CR ARE compared to non-digestive ARE (p-value = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Integrative epigenomic RVAM may enable discovery of less frequent variants associated with CRC, and ARE of digestive and immune tissues are most informative. Although distance-based aggregation of less frequent variants in CR ARE surrounding TSS showed modest enrichment, future association studies would likely benefit from joint analysis of transcriptomes and epigenomes to better link regulatory variation with target genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Diabetologia ; 60(12): 2384-2398, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905132

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Elevated levels of fasting glucose and fasting insulin in non-diabetic individuals are markers of dysregulation of glucose metabolism and are strong risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have discovered over 50 SNPs associated with these traits. Most of these loci were discovered in European populations and have not been tested in a well-powered multi-ethnic study. We hypothesised that a large, ancestrally diverse, fine-mapping genetic study of glycaemic traits would identify novel and population-specific associations that were previously undetectable by European-centric studies. METHODS: A multiethnic study of up to 26,760 unrelated individuals without diabetes, of predominantly Hispanic/Latino and African ancestries, were genotyped using the Metabochip. Transethnic meta-analysis of racial/ethnic-specific linear regression analyses were performed for fasting glucose and fasting insulin. We attempted to replicate 39 fasting glucose and 17 fasting insulin loci. Genetic fine-mapping was performed through sequential conditional analyses in 15 regions that included both the initially reported SNP association(s) and denser coverage of SNP markers. In addition, Metabochip-wide analyses were performed to discover novel fasting glucose and fasting insulin loci. The most significant SNP associations were further examined using bioinformatic functional annotation. RESULTS: Previously reported SNP associations were significantly replicated (p ≤ 0.05) in 31/39 fasting glucose loci and 14/17 fasting insulin loci. Eleven glycaemic trait loci were refined to a smaller list of potentially causal variants through transethnic meta-analysis. Stepwise conditional analysis identified two loci with independent secondary signals (G6PC2-rs477224 and GCK-rs2908290), which had not previously been reported. Population-specific conditional analyses identified an independent signal in G6PC2 tagged by the rare variant rs77719485 in African ancestry. Further Metabochip-wide analysis uncovered one novel fasting insulin locus at SLC17A2-rs75862513. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that while glycaemic trait loci often have generalisable effects across the studied populations, transethnic genetic studies help to prioritise likely functional SNPs, identify novel associations that may be population-specific and in turn have the potential to influence screening efforts or therapeutic discoveries. DATA AVAILABILITY: The summary statistics from each of the ancestry-specific and transethnic (combined ancestry) results can be found under the PAGE study on dbGaP here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?study_id=phs000356.v1.p1.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
13.
Nat Genet ; 49(5): 659-665, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369038

RESUMO

An individual's T cell repertoire dynamically encodes their pathogen exposure history. To determine whether pathogen exposure signatures can be identified by documenting public T cell receptors (TCRs), we profiled the T cell repertoire of 666 subjects with known cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus by immunosequencing. We developed a statistical classification framework that could diagnose CMV status from the resulting catalog of TCRß sequences with high specificity and sensitivity in both the original cohort and a validation cohort of 120 different subjects. We also confirmed that three of the identified CMV-associated TCRß molecules bind CMV in vitro, and, moreover, we used this approach to accurately predict the HLA-A and HLA-B alleles of most subjects in the first cohort. As all memory T cell responses are encoded in the common format of somatic TCR recombination, our approach could potentially be generalized to a wide variety of disease states, as well as other immunological phenotypes, as a highly parallelizable diagnostic strategy.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Algoritmos , Estudos de Coortes , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Antígenos HLA-A/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Imunológicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/virologia
15.
Blood Adv ; 1(9): 535-544, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296973

RESUMO

Burkitt lymphoma (BL), the most common pediatric cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, is a malignancy of antigen-experienced B lymphocytes. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) and light chain (IGK/IGL) loci was performed on genomic DNA from 51 primary BL tumors: 19 from Uganda and 32 from Ghana. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and tumor RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was performed on the Ugandan tumors to confirm and extend the findings from the HTS of tumor DNA. Clonal IGH and IGK/IGL rearrangements were identified in 41 and 46 tumors, respectively. Evidence for rearrangement of the second IGH allele was observed in only 6 of 41 tumor samples with a clonal IGH rearrangement, suggesting that the normal process of biallelic IGHD to IGHJ diversity-joining (DJ) rearrangement is often disrupted in BL progenitor cells. Most tumors, including those with a sole dominant, nonexpressed DJ rearrangement, contained many IGH and IGK/IGL sequences that differed from the dominant rearrangement by < 10 nucleotides, suggesting that the target of ongoing mutagenesis of these loci in BL tumor cells is not limited to expressed alleles. IGHV usage in both BL tumor cohorts revealed enrichment for IGHV genes that are infrequently used in memory B cells from healthy subjects. Analysis of publicly available DNA sequencing and RNAseq data revealed that these same IGHV genes were overrepresented in dominant tumor-associated IGH rearrangements in several independent BL tumor cohorts. These data suggest that BL derives from an abnormal B-cell progenitor and that aberrant mutational processes are active on the immunoglobulin loci in BL cells.

16.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167758, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973554

RESUMO

Investigating genetic architecture of complex traits in ancestrally diverse populations is imperative to understand the etiology of disease. However, the current paucity of genetic research in people of African and Latin American ancestry, Hispanic and indigenous peoples in the United States is likely to exacerbate existing health disparities for many common diseases. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology, Phase II (PAGE II), Study was initiated in 2013 by the National Human Genome Research Institute to expand our understanding of complex trait loci in ethnically diverse and well characterized study populations. To meet this goal, the Multi-Ethnic Genotyping Array (MEGA) was designed to substantially improve fine-mapping and functional discovery by increasing variant coverage across multiple ethnicities at known loci for metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, inflammatory, anthropometric, and a variety of lifestyle traits. Studying the frequency distribution of clinically relevant mutations, putative risk alleles, and known functional variants across multiple populations will provide important insight into the genetic architecture of complex diseases and facilitate the discovery of novel, sometimes population-specific, disease associations. DNA samples from 51,650 self-identified African ancestry (17,328), Hispanic/Latino (22,379), Asian/Pacific Islander (8,640), and American Indian (653) and an additional 2,650 participants of either South Asian or European ancestry, and other reference panels have been genotyped on MEGA by PAGE II. MEGA was designed as a new resource for studying ancestrally diverse populations. Here, we describe the methodology for selecting trait-specific content for use in multi-ethnic populations and how enriching MEGA for this content may contribute to deeper biological understanding of the genetic etiology of complex disease.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Alelos , Antropometria , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Exoma , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164132, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27736895

RESUMO

Despite the substantial burden of hypertension in US minority populations, few genetic studies of blood pressure have been conducted in Hispanics and African Americans, and it is unclear whether many of the established loci identified in European-descent populations contribute to blood pressure variation in non-European descent populations. Using the Metabochip array, we sought to characterize the genetic architecture of previously identified blood pressure loci, and identify novel cardiometabolic variants related to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a multi-ethnic US population including Hispanics (n = 19,706) and African Americans (n = 18,744). Several known blood pressure loci replicated in African Americans and Hispanics. Fourteen variants in three loci (KCNK3, FGF5, ATXN2-SH2B3) were significantly associated with blood pressure in Hispanics. The most significant diastolic blood pressure variant identified in our analysis, rs2586886/KCNK3 (P = 5.2 x 10-9), also replicated in independent Hispanic and European-descent samples. African American and trans-ethnic meta-analysis data identified novel variants in the FGF5, ULK4 and HOXA-EVX1 loci, which have not been previously associated with blood pressure traits. Our identification and independent replication of variants in KCNK3, a gene implicated in primary hyperaldosteronism, as well as a variant in HOTTIP (HOXA-EVX1) suggest that further work to clarify the roles of these genes may be warranted. Overall, our findings suggest that loci identified in European descent populations also contribute to blood pressure variation in diverse populations including Hispanics and African Americans-populations that are understudied for hypertension genetic risk factors.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Variação Genética , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160853, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513338

RESUMO

The vast diversity of B-cell receptors (BCR) and secreted antibodies enables the recognition of, and response to, a wide range of epitopes, but this diversity has also limited our understanding of humoral immunity. We present a public database of more than 37 million unique BCR sequences from three healthy adult donors that is many fold deeper than any existing resource, together with a set of online tools designed to facilitate the visualization and analysis of the annotated data. We estimate the clonal diversity of the naive and memory B-cell repertoires of healthy individuals, and provide a set of examples that illustrate the utility of the database, including several views of the basic properties of immunoglobulin heavy chain sequences, such as rearrangement length, subunit usage, and somatic hypermutation positions and dynamics.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Imunidade Humoral , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/química , Adulto , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Masculino
20.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0157521, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27379672

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs). We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33). We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Células A549 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células CACO-2 , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA