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1.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; : 3489420937731, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the outcomes of treatment for patients with cholesteatomas that are medially invasive to the otic capsule, petrous apex, and/or skull base. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Two tertiary care academic centers. PATIENTS: Patients surgically managed for medially-invasive cholesteatoma at two tertiary care institutions from 2001 to 2017. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical management of medially-invasive cholesteatomas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The presenting symptoms, imaging, pre- and post-operative clinical course, and complications were reviewed. RESULTS: Seven patients were identified. All patients had pre-operative radiographic evidence of invasive cholesteatoma with erosion into the otic capsule beyond just a lateral semicircular canal fistula. Five patients had a complex otologic history with multiple surgeries for recurrent cholesteatoma including three with prior canal wall down mastoidectomy surgeries. Average age at the time of surgery was 41.3 years (range 20-83). Two patients underwent a hearing preservation approach to the skull base while all others underwent a surgical approach based on the extent of the lesion. Facial nerve function was maintained at the pre-operative level in all but one patient. No patient developed cholesteatoma recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The medially-invasive cholesteatoma demonstrates an aggressive, endophytic growth pattern, invading into the otic capsule or through the perilabyrinthine air cells to the petrous apex. Surgical resection remains the best treatment option for medially-invasive cholesteatoma. When CSF leak is a concern, a subtotal petrosectomy with closure of the ear is often necessary.

2.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820930662, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513092

RESUMO

Podcasts are online digital audio programs that are disseminated via online subscription that are easily accessible through computers or smartphones. Increasingly, residents and medical students are prioritizing podcasts for asynchronous medical education due to ease of use, convenience (eg, use while exercising or commuting), and repeatability. Some trainees have found podcasts more useful than traditional didactic lectures. Given the increasing requirements of social distancing and the need for distance medical education platforms, podcast production can serve as a useful tool to complement resident and medical student education and is a resource that will remain accessible in perpetuity. An otolaryngology specialty podcast, "Headmirror's ENT in a Nutshell," was created to augment asynchronous learning and address the acute need for distance learning opportunities. Over the first 7 weeks of production, 50 episodes were created. Episodes were posted on www.headmirror.com, with subscription services available through Apple Podcast, Spotify, and other platforms.

6.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): e759-e762, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report and discuss the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) for tumor control following surgical resection of endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Multi-institutional academic referral centers. PATIENTS: Patients undergoing surgical resection for ELST followed by SRS or FRT. INTERVENTION(S): Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Local tumor control. RESULTS: Two of the five patients experienced tumor recurrence after gross total microsurgical at 78 and 11 months, respectively. The former patient received salvage 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and while the latter patient underwent three courses of salvage SRS for recurrence, two of which were in-field and was disease-free at last follow up. Two additional patients underwent subtotal tumor resection (STR) followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and are currently without disease. One patient underwent STR followed by proton-beam therapy (PBT) and was free of disease at most recent follow-up. CONCLUSION: SRS/FRT remains a useful adjuvant for treatment of residual or recurrent ELSTs, where the risk of revision microsurgical resection is high.

7.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(4): 489-493, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several reports have suggested that the incidence of otosclerosis is declining. However, due to the limitations of epidemiologic databases within the United States, little is known about the incidence of congenital stapes footplate fixation (CSFF), much less epidemiological trends over the past 50 years. The current study was conceived to characterize the epidemiology of CSFF over the past five decades using the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP). STUDY DESIGN: Population-based study. PATIENTS: The medical records of every resident of Olmsted County, Minnesota who was diagnosed with CSFF was reviewed from January 1, 1970 to December 12, 2017 using the REP. The population of Olmsted County on January 1, 2017 was 159,689 persons. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incidence of CSFF. RESULTS: Sixteen cases of CSFF were identified at a median age at diagnosis of 8 years (IQR, 6-17), eight of whom confirmed by exploratory tympanotomy. Three of the 16 (19%) cases were bilateral, and the median pure-tone average (500, 1k, 2k, 3k Hz) at time of diagnosis was 37 dB (IQR, 31-48). Two (13%) cases were identified in patients bearing a syndromic condition and one (6%) case demonstrated a malformed external ear on physical examination. The incidence rate of surgically confirmed cases among residents of Olmsted County was 0.31 per 100,000 person-years from 1970 to 1979 and 0.28 from 2000 to 2009. No incident cases among residents of Olmsted County were identified since 2010. CONCLUSIONS: CSFF constitutes a rare disease. Unlike epidemiological trends in otosclerosis, the incidence of surgically confirmed cases of CSFF remained stable over the past 50 years.

8.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(4): e501-e506, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Closely paralleling previous radiologic studies, recent population-based prevalence data suggest sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) affects over one in 2,000 adults and up to one in 500 in those aged 70 years or older. Attributable to increased utilization of magnetic resonance imaging and screening protocols for asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss, the increasing detection rate of sporadic VS fundamentally changes the perception of VS as a whole. The primary objective of the current study was to contextualize modern epidemiological trends in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) in light of these recent advancements in the understanding of sporadic VS. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based study. SETTING: Olmsted County, Minnesota. Population size on January 1, 2017: 159,689 people. PATIENTS: All patients with NF2 diagnosed between Jan 1, 1966 and Dec 31, 2016, identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence, prevalence. RESULTS: Six incident cases were identified over the past 50 years. From 1966 to 2016, the age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence rate remained at 0.12 over the most recent decade. Five cases met disease prevalence criteria, and the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of NF2 on Jan 1, 2017 was 3.1 per 100,000 persons. All prevalent cases were women, and the resultant prevalence among women only was 6.0 per 100,000 persons. CONCLUSIONS: The modern age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate and prevalence of NF2 is 0.10 per 100,000 person-years and 3.1 per 100,000 persons, respectively. In contrast to trends in incidence rates of sporadic VS over the last half-century, this study demonstrates that the incidence of NF2 has remained relatively stable since 1966. This divergence in epidemiological trends is likely attributed to the nature of NF2, with early clinical manifestations resulting in diagnosis regardless of modern advances, whereas the increased incidence of sporadic VS is heavily influenced by improved detection in a greater population of patients with minimally symptomatic or asymptomatic tumors.

9.
J Neurooncol ; 147(3): 503-513, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is an emerging radiation therapy to treat skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas. To date, its use is limited to a few centers around the world, and there has been no attempt to systematically evaluate survival and toxicity outcomes reported in the literature. Correspondingly, the aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess these outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search of seven electronic databases from inception to November 2019 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. Outcomes were then pooled by random-effects meta-analyses of proportions. RESULTS: A total of nine studies provided unique metadata for assessment, with six originating from Heidelberg, Germany. The surveyed cohort size was 632 patients, with 389 (62%) chordomas and 243 (38%) chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Across all studies, median cohort age at therapy and female proportion were 46 years and 51% respectively. Estimates of local control incidence at 1-, 5-, and 10-years in chordoma-only studies were 99%, 80%, and 56%, and in chondrosarcoma-only studies were 99%, 89%, and 88%. Estimates of overall survival probability at 1-, 5-, and 10-years in chordoma-only studies were 100%, 94%, and 78%, and in chondrosarcoma-only studies were 99%, 95%, and 79%. The incidence of early and late toxicity (Grade ≥ 3) ranged from 0 to 4% across all study groups. CONCLUSIONS: The emerging use of CIRT to treat skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas appear promising with regard to tumor control, overall survival, and risk profile of early and late toxicity. The current literature suffers from the fact only a few centers in the world currently employ this technology.

10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(5): 666-673, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; Wegener's granulomatosis) is classically characterized by systemic disease involving the kidneys and airway, approximately 10% of patients who have it present with isolated central nervous system disease. When involving the skull base, GPA frequently mimics more common pathology, resulting in diagnostic challenges and delay. The primary objective of this study is to characterize the cranial base manifestations of GPA, highlighting aspects most relevant to the skull base surgeon. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with skull base GPA treated at a tertiary referral center from January 1, 1996, to May 1, 2018. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-one (72%) initially presented with skull base symptomatology as their cardinal manifestation of GPA. Twenty-four (82%) presented with cranial neuropathy at some point in their disease course. The trigeminal nerve was most commonly involved (12 of 24, 50%), followed by the facial (11 of 24, 46%) and optic (8 of 24, 33%) nerves. Eighteen patients reported hearing loss attributed to the GPA disease process, presenting as conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. The most common locations for GPA-derived inflammatory skull base disease on imaging included the cavernous sinus (12 of 29, 41%) and the orbit (7 of 29, 24%). CONCLUSION: Establishing the diagnosis of skull base GPA remains challenging. Cranial neuropathy is diverse in presentation and often mimics more common conditions. Imaging findings are also unpredictable and frequently nonspecific. Careful review of patient history, clinical presentation, serology and biopsy results, and imaging can reveal important clues toward the diagnosis.

11.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): 813-847, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) has increased significantly over recent decades. The rising incidence of VS has been largely attributed to the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially with regard to incidentally diagnosed tumors. However, no study to date has directly investigated this supposed etiology beyond the observation that VS incidence rates have risen in the post-MRI era. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study was to characterize the incidence of head MRIs over the previous two decades in Olmsted County, Minnesota and compare this trend to the incidence of asymptomatic, incidentally diagnosed VS over the same time period. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based incidence study. SETTING/PATIENTS: Using the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, procedure codes for head MRIs and diagnostic codes for VS among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota between Jan 1, 1995 and Dec 31, 2016 were retrieved. Incidence rates of head MRI and incidentally diagnosed VS were calculated on a per-year basis. RESULTS: A total of 43,561 head MRIs among 30,002 distinct persons were identified from 1995 to 2016. The incidence of head MRI significantly increased between 1995 and 2003 (p < 0.001), but remained stable between 2004 and 2016 (p = 0.14). Over the same time interval, 25 cases of incidentally diagnosed VS were identified. The incidence of asymptomatic VS increased over time from 0.72 per 100,000 person-years between 1995 and 1999 to 1.29 between 2012 and 2016 (p = 0.058). No plateauing of incidence rates was observed in incidental tumors over the study period. The size of incidentally diagnosed tumors did not change over the study period (p = 0.93), suggesting that the increasing incidence of asymptomatic tumors is not explained by improved diagnostic capability of more recent MRI studies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the plateauing of head MRI incidence rates after 2004, the incidence of asymptotic, incidentally diagnosed VS continued to increase. Our findings suggest that there may be additional contributory etiologies for the rising incidence of VS beyond greater detection alone.

12.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(2): e201-e207, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative far-field auditory brainstem response (ABR) and direct cochlear nerve action potential monitoring using neural response imaging (NRI) are techniques for monitoring the cochlear nerve during vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. A new paradigm has developed where the cochlear nerve is anatomically preserved during tumor removal to facilitate cochlear implantation in select circumstances. This report describes the use of an unmodified commercial cochlear implant (CI) to elicit electrically-evoked direct cochlear nerve and far-field ABR monitoring to evaluate the status of the cochlear nerve during tumor resection in real time. PATIENTS: Adult female with unilateral, sporadic VS. INTERVENTION(S): Cochlear implantation followed by translabyrinthine resection of VS in single operation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: During tumor resection intra-cochlear electrodes were used to deliver electrical stimulation and measure NRI or the cochlear nerve action potential. Electrically-evoked ABR (eABR) was measured using surface electrodes and wave V was monitored (far-field ABR) during surgery. RESULTS: A 61-year-old female was evaluated for a unilateral, enlarging intracanalicular VS with asymmetric SNHL. The patient opted for microsurgery and due to her bilateral hearing loss was a candidate for CI. Cochlear implantation with an unmodified, commercially available lateral wall electrode was performed. The remainder of the approach and tumor resection was performed under continuous eABR and NRI monitoring. Gross total resection was achieved with intact eABR and NRI at the conclusion of the case. Changes in ABR and NRI consistently recovered after modifying dissection strategy. The patient reported auditory percepts with her cochlear implant postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrates the feasibility of using real-time NRI and eABR with a CI to facilitate preservation of the cochlear nerve during VS microsurgery. Using this method to mitigate cochlear nerve trauma during microsurgery may preserve the option of CI for hearing rehabilitation.

13.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(4): 530-537, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the relationship among vestibular schwannoma (VS) tumor volume, growth, and hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single tertiary center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Adults with observed VS and serviceable hearing at diagnosis were included. The primary outcome was the development of nonserviceable hearing as estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Associations of tumor volume with baseline hearing were assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Associations of volume and growth with the development of nonserviceable hearing over time were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models and summarized with hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Of 230 patients with VS and serviceable hearing at diagnosis, 213 had serial volumetric tumor data for analysis. Larger tumor volume at diagnosis was associated with increased pure-tone average (PTA) (P < .001) and decreased word recognition score (WRS) (P = .014). Estimated rates of maintaining serviceable hearing at 6 and 10 years following diagnosis were 67% and 49%, respectively. Larger initial tumor volume was associated with development of nonserviceable hearing in a univariable setting (HR for 1-cm3 increase: 1.36, P = .040) but not after adjusting for PTA and WRS. Tumor growth was not significantly associated with time to nonserviceable hearing (HR, 1.57; P = .14), although estimated rates of maintaining serviceable hearing during observation were poorer in the group that experienced growth. CONCLUSION: Larger initial VS tumor volume was associated with poorer hearing at baseline. Larger initial tumor volume was also associated with the development of nonserviceable hearing during observation in a univariable setting; however, this association was not statistically significant after adjusting for baseline hearing status.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Neuroma Acústico/complicações , Neuroma Acústico/patologia , Carga Tumoral , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Ecol Appl ; 30(4): e02081, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971646

RESUMO

The ability to quantify spatial patterns and detect change in terrestrial vegetation across large landscapes depends on linking ground-based measurements of vegetation to remotely sensed data. Unlike non-overlapping categorical vegetation types (i.e., typical vegetation and land cover maps), species-level gradients of foliar cover are consistent with the ecological theories of individualistic response of species and niche space. We collected foliar cover data for vascular plant, bryophyte, and lichen species and 17 environmental variables in the Arctic Coastal Plain and Brooks Foothills of Alaska from 2012 to 2017. We integrated these data into a standardized database with 13 additional vegetation survey and monitoring data sets in northern Alaska collected from 1998 to 2017. To map the patterns of foliar cover for six dominant and widespread vascular plant species in arctic Alaska, we statistically associated ground-based measurements of species distribution and abundance to environmental and multi-season spectral covariates using a Bayesian statistical learning approach. For five of the six modeled species, our models predicted 36% to 65% of the observed species-level variation in foliar cover. Overall, our continuous foliar cover maps predicted more of the observed spatial heterogeneity in species distribution and abundance than an existing categorical vegetation map. Mapping continuous foliar cover at the species level also revealed ecological patterns obscured by aggregation in existing plant functional type approaches. Species-level analysis of vegetation patterns enables quantifying and monitoring landscape-level changes in species, vegetation communities, and wildlife habitat independently of subjective categorical vegetation types and facilitates integrating spatial patterns across multiple ecological scales. The novel species-level foliar cover mapping approach described here provides spatial information about the functional role of plant species in vegetation communities and wildlife habitat that are not available in categorical vegetation maps or quantitative maps of broadly defined vegetation aggregates.

15.
Laryngoscope ; 130(2): 474-481, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the prevalence and course of cochlear obliteration according to microsurgical approach to inform clinical decision making regarding optimal timing of cochlear implantation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective radiologic review and chart review. METHODS: Patients who underwent microsurgical resection of vestibular schwannoma (VS) with a minimum of two available postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were analyzed. The prevalence and timing of cochlear and labyrinthine obliteration was classified using relevant MRI sequences. RESULTS: MRI studies in 60 patients were analyzed: 20 translabyrinthine (TL), 20 retrosigmoid, and 20 middle fossa (MF) cases. The first and last postoperative MRI was obtained a median of 3.4 months (interquartile range (IQR), 3.0-3.7 months) and 35 months (IQR, 27-83 months) after surgery, respectively. At the time of the first postoperative MRI, 21 (35%) patients had partial basal turn obliteration, and none of the patients had complete basal turn obliteration. At the time of the last postoperative MRI, six (10%) patients had partial basal turn obliteration and 17 (28%) patients had complete basal turn obliteration. The pattern of partial or complete basal turn obliteration differed significantly among all three surgical approaches (P < .001). Specifically, the risk of partial or complete obliteration of the basal turn was highest in the TL cohort and lowest in the MF cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and timing of cochlear obliteration after VS microsurgery varies significantly according to surgical approach. The risk of early and complete obliteration is highest in the TL group and lowest in the MF cohort. These data may inform clinical decision making regarding optimal timing of cochlear implantation in patients with advanced hearing loss after microsurgical resection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:474-481, 2020.

16.
Invest Radiol ; 55(2): 91-100, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantitatively demonstrate radiation dose reduction for sinus and temporal bone examinations using high-resolution photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) with an additional tin (Sn) filter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multienergy CT phantom, an anthropomorphic head phantom, and a cadaver head were scanned on a research PCD-CT scanner using ultra-high-resolution mode at 100-kV tube potential with an additional tin filter (Sn-100 kV) and volume CT dose index of 10 mGy. They were also scanned on a commercial CT scanner with an energy-integrating detector (EID) following standard clinical protocols. Thirty patients referred to clinically indicated sinus examinations, and two patients referred to temporal bone examinations were scanned on the PCD-CT system after their clinical scans on an EID-CT. For the sinus cohort, PCD-CT scans were performed using Sn-100 kV at 4 dose levels at 10 mGy (n = 9), 8 mGy (n = 7), 7 mGy (n = 7), and 6 mGy (n = 7), and the clinical EID-CT was performed at 120 kV and 13.7 mGy (mean CT volume dose index). For the temporal bone scans, PCD-CT was performed using Sn-100 kV (10.1 mGy), and EID-CT was performed at 120 kV and routine clinical dose (52.6 and 66 mGy). For both PCD-CT and EID-CT, sinus images were reconstructed using H70 kernel at 0.75-mm slice thickness, and temporal bone images were reconstructed using a U70 kernel at 0.6-mm slice thickness. In addition, iterative reconstruction with a dedicated sharp kernel (V80) was used to obtain high-resolution PCD-CT images from a sinus patient scan to demonstrate improved anatomic delineation. Improvements in spatial resolution from the dedicated sharp kernel was quantified using modulation transfer function measured with a wire phantom. A neuroradiologist assessed the H70 sinus images for visualization of critical anatomical structures in low-dose PCD-CT images and routine-dose EID-CT images using a 5-point Likert scale (structural detection obscured and poor diagnostic confidence, score = 1; improved anatomic delineation and diagnostic confidence, score = 5). Image contrast and noise were measured in representative regions of interest and compared between PCD-CT and EID-CT, and the noise difference between the 2 acquisitions was used to estimate the dose reduction in the sinus and temporal bone patient cohorts. RESULTS: The multienergy phantom experiment showed a noise reduction of 26% in the Sn-100 kV PCD-CT image, corresponding to a total dose reduction of 56% compared with EID-CT (clinical dose) without compromising image contrast. The PCD-CT images from the head phantom and the cadaver scans demonstrated a dose reduction of 67% and 83%, for sinus and temporal bone examinations, respectively, compared with EID-CT. In the sinus cohort, PCD-CT demonstrated a mean dose reduction of 67%. The 10- and 8-mGy sinus patient images from PCD-CT were significantly superior to clinical EID-CT for visualization of critical sinus structures (median score = 5 ± 0.82 and P = 0.01 for lesser palatine foramina, median score = 4 ± 0.68 and P = 0.039 for nasomaxillary sutures, and median score = 4 ± 0.96 and P = 0.01 for anterior ethmoid artery canal). The 6- and 7-mGy sinus patient images did not show any significant difference between PCD-CT and EID-CT. In addition, V80 (sharp kernel, 10% modulation transfer function = 18.6 cm) PCD-CT images from a sinus patient scan increased the conspicuity of nasomaxillary sutures compared with the clinical EID-CT images. The temporal bone patient images demonstrated a dose reduction of up to 85% compared with clinical EID-CT images, whereas visualization of inner ear structures such as the incudomalleolar joint were similar between EID-CT and PCD-CT. CONCLUSIONS: Phantom and cadaver studies demonstrated dose reduction using Sn-100 kV PCD-CT compared with current clinical EID-CT while maintaining the desired image contrast. Dose reduction was further validated in sinus and temporal bone patient studies. The ultra-high resolution capability from PCD-CT allowed improved anatomical delineation for sinus imaging compared with current clinical standard.

17.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(2): 258-264, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The majority of research influencing our understanding of vestibular schwannoma (VS) comes from large tertiary referral centers, and as a consequence, is inherently prone to referral bias. The objective of the current study was to characterize tertiary referral center bias in VS research. STUDY DESIGN: Single-institution retrospective clinical, audiometric, and radiologic review. SETTING: One tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred twenty-three patients with sporadic VS treated at our institution, consisting of a local cohort of all 41 VS patients residing in the same US county as our medical center and a referral cohort of 82 patients from outside counties matched 2:1 based on age, sex, and year of diagnosis. INTERVENTION: Surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), observation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical manifestations, audiometric and radiologic findings, elected treatment modality. RESULTS: Local patients had significantly longer follow-up after initial presentation compared to referral patients (median 4.0 vs 2.2 yr; p = 0.007). Referral patients were significantly less likely to have an incidental VS diagnosis (1% vs. 29%; p < 0.001) and presented with worse symptomatology such as hearing loss (80% vs. 54%; p = 0.002), dizziness (72% vs. 44%; p = 0.002), headache (29% vs. 15%; p = 0.075), and other cranial nerve dysfunction (11% vs. 0%; p = 0.029). Audiometrically, referral patients had significantly poorer word recognition scores at presentation (median 70% vs. 90%; p = 0.043). Local patients were more likely to have tumors confined to the IAC compared with referral patients, and had significantly smaller tumors when restricted to this region (median 4.0 vs 6.5 mm; p = 0.005). Referral patients were significantly more likely to undergo definitive management with either radiosurgery or microsurgery following primary evaluation compared to local patients (48% vs. 24%; p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the majority of existing literature surrounding VS likely suffers from referral bias, whereby disease characteristics and management decisions are distinct from that of the general VS patient population.

18.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807810

RESUMO

Temporal bone microanatomy is a common source of consternation for radiologists. Serpentine foramina, branching cranial nerves, and bony canals containing often clinically relevant but often miniscule arterial branches may all cause confusion, even among radiologists familiar with temporal bone imaging. In some cases, the tiniest structures may be occult or poorly visualized, even on thin-slice computed tomography (CT) images. Consequently, such structures are often either ignored or mistaken for pathologic entities. Yet even the smallest temporal bone structures have significant anatomic and pathologic importance. This paper reviews the anatomy and function of the temporal bone aqueducts, canals, clefts, and nerves, as well as the relevant developmental, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes that affect each structure.

19.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disease characterized by fibroinflammatory infiltrates rich in IgG4+ plasma cells that can present as isolated tumor-like lesions of the head and neck. The objective of the current study was to describe the cranial base manifestations of IgG4-RD. METHODS: Review of all cases at three tertiary-referral centers since disease description in 2003. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified at a median age at presentation of 58 years (IQR, 38-65; 55% male). Ten (91%) patients had isolated skull base masses without systemic disease. Cranial neuropathies were commonly observed in the abducens (45%), trigeminal (18%), and facial nerves (18%). Lesions frequently involved the cavernous sinus (55%; 6/11) with extension to the petroclival junction in 50% (3/6). Infiltration of the internal auditory canal was present in 27% (3/11) with one case demonstrating erosion of the bony labyrinth. Preliminary clinical diagnoses commonly included nasopharyngeal cancer, pituitary macroadenoma, cholesteatoma, and meningioma / multiple meningioma syndrome. Local biopsy demonstrated >30 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-powered field or an IgG4:IgG ratio greater than 40% in all cases. Rapid and durable clinical improvement was seen in 91% following corticosteroid and rituximab therapy. CONCLUSIONS: IgG4-RD nonspecifically presents as a rare cause of the skull base mass. Often presenting without concomitant systemic disease, local diagnostic biopsies are required. Obtaining adequate tissue specimen is complicated by densely fibrotic cranial base lesions that are frequently in close proximity to critical neurovascular structures. Primary medical therapy with corticosteroids and rituximab is effective in most patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

20.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(6): 547-554, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754594

RESUMO

Background Age, tumor size and location, overall health, and patient preference are primary considerations driving treatment decision-making for intracranial meningiomas. However, even for the same individual patient, treatment recommendations may vary between centers and providers. Objective To study associations between geography, disease presentation, and management of intracranial meningioma in the United States. Methods The population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results(SEER) data were queried between 2004 and 2014 for cases of intracranial meningioma. Results A total of 65,808 patients with intracranial meningioma were identified. Univariate analyses demonstrated strong associations between geographic location, age, and size of tumor at presentation. The mean age for all registries was 64.2 years, with a range from 62.0 (Utah registry) to 66.6 (Detroit registry). The greatest proportion of small tumors (<1 cm) were identified in the Utah registry (13.9% of tumors), while the greatest proportion of large tumors (> 4cm) were noted in the Hawaii registry (30.7% of tumors). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the impact of geography on treatment selection was just as important as other established variables. For example, the distribution in tumor size between New Mexico and Greater California registries is nearly identical; however, the odds ratio for surgery was 1.5 times greater for the New Mexico population. Conclusion These data suggest that disease presentation and treatment are significantly influenced by regional referral patterns, provider or institutional treatment preferences, and regional availability of subspecialty expertise. Understanding such biases is important for patients, referring physicians, and treatment providers in an effort to provide balanced counseling and treatment.

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