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1.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507710

RESUMO

Spinal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a rare mesenchymal malignancy. Radiographically, SFT/HPCs have a mutable appearance, with irregular borders, heterogeneous contrast enhancement, and variable but frequently hypointense T2 signal. We report a series of 5 neurosurgically managed spinal SFT/HPCs treated at our institution, with particular attention to 3 lesions demonstrating marked T2-hypointensity and differential diagnosis for the unusual finding of a "T2 dark" spinal lesion. Retrospective chart review of prospectively maintained surgical database, queried by diagnosis and site codes, 2002-2017. Retrospective radiographic review, with initial screening via keyword search of MR reports for "T2" and "hypointense." Four primary and one metastatic spinal SFT/HPCs were operatively treated during the study period (median follow-up 12 months; range 10-92). Three demonstrated marked T2 hypointensity on preoperative MRI, underwent primary resection-GTR in two, STR in one-and have remained progression-free on routine postoperative surveillance. Two patients with isointense lesions recurred within the follow-up period. Radiographic review identified a host of predominantly rare T2-hypointense lesions, including arteriovenous malformation, disk fragmentations, calcific arachnoiditis, calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis, cavernoma, cord hemorrhage/acute blood, desmoid, granulocytic sarcoma, pigmented villonodular synovitis, Edheim-Chester, extramedullary hematopoiesis, IgG4-negative inflammatory pseudotumor, idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis, B-cell lymphoma, primary melanoma neoplasm, melanotic schwannoma, meningioma, opacification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, osteoblastoma, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, and synovial cyst. T2 hypointensity is associated with SFT/HPC, and may be an indicator relative indolence. "Dark" T2 spinal lesions are rare, with a narrow differential populated predominantly by rare entities.

3.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(13): E808-E812, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539294

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Review. OBJECTIVE: To provide practicing spine surgeons a primer with key insights for reading, interpreting, and clinically integrating systematic reviews and meta-analyses. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to a family of standardized techniques for critical appraisal of clinical research. Within the contemporary spine literature, EBM is most commonly encountered in the form of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Although these analytic techniques are potentially useful when appropriately applied to well-formulated questions with adequate primary data in the literature, the rapid and somewhat indiscriminate increase in volume of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published may be associated with an overall dilution in their quality, as well as misperceptions regarding the applicability of particular EBM studies to spine surgery in general. METHODS: The collective experience of spine specialists with vested interests in advancing EBM and its utility was summarized into a primer. RESULTS: We emphasize components that are pertinent methodologically (search strategy, study number, meta-analysis, bias, and certainty), and pertinent clinically (outcomes) to interpreting, and clinically integrating systematic reviews and meta-analyses into spine surgery practice. CONCLUSIONS: Armed with these insights into these five perspectives, we anticipate that practicing spine surgeons will be better equipped to interpret systematic reviews and meta-analyses in a fashion that will meaningfully impact their patient care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.

5.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Departments of neurosurgery in the United States have had a long history of hosting international visitors for the advancement of their neurosurgical education. The goal of the present study was to determine the existence of a geographic profile of international visitors for education purposes, both students and graduates, to the United States through the anecdotal experience of 1 department to explore the reach and worth of hosting such opportunities. METHODS: Administrative records were retrospectively reviewed for international visitors over the preceding 10 years, 2009-2019, were surveyed at 1 institution. Visitors were grouped as either medical students or graduates, visiting for clinical or research purposes. Geographic trends were compared using the Pearson chi-squared test. RESULTS: We identified 128 visitors from 33 countries during the study period. The most common home countries were Italy (10%), China (9%), and India (7%). The cohort involved 62 (48%) students and 66 (52%) graduates, and 59 (46%) and 69 (54%) visited for clinical and research purposes, respectively. The geographic distribution of student versus graduate visitors was statistically significant by region (P < 0.01). However, the geographic distribution of clinical versus research visitors was not statistically different by region (P = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be international appeal worldwide to participate in neurosurgical education in the United States. At our institution, every geographic region was represented in our most recent decade of experience. International visitor profiles appear to be associated with particular geographic patterns depending on their status as either a medical student or graduate.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e383-e388, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery residency in the United States is highly sought after by many international medical graduates (IMGs), and the geographic distribution of IMG candidates who have successfully matched has not been quantitatively explored to date. The aim of this study was to highlight the countries in which successfully matched IMG residents obtained their medical degrees and the states of their respective residency destinations. METHODS: All available resident lists of approved neurosurgical residency programs within the United States with at least 7 years of history were reviewed for IMGs in the most currently updated rosters. Demographic and geographic characteristics were summarized. RESULTS: A total of 1393 current neurosurgical residents in U.S. residency programs were identified from 99 programs across 39 states. Of 1393 residents, 87 were IMGs (6%). The IMG contingent originated from 39 countries, the most common of which was Lebanon (n = 14/87 [16%]). The Middle East was the most represented geographic region (n = 23/87 [26%]). The states with the highest number of IMGs were Kentucky, New York, and Texas (all n = 7/87 [8%]). CONCLUSIONS: IMGs constitute a small but appreciable portion of current neurosurgical residents in U.S. training programs. Particular countries have contributed more IMGs to neurosurgical programs than others, and particular states have higher counts and proportions of IMG residents than others. These outcomes are not geographically homogeneous, and the mechanisms by which IMG applicants successfully match to U.S. neurosurgery programs require more biographic granularity to elucidate.

7.
Neurosurgery ; 86(2): 250-256, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a common treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma (VS), with a role in primary and recurrent/progressive algorithms. At our institution, routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is obtained at 6 and 12 mo following SRS for VS. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the safety and financial impact of eliminating the 6-mo post-SRS MRI in asymptomatic VS patients. METHODS: A prospectively maintained SRS database was retrospectively reviewed for VS patients with 1 yr of post-treatment follow-up, 2005 to 2015. Decisions at 6-mo MRI were binarily categorized as routine follow-up vs clinical action-defined as a clinical visit, additional imaging, or an operation as a direct result of the 6-mo study. RESULTS: A total of 296 patients met screening criteria, of whom 53 were excluded for incomplete follow-up and 8 for NF-2. Nine were reimaged prior to 6 mo due to clinical symptoms. Routine 6-mo post-SRS MRI was completed by 226 patients (76% of screened cohort), following from which zero instances of clinical action occurred. When scaled using national insurance database-derived financials-which estimated the mean per-study charge for MRI of the brain with and without contrast at $1767-the potential annualized national charge reduction was approximated as $1 611 504. CONCLUSION: For clinically stable VS, 6-mo post-SRS MRI does not contribute significantly to management. We recommend omitting routine MRI before 12 mo, in patients without new or progressive neurological symptoms. If extrapolated nationally to the more than 100 active SRS centers, thousands of patients would be spared an inconvenient, nonindicated study, and national savings in health care dollars would be on the order of millions annually.

8.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845199

RESUMO

Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is a potentially morbid sequela of decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Subdural hygromas are commonly identified following decompressive craniectomy, but the clinical relevance and predictive relationship with PTH in this patient cohort is not completely understood. Survey of seven electronic databases from inception to June 2019 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) for PTH by the presence of subdural hygroma were extracted and pooled by meta-analysis of proportions with random effects modeling. We systematically identified nine pertinent studies describing outcomes of 1010 TBI patients managed by decompressive craniectomy. Of the overall cohort, there were 211 (21%) females and median age was 37.5 years (range 33-53). On presentation, median Glasgow Coma Scale was 7 (range, 5-8). In sum, PTH was reported in 228/840 (27%) cases, and subdural hygroma was reported in 449/1010 (44%) cases across all studies. Pooling multivariate-derived HRs indicated that subdural hygroma was a significant, independent predictor of PTH (HR, 7.1; 95% CI, 3.3-15.1). The certainty of this association was deemed low due to heterogeneity concerns. The presence of subdural hygroma is associated with increased risk of PTH after decompressive craniectomy among TBI patients based on the current literature and may mandate closer clinical surveillance when detected. Prospective studies, including those of intracranial hydrodynamics following decompressive craniectomy in the setting of TBI, will better validate the certainty of these findings.

10.
Cureus ; 11(9): e5595, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700708

RESUMO

Nelson-Salassa Syndrome (NSS) is a rare sequela of bilateral adrenalectomy as a treatment for persistent hypercortisolism in refractory Cushing disease (CD). Radiographic NSS has been observed in half of CD patients after adrenalectomy, yet often follows a mild course and rarely requires treatment. We present the case of a 44-year-old male with a history of CD who underwent primary treatments including transsphenoidal resection, radiotherapy, and bilateral adrenalectomy. He subsequently presented with acute vision loss and progressive somnolence. MRI revealed marked enlargement of an invasive sellar and suprasellar lesion exerting significant mass effect on the chiasm, and multiple new enhancing bony lesions. The patient was taken for emergent transsphenoidal resection and calvarial biopsy; visual function was restored postoperatively, and pathologic analysis confirmed pituitary carcinoma. While NSS typically follows an indolent course, pituitary carcinoma is a highly morbid metastatic disease, and has been theorized to occur at a higher frequency in the NSS population. We review all published cases of NSS to pituitary carcinoma progression, which further underscores the highly aggressive nature and considerable mortality of this patient cohort. Although mild, asymptomatic NSS is more commonly observed, symptomatic patients or those with rapid growth after adrenalectomy, should be targeted for routine close clinical follow-up and serial radiographic surveillance.

11.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604323

RESUMO

Pediatric pituitary adenomas (PPAs) are rare neoplasms with a propensity for unusual presentations and an aggressive clinical course. Here, the authors describe 6 highly atypical PPAs to highlight this tendency and discuss unexpected management challenges.A 14-year-old girl presented with acute hemiparesis and aphasia. MRI revealed a pituitary macroadenoma causing internal carotid artery invasion/obliteration without acute apoplexy, which was treated via emergent transsphenoidal resection (TSR). Another 14-year-old girl developed precocious galactorrhea due to macroprolactinoma, which was medically managed. Several years later, she re-presented with acute, severe, bitemporal hemianopia during her third trimester of pregnancy, requiring emergent induction of labor followed by TSR. A 13-year-old boy was incidentally diagnosed with a prolactinoma after routine orthodontic radiographs captured a subtly abnormal sella. An 18-year-old male self-diagnosed pituitary gigantism through a school report on pituitary disease. A 17-year-old boy was diagnosed with Cushing disease by his basketball coach, a former endocrinologist. A 12-year-old girl with growth arrest and weight gain was diagnosed with Cushing disease, which was initially treated via TSR but subsequently recurred and ultimately required 12 operations, 5 radiation treatments involving 3 modalities, bilateral adrenalectomy, and chemotherapy. Despite these efforts, she ultimately died from pituitary carcinoma.

12.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ganglioglioma is a low-grade central nervous system neoplasm with a pediatric predominance, accounting for 10% of all brain tumors in children. Gangliogliomas of the cervicomedullary junction (GGCMJs) and brainstem (GGBSs) present a host of management challenges, including a significant risk of surgical morbidity. At present, understanding of the prognostic factors-including BRAF V600E status-is incomplete. Here, the authors report a single-institution GGCMJ and GGBS experience and review the pertinent literature. METHODS: A prospectively maintained neurosurgical database at a large tertiary care academic referral center was retrospectively queried for cases of GGCMJ pathologically confirmed in the period from 1995 to 2015; appropriate cases were defined by diagnosis codes and keywords. Secondary supplemental chart review was conducted to confirm or capture relevant data. The primary study outcome was treatment failure as defined by evidence of radiographic recurrence or progression and/or clinical or functional decline. A review of the literature was conducted as well. RESULTS: Five neurosurgically managed GGBS patients were identified, and the neoplasms in 4 were classified as GGCMJ. All 5 patients were younger than 18 years old (median 15 years, range 4-16 years) and 3 (60%) were female. One patient underwent gross-total resection, 2 underwent aggressive subtotal resection (STR), and 2 underwent stereotactic biopsy only. All patients who had undergone STR or biopsy required repeat resection for tumor control or progression. Progressive disease was treated with radiotherapy in 2 patients, chemotherapy in 2, and chemoradiotherapy alone in 1. Immunostaining for BRAF V600E was positive in 3 patients (60%). All 5 patients experienced at least one major complication, including wound infection, foot drop, hemiparesis, quadriparesis, cranial neuropathy, C2-3 subluxation, syringomyelia, hydrocephalus, aspiration, and coma. Overall mortality was 20%, with 1 death observed over 11 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: GGBS and GGCMJ are rare, benign posterior fossa tumors that carry significant perioperative morbidity. Contemporary management strategies are heterogeneous and include combinations of resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The BRAF V600E mutation is frequently observed in GGBS and GGCMJ and appears to have both prognostic and therapeutic significance with targeted biological agents.

13.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated as pathologic actors in phenotypically aggressive vestibular schwannoma (VS), potentially mediated via programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). The authors hypothesized that PD-L1 is a key regulator of the VS immune microenvironment. METHODS: Forty-six consecutive, radiation-naïve, sporadic VSs that were subtotally resected at primary surgery were assessed via immunohistochemical analysis, including analysis of CD163 and PD-L1 expression. Pathologic data were correlated with clinical endpoints, including tumor control, facial nerve function, and complications. RESULTS: Baseline parameters were equivalent between stable and progressive post-subtotal resection (STR) VS. CD163 percent positivity and M2 index were significantly increased among tumors that remained stable (34% vs 21%, p = 0.02; 1.13 vs 0.99, p = 0.0008), as well as patients with favorable House-Brackmann grade I or II facial nerve function (31% vs 13%, p = 0.04; 1.11 vs 0.97, p = 0.05). PD-L1 percent positivity was significantly associated with tumor progression (1% vs 11%, p = 0.01) and unfavorable House-Brackmann grade III-VI facial nerve function (1% vs 38%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, PD-L1 was independently significant in all models (likelihood ratio 4.4, p = 0.04), while CD163 was dependent in all iterations. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to prior reports, in this study, the authors observed significantly increased levels of M1, CD163+ TAMs in association with VS that progressed after STR. Progressive tumors are characterized by increased PD-L1, potentially highlighting a mechanism of immune evasion that results in TAM deactivation, tumor growth, and further infiltration of anti-tumor immune cells. Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 may offer therapeutic promise, particularly in the setting of disease control after STR.

14.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(4): 338-351, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316880

RESUMO

Introduction Although numerous anatomical and operative atlases have been published, those that have focused on the skull base either have provided views that are quite difficult to achieve in the operating room to better depict surgical anatomy or are written at the level of an audience with considerable knowledge and experience. Methods Five sides of three formalin-fixed latex-injected specimens were dissected under microscopic magnification. A posterior petrosectomy approach was performed by three neurosurgical residents at different training levels with limited previous experience in anatomical dissection mentored by the senior authors (C. L. W. D. and M. J. L.) and a clinical skull base fellow with additional anatomical dissection experience (M. P. C.). Anatomical dissections were performed until the expected level of dissection quality was achieved to demonstrate each important step of the surgical approach that would be understandable to all trainees of all levels. Following dissection education, representative case applications were reviewed. Results The posterior petrosectomy (also known as presigmoid retrolabyrinthine approach) affords excellent access to cranial nerves III to XI and a diverse array of pathologies. Key steps include positioning and skin incision, scalp and muscle flaps, burr holes, craniotomy flap elevation, superficial mastoidectomy, otic capsule exposure and presigmoid dura decompression, primary presigmoid durotomy, inferior temporal durotomy, superior petrosal sinus ligation, tentorium sectioning, and final exposure. Conclusion The posterior petrosectomy is a challenging approach; thorough operative-style laboratory dissection is essential to provide trainees with a suitable guide. We describe a comprehensive approach to learning this technique, intended to be understandable and usable by a resident audience.

15.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and aneurysm rebleeding contribute to morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH); however, the relationship between their impacts on overall functional outcome is incompletely understood. METHODS: The authors conducted a cohort study of all aSAH during the study period from 2001 to 2016. Primary end points were overall functional outcome and ischemic aSAH sequelae, defined as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), DCI with infarction, symptomatic vasospasm (SV), and global cerebral edema (GCE). Outcomes were compared between the rebleed and nonrebleed cohorts overall and after propensity-score matching (PSM) for risk factors and treatment modality. Univariate and multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses for functional outcomes were performed in the PSM cohort to identify predictors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five aSAH cases admitted within 24 hours of aneurysm rupture were included, of which 411 (90%) experienced initial aneurysm ruptures only, while 44 (10%) had clinically confirmed rebleeding. In the overall cohort, rebleeding was associated with significantly worse functional outcome, longer intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), and GCE (all p < 0.01); treatment modality, overall LOS, DCI, DCI with infarction, and SV were nonsignificant. In the PSM analysis of 43 matched rebleed and 43 matched nonrebleed cases, only poor functional outcome and GCE remained significantly associated with rebleeding (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Multivariate regression identified that both rebleeding (HR 21.5, p < 0.01) and DCI (HR 10.1, p = 0.01) independently predicted poor functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Rebleeding and DCI after aSAH are highly morbid and potentially deadly events after aSAH, which appear to have independent negative impacts on overall functional outcome. Early rebleeding did not significantly affect the risk of delayed ischemic complications.

16.
World Neurosurg ; 131: e128-e135, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has gained popularity as an alternative to microsurgery (MS) for transsphenoidal resection (TSR), numerous studies have attempted to assess the differential risk of internal carotid artery (ICA) injury between the techniques, yet results have been equivocal and contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICA injury in MS versus EEA among highly experienced neurosurgeons. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of publications from 2002-2017 reporting ICA injury outcomes in ≥250 cases using MS or EEA. RESULTS: Seventeen series reporting 11,149 patients were included: 3 MS series, 13 EEA series, and 1 series with adequate samples for each. ICA injury incidences were 0.0%-1.6% in cohorts of 275-3000. MS series documented 5 ICA injuries in 2672 operations, for an overall incidence of 0.2% (range, 0.0%-0.4%), and EEA series reported 30 ICA injuries in 8477 operations, for a 0.4% injury rate (range, 0.0%-1.6%); the difference was nonsignificant (P = 0.25). Increased operative experience was associated with decreased incidence of ICA injury, a finding preserved in the overall study cohort and within discretely examined MS and EEA subgroups (overall r2 = 0.08, MS r2 = 0.23, EEA r2 = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: ICA injury is the most serious complication of TSR of pituitary neoplasms. Operator inexperience may be a more important risk factor than choice of surgical technique, given the comparably low rates of injury obtained by highly experienced surgeons independent of technique. This emphasizes the need for consolidated care in pituitary centers of excellence, improvement of high-fidelity simulators, and skull base mentorship between senior and junior staff.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Artéria Carótida Interna , Microcirurgia/efeitos adversos , Neuroendoscopia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Curva de Aprendizado , Cavidade Nasal , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos
17.
World Neurosurg ; 130: 133-137, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eisenmenger syndrome is a rare sequela of uncorrected congenital heart disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension, from which reversal of the pathologic left-to-right cardiovascular shunt and cyanosis follow. Right-to-left shunting can lead to paradoxical cerebral emboli-increasing the risk of spontaneous or iatrogenic stroke and cerebral abscess. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 38-year-old man presented with new focal seizures due to a brain abscess. Ventricular septal defect and pulmonary hypertension were identified. Despite dexamethasone and broad-spectrum antibiotics, he developed hemiparesis and altered mental status and required emergent stereotactic abscess drainage. Despite the anesthetic hazards of Eisenmenger syndrome, the procedure was successful and the patient recovered completely. CONCLUSIONS: Noncardiac perioperative mortality in Eisenmenger syndrome is historically reported up to 19%, and risks are further increased with prolonged case duration or hypotension, mandating vigilant attention to volume status. Correspondingly, shorter- or lower-risk procedures such as stereotactic drainage are recommended. Procedures should be performed only at centers with expertise in management of Eisenmenger syndrome and cardiac-specialized anesthesiologists whenever possible. Although a conservative approach with early, aggressive medical management is preferred, operative intervention may be required in the setting of progressive deterioration and excellent postoperative outcomes are achievable.


Assuntos
Complexo de Eisenmenger/cirurgia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Hipotensão/cirurgia , Adulto , Abscesso Encefálico/complicações , Abscesso Encefálico/cirurgia , Complexo de Eisenmenger/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Comunicação Interventricular/complicações , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/complicações , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos
18.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Radiation dose to the cochlea has been proposed as a key prognostic factor in hearing preservation following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS). However, understanding of the predictive value of cochlear dose on hearing outcomes following SRS for patients with non-VS tumors of the lateral skull base (LSB) is incomplete. The authors investigated rates of hearing loss following high-dose SRS in patients with LSB non-VS lesions compared with patients with VS. METHODS: Patients with LSB meningioma or jugular paraganglioma and serviceable pretreatment hearing who underwent SRS treatment during 2007-2016 and received a modiolus dose > 5 Gy were included in a retrospective cohort study, along with a similarly identified control group of consecutive patients with sporadic VS. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with non-VS tumors and a control group of 43 patients with VS met study criteria. Serviceable hearing, defined as American Academy of Otololaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery class A/B, was maintained in 13 non-VS versus 23 VS patients (81% vs 56%, p = 0.07). All 3 instances of hearing loss in non-VS patients were observed in cerebellopontine angle (CPA) meningiomas. Non-VS with preserved hearing had a median modiolus dose of 6.9 Gy (range 5.7-19.2 Gy), versus 7.4 Gy (range 5.4-7.6 Gy) in those patients with post-SRS hearing loss (p = 0.53). Sporadic VS patients received an overall median modiolus point-dose of 6.8 Gy (range 5.4-11.7 Gy). CONCLUSIONS: The modiolus dose threshold of 5 Gy does not predict hearing loss in patients with non-VS tumors undergoing SRS, suggesting that dosimetric parameters derived from VS may not be applicable to this population. Differential rates of hearing loss appear to vary by pathology, with paragangliomas and petroclival meningiomas demonstrating decreased risk of hearing loss compared to CPA meningiomas that may directly compress the cochlear nerve similarly to VS.

19.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 17(1): E12-E13, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197348

RESUMO

Selected upper cerebellopontine angle (CPA)/petroclival region lesions can be visualized and resected through a middle fossa approach with anterior petrosectomy. This approach is particularly well suited for tumors that extend from the CPA into Meckel's cave or the middle cranial fossa. We present the case of a 55-yr-old man who presented with sudden left-sided hearing loss, with complete recovery after medical treatment. MRI demonstrated a left 1.8 cm contrast-enhancing upper CPA lesion with extension into Meckel's cave most consistent with a trigeminal schwannoma. The patient initially opted for observation. MRI 11 mo later showed notable enlargement in the tumor, and the patient started to experience left-sided neuralgic face pain. The decision was made to perform surgery. Documented and verified informed consent was obtained A step-by-step surgical video with surgical anatomy images highlights the 5 steps followed by the authors to perform an anterior petrosectomy. The dura mater was opened parallel to the superior petrosal sinus both in the infratentorial and supratentorial spaces in order to clip and coagulate the superior petrosal sinus and divide the tentorium. The lesion was fully visualized and the trigeminal nerve was clearly identified displaced inferiorly but not splayed by the tumor, making the diagnosis of trigeminal schwannoma unlikely. The lesion was debulked and dissected off the brainstem as well as the trigeminal nerve with the final view of intact nerve fascicles entering the posterior aspect of Meckel's cave. Pathology returned as a WHO grade 1 meningioma. The patient recovered well with only mild facial hypesthesia and complete tumor resection on follow-up imaging.

20.
Cureus ; 11(3): e4176, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093475

RESUMO

Schwannomas are common benign neoplasms of the myelinating cells surrounding peripheral nerve axons. Though uncommon, lesions arising in the cervical spine may produce radicular pain and myelopathic weakness. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune disorder with the capacity to mimic nearly any neurologic disease, including spinal cord neoplasms. We report the third case of synchronously presenting primary progressive MS and spinal schwannoma. A 65-year-old man presented with six months of progressive weakness and pain of the right shoulder, forearm, and hand. MRI demonstrated a contrast-enhancing transforaminal lesion at C7, most consistent with a benign nerve sheath tumor. Additional history disclosed several years of worsening fatigue, accompanied by bilateral weakness and lancinating leg pain. MRI of the neuraxis demonstrated abnormalities consistent with chronic demyelinating disease intracranially and within the spinal cord; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed nine oligoclonal bands and an elevated IgG index, resulting in the diagnosis of MS. Given the symptomatic C7 lesion, the patient subsequently underwent right C6-C7 facetectomy, gross total resection of the tumor, and C6-T1 posterior instrumented fusion. Postoperatively, the patient rapidly recovered normal right upper extremity function, and pathology confirmed benign schwannoma. Synchronously presenting co-morbid neurologic diagnoses are exceedingly rare. Nonetheless, the high incidence and protean nature of MS make it particularly susceptible to such confounding clinical cases. Correspondingly, MS should be considered when neurologic abnormalities are not compatible with a focal radiographic lesion, and the present report emphasizes the value of a good history and exam in unraveling similarly challenging cases.

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