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1.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(6): 1137-1146, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging literature suggests that measures of social vulnerability should be incorporated into surgical risk calculators. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) is a measure designed by the CDC that encompasses 15 socioeconomic and demographic variables at the census tract level. We examined whether adding the SVI into a parsimonious surgical risk calculator would improve model performance. STUDY DESIGN: The eight-variable Surgical Risk Preoperative Assessment System (SURPAS), developed using the entire American College of Surgeons (ACS) NSQIP database, was applied to local ACS-NSQIP data from 2012 to 2018 to predict 12 postoperative outcomes. Patient addresses were geocoded and used to estimate the SVI, which was then added to the model as a ninth predictor variable. Brier scores and c-indices were compared for the models with and without the SVI. RESULTS: The analysis included 31,222 patients from five hospitals. Brier scores were identical for eight outcomes and improved by only one to two points in the fourth decimal place for four outcomes with addition of the SVI. Similarly, c-indices were not significantly different (p values ranged from 0.15 to 0.96). Of note, the SVI was associated with most of the eight SURPAS predictor variables, suggesting that SURPAS may already indirectly capture this important risk factor. CONCLUSION: The eight-variable SURPAS prediction model was not significantly improved by adding the SVI, showing that this parsimonious tool functions well without including a measure of social vulnerability.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Vulnerabilidade Social , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Surg Res ; 279: 72-76, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The American Medical Association recently declared homicides of transgender individuals an epidemic. However, transgender homicide victims are often classified as nontransgender. Our objective was to describe existing data and coding of trans (i.e., transgender) victims and to examine the risk factors for homicides of trans people relative to nontrans people across the United States. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Violent Death Reporting System for the years 2003-2018 identified victims defined as transgender either through the "transgender" variable or narrative reports. Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression models were run to compare the demographics of trans victims to those not identified as trans. RESULTS: Of the 147 transgender victims identified, 14.4% were incorrectly coded as nontrans despite clear indication of trans status in the narrative description, and 6% were coded as hate crimes. Relative to nontrans victims, trans victims were more frequently Black (54.4% versus 40.7%, P = 0.001), had a mental health condition (26.5% versus 11.3%, P < 0.001), or reported being a sex worker (9.5% versus 0.2%, P < 0.001). There were disproportionately few homicides of transgender people in the South (13.6% of trans victims versus 29.1% of nontrans victims, P < 0.001). Conversely, the West and Midwest accounted for a higher-than-expected proportion of trans victims relative to nontrans victims (23.1% of trans victims versus 16.2% of nontrans victims, P = 0.03; 24.5% of trans victims versus 16.8% of nontrans victims, P = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Though the murder of transgender individuals is a known public health crisis, inconsistencies still exist in the assessment and reporting of transgender status. Further, these individuals were more likely to have multiple distinct vulnerabilities. These findings provide important information for injury and violence prevention researchers to improve reporting of transgender status in the medical record and local trauma registries.

3.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Screening colonoscopy is one of the few procedures that can prevent cancer. While the majority of colonoscopies in the USA are performed by gastroenterologists, general surgeons play a key role in at-risk, rural populations. The aim of this study was to examine geographic practice patterns in colonoscopy using a nationwide Medicare claims database. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The 2017 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment database was used to identify physicians performing colonoscopy. Providers were classified as gastroenterologists, surgeons, ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs), or other. Rural-Urban Commuting Area classification at the zip code level was used to determine whether the practice location for an individual provider was in a rural area/small town (< 10,000 people), micropolitan area (10-50,000 people), or metropolitan area (> 50,000 people). RESULTS: Claims data from 3,861,187 colonoscopy procedures on Medicare patients were included. The majority of procedures were performed by gastroenterologists (57.2%) and ASCs (32.1%). Surgeons performed 6.8% of cases overall. When examined at a zip code level, surgeons performed 51.6% of procedures in small towns/rural areas and 21.7% of procedures in micropolitan areas. Individual surgeons performed fewer annual procedures as compared to gastroenterologists (median 51 vs. 187, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons perform the majority of colonoscopies in rural zip codes on Medicare patients. High-quality, surgical training in endoscopy is essential to ensure access to colonoscopy for patients outside of major metropolitan areas.

4.
Urology ; 163: 49, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636854
5.
J Trauma Nurs ; 29(3): 105-110, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma programs are required to collect a uniform set of trauma variables and submit data to regional, state, and or national registries. Programs may also collect unique data elements to support hospital-specific initiatives. OBJECTIVE: This study explored what additional data elements are being collected by U.S. trauma programs and the impact of having a hospital-specific data dictionary. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional survey exploring what additional data are being collected, and the impact of having a hospital-specific data dictionary, was distributed by the Society of Trauma Nurses, Trauma System News, and the American College of Surgeons. The survey was open from July 2020 to September, 2020. RESULTS: There were 693 respondents from approximately 368 Level I/II trauma programs. The estimated trauma center response rate was 59.4% (n = 368/620). Level I programs had a higher response rate than Level II programs (66.9% and 53.4%, respectively).In our sample, 85.5% of responding centers collect additional data. The most common additional data collected at Level I/II programs concerned quality improvement initiatives (70.3% and 66.1%, respectively). Other commonly collected data pertained to deaths (60.6%) and complications (50.3%).Only 43% of responding centers (n = 161/368) have a hospital-specific data dictionary. Hospitals that collect additional data were more likely to have such a resource compared with those that do not (n = 147/315, 46.7% vs. n = 14/53, 26.4%, p = .01). CONCLUSION: Most trauma programs collect data outside required fields. Fewer than half define these data in a data dictionary. Centers should consider establishing a data dictionary to define data collected.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Centros de Traumatologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477806

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Use of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) for weight loss has grown exponentially; however, clear indications for SG versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RNYGB) are lacking. Certain populations may be more likely to undergo SG due to its simpler technique and without clear clinical indications. We aim to examine underlying predictors of patients undergoing SG vs RNY across a single state. METHODS: We queried the Colorado All Payers Claim Database for patients undergoing laparoscopic SG or RNY. Patient-level variables included patient demographics, comorbidities, distance traveled for surgery, and distressed communities index (DCI), a zip code-based measure of socioeconomic status. Hospital-level variables included annual bariatric surgery volume, academic status, and whether hospitals were a bariatric Center of Excellence. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression adjusting for demographics, insurance coverage, and comorbidities to compare odds of undergoing SG vs RNY, with a random effect for hospital. RESULTS: 5,017 patients were included with 3,042 (60.6%) undergoing SG and 1,975 (39.4%) undergoing RNY. On multivariable analysis, patients with a high DCI were not more likely to undergo a SG (OR 1.18, CI 0.89-1.55, p = 0.25). However, patients who underwent surgery at hospitals serving the greatest proportion of those from highly distressed communities were significantly more likely to undergo SG (OR 4.22, CI 1.38-12.96, p = 0.01). Patients managed at Bariatric Centers of Excellence were less likely to undergo SG (OR 0.22, CI 0.07-0.62, p = 0.005). Patients with higher BMI, diabetes, or GERD were all more likely to undergo RNY. CONCLUSION: While patients with high DCI were more likely to undergo SG on univariate analysis, these associations disappeared after addition of a hospital-level random effect, suggesting that disparities may be due access to surgeons or systems with preference for one procedure. However, hospitals serving a higher proportion of high-DCI patients are more likely to utilize SG.

7.
Am J Surg ; 224(1 Pt A): 100-105, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood measures of social vulnerability encompassing multiple sociodemographic factors can be used to quantify disparities in outcomes. We hypothesize patients with high Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) are at increased risk of morbidity following colectomy. METHODS: We used local 2012-2017 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data to study colectomy patients, examining associations between SVI and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: We included 976 patients from five hospitals. High SVI (>75th percentile) was associated with increased postoperative morbidity on unadjusted analysis (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.35-2.52, p < 0.001); this association persisted after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.15-2.31, p = 0.005). The association with SVI was not significant after adjusting for perioperative risk modifiers such as emergent presentation (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.95-1.98, p = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: High social vulnerability is associated with increased postoperative complications. This effect appears mediated by perioperative risk factors, suggesting potential to improve outcomes by facilitating timely surgical intervention.

8.
Surg Endosc ; 36(6): 4290-4298, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ileal Crohn's disease (CD) complicated by intraabdominal abscess, phlegmon, fistula, and/or microperforation is commonly treated with antibiotics, bowel rest, and percutaneous drainage followed by interval ileocolic resection (ICR). This "cool off" strategy is intended to facilitate the safe completion of a one-stage resection using a minimally invasive approach and minimize perioperative complications. There is limited data evaluating the benefits of delayed versus early resection. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) database at a tertiary center was queried from 2013-2020 to identify patients who underwent ICR for complicated ileal CD confirmed on preoperative imaging. ICR cohorts were classified as early (≤ 7 days) vs delayed (> 7 days) based on the interval from diagnostic imaging to surgery. Operative approach and 30-day postoperative morbidity were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 474 patients who underwent ICR over the 7-year period, 112 patients had complicated ileal CD including 99 patients (88%) with intraabdominal abscess. Early ICR was performed in 52 patients (46%) at a median of 3 days (IQR 2, 5) from diagnostic imaging. Delayed ICR was performed in 60 patients (54%) following a median "cool off" period of 23 days of non-operative treatment (IQR 14, 44), including preoperative percutaneous abscess drainage in 17 patients (28%). A higher proportion of patients with intraabdominal abscess underwent delayed vs early ICR (57% vs 43%, p = 0.19). Overall, there were no significant differences in the rate of laparoscopy (96% vs 90%), conversion to open surgery (12% vs 17%), rates of extended bowel resection (8% vs 13%), additional concurrent procedures (44% vs 52%), or fecal diversion (10% vs 2%) in the early vs delayed ICR groups. The median postoperative length of stay was 5 days in both groups with an overall 25% vs 17% (p = 0.39) 30-day postoperative complication rate and a 6% vs 5% 30-day readmission rate in early vs delayed ICR groups, respectively. Overall median follow-up time was 14.3 months (IQR 1.2, 24.1) with no difference in the rate of subsequent CD-related intestinal resection (4% vs 5%) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary series, at a high-volume tertiary referral center, a "cool off" delayed resectional approach was not found to reduce perioperative complications in patients undergoing ICR for complicated ileal Crohn's disease. Laparoscopic ICR can be performed within one week of diagnosis with low rates of conversion and postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Abscesso Abdominal , Doença de Crohn , Laparoscopia , Abscesso Abdominal/etiologia , Abscesso Abdominal/cirurgia , Abscesso/etiologia , Abscesso/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Surg Res ; 270: 522-529, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates for sexual minorities are higher than the heterosexual population. The purpose of this study is to explore circumstances surrounding suicide completion to inform future intervention strategies for suicide among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We completed a retrospective analysis of data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) from 2013-2017. Victims identified as transgender were considered separately. We stratified analysis by identified sex of the victim for the LGB population. RESULTS: Of the 16,831 victims whose sexual orientation or transgender status was known: 3886 (23.1%) were identified as female, 12,945 (76.9%) were identified as male. 479 (2.8%) were identified as LGBT; of these, 53 (11%) were transgender. LGBT victims were younger than non-LGBT victims. Male LGB victims were more likely to have a history of prior suicide attempts, past or current mental illness diagnosis, and were less likely to use firearms than male heterosexual victims. Female LGB victims were more likely to have problems in an intimate partner relationship than heterosexual women, while LGB men were more likely to have problems in family or other relationships. Transgender victims were again more likely to have mental health problems and a history of prior attempts, but less likely to have intimate partner problems and more likely to have a history of child abuse. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of promoting suicide interventions that recognize the complex intersection between stated gender, sex, and sexuality and the different cultural impacts these identities can have.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sexual
10.
Am J Surg ; 223(1): 112-119, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural factors limiting access to surgical care require elucidation. We hypothesize transportation time to hospitals with surgical capacity disproportionately burdens minority populations. METHODS: We identified hospitals with surgical capacity within a 20-mile radius of our city center. Using geocoding, we estimated travel times from each census tract to the nearest facility by car or public bus. RESULTS: For 143 tracts within the county, drive time was 13 ± 4 min and bus time was 33 ± 15 min. Only 41.2% of the population had a facility within 30 min by bus; access was further diminished for those with minority race/ethnicity and/or no insurance. Bus time was associated with percent minority population in a census tract: for each 10% increase in minority population there was a 4.3-min increase in bus time (p < 0.001) when controlling for socioeconomic status and other characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic information systems analysis has potential to identify communities with disproportionate burden to access surgical services.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Transportes/economia , Transportes/métodos
11.
J Burn Care Res ; 43(1): 54-60, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657205

RESUMO

While much has been published on the efficacy and safety of systemic thrombolytics in the treatment of acute frostbite, there has been limited investigation into administration outside a tertiary care setting. Here, we present a single-center experience with remote initiation of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at referring hospitals prior to transfer to a regional burn center. A modified Hennepin Quantification Score based on tissue involvement was used to determine eligibility for tPA and to quantify the severity of amputation. This is a retrospective review of patients with acute frostbite of the digits admitted to a single verified burn center over a 5-yr period. Of 199 patient admissions, 40 received tPA remotely pre-transfer, 32 received tPA on admission to our institution, and 127 patients did not qualify for tPA therapy according to the protocol. Comparing patients who required any amputation (n = 99, 49.7%) to those who did not, patients who received remote tPA had lower odds of any amputation compared to both those receiving tPA at our institution (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.65, P = 0.01) and the group receiving no tPA (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.05-0.40, P < 0.001) after controlling for confounders. Only one patient receiving pre-transfer tPA according to the protocol (2.3%) had a significant bleeding event requiring transfusion. These results support the protocolized use of thrombolytic therapy for frostbite prior to transfer to a tertiary center.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Congelamento das Extremidades/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Queimados , Colorado , Extremidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transferência de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Surg Res ; 269: 234-240, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to characterize trauma-associated deaths in the United States prison system. We hypothesize that incarcerated victims are less likely to receive appropriate medical care compared to the non-incarcerated. METHODS: We utilized 2015-2017 National Violent Death Reporting System data. Victims were classified by whether they were seen by emergency medical services, in the emergency room, or hospitalized prior to death, with the latter considered higher levels of care. Propensity score matching was used to compare highest level of care received by incarcerated versus non-incarcerated victims with similar age, sex, race/ethnicity, weapon type, and state where the incident occurred. RESULTS: Of 101,054 victims, 1229 (1.2%) were incarcerated at the time of fatal injury; 64.4% died by suicide. For suicide, the proportion of minority victims was higher in the incarcerated compared to the non-incarcerated population, but the opposite was true of homicide. Firearms were more commonly used in the non-incarcerated population. After Propensity score matching, we found that incarcerated victims received higher levels of medical care following suicide (P < 0.001) while there was no difference for homicide (P = 0.28). However, when only victims injured in public settings were included, we found that incarcerated homicide victims were less likely to receive hospital-based medical care. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, overall, incarcerated victims received similar levels of medical care as compared to non-incarcerated victims following lethal injury. However, this fails to account for the highly supervised setting of prisons. Our findings reinforce that violence prevention methods should be tailored to specific populations.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Prisioneiros , Causas de Morte , Homicídio , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência
13.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recovery of preoperative ambulation levels 1 month after surgery represents an important patient-centered outcome. The objective of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with the inability to regain baseline preoperative ambulation levels 28 days postoperatively. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study enrolling patients scheduled for elective inpatient abdominal operations. Daily ambulation (steps/day) was measured with a wristband accelerometer. Preoperative steps were recorded for at least 3 full calendar days before surgery. Postoperatively, daily steps were recorded for at least 28 days. The primary outcome was delayed recovery of ambulation, defined as inability to achieve 50% of preoperative baseline steps at 28 days postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients were included. Delayed recovery (< 50% of baseline preoperative steps/day) occurred in 32 (30%) patients. Clinical factors associated with delayed recovery after multivariable logistic regression included longer operative time (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.79), open operative approach (OR 4.87, 95% CI 1.64-14.48) and percent recovery on POD3 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.96). In addition, patients with delayed ambulation recovery had increased rates of postoperative complications (16% vs 1%, p < 0.01) and readmission (28% vs 5%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: After elective inpatient abdominal operations, nearly one in three patients do not recover 50% of their baseline preoperative steps 28 days postoperatively. Factors that can be used to identify these patients include longer operations, open operations and low ambulation levels on postoperative day #3. These data can be used to target rehabilitation efforts aimed at patients at greatest risk for poor ambulatory recovery.

14.
Am J Surg ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical readmissions are clinically and financially problematic. Our purpose is to determine if a decrease in postoperative ambulation (steps/day) is associated with hospital readmission. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, patients undergoing elective operations wore an accelerometer activity tracker to measure steps/day for 28 consecutive postoperative days. The primary outcome was hospital readmission. The change in steps/day over two consecutive days prior to the day of the readmission were examined. Predetermined thresholds for decreases of consecutive daily ambulation levels were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity for the outcome of hospital readmission. RESULTS: 215 patients (aged 63 ± 12 years) were included. Readmission occurred in 10% (n = 21). For each of the first 28-postoperative days, the entire cohort had an average daily step increase of 136 ± 146 steps/day (Spearman correlation rho = 0.990; p < 0.001). A decrease in steps for two consecutive days of >50% from the prior day had a 79% sensitivity and 90% specificity for hospital readmission. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease of >50% daily ambulation (steps/day) over two consecutive post-discharge days accurately forecasts hospital readmission. The implications of these findings are that monitoring daily ambulation could serve as a form of outpatient telemetry aiding to forecast post-surgical readmissions.

15.
J Burn Care Res ; 42(6): 1128-1135, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302472

RESUMO

Despite significant morbidity and mortality for major burns, palliative care consultation (PCC) is underutilized in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a protocol using recommended "triggers" for PCC at a single academic burn center. This is a retrospective review of patient deaths over a 4-year period. The use of life-sustaining treatments, comfort care (de-escalation of one or more life-sustaining treatments), and do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders were determined. The use of PCC was compared during periods before and after a protocol establishing recommended triggers for early (<72 hours of admission) PCC was instituted in 2019. A total of 33 patient deaths were reviewed. Most patients were male (n = 28, 85%) and median age was 62 years [IQR: 42-72]. Median-revised Baux score was 112 [IQR: 81-133]. Many patients had life-sustaining interventions such as intubation, dialysis, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, often prior to admission. Amongst patients who survived >24 hours, 67% (n = 14/21) had PCC. Frequency of PCC increased after protocol development, with 100% vs 36% of these patients having PCC before death (P = .004). However, even during the later period, less than half of patients had early PCC despite meeting criteria at admission. In conclusion, initiation of life-sustaining measures in severely injured burn patients occurs prior to or early during hospitalization. Thus, value-based early goals of care discussions are valuable to prevent interventions that do not align with patient values and assist with de-escalation of life-sustaining treatment. In this small sample, we found that while there was increasing use of PCC overall after developing a protocol of recommended triggers for consultation, many patients who met criteria at admission did not receive early PCC. Further research is needed to elucidate reasons why providers may be resistant to PCC.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adulto , Idoso , Unidades de Queimados/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313543

RESUMO

Objective: EMS use of lights and sirens has long been employed in EMS systems, despite an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions associated with their use. The specific aims of this study were to assess the current use of lights and sirens during the transport of trauma patients in a busy metropolitan area and to subsequently develop a novel tool, the Critical Intervention Screen, to aid EMS professionals tasked with making transport decisions in the presence of acute injury.Methods: This single-center, retrospective study included all patients transported to an academic Level One trauma center by ground ambulance from the scene of presumed or known injury. A subset of patients was identified as being most likely to benefit from shorter transport times if they received one of the following critical interventions within 20 minutes of emergency department arrival: intubation, thoracotomy, chest tube, blood products, central line, arterial line, REBOA, disposition to an operating room, or death. Stepwise logistic regression was employed for the development of the Critical Intervention Screen, with a subset of data retained for internal validation.Results: 1296 patients were available for analysis. Overall, 217 patients (16.7%) received a critical intervention, and 112 patients (8.6%) of those patients received a critical intervention within 20 minutes of emergency department arrival. At baseline, EMS use of lights and sirens was 91.1% sensitive and 80.3% specific for receiving a critical intervention. Stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that the need for assisted ventilation, GCS Motor < 6, and penetrating trauma to the trunk were the most predictive prehospital data for receiving at least one critical intervention. The Critical Intervention Screen, defined as having at least one of these risk factors in the prehospital setting, modestly increased sensitivity and specificity (96.4% and 87.9%, respectively) predicting the need for a critical intervention.Conclusion: These findings indicate that EMS are able to correctly identify high-acuity trauma patients, but at times employ L&S during the transport of patients with a low likelihood of receiving a time-sensitive intervention upon emergency department arrival. Therefore, the Critical Intervention Screen has the potential to reduce the use of lights and sirens and improve EMS safety.

17.
Urology ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patient race/ethnicity are associated with differences in likelihood of undergoing surgical treatment for LUTS/BPH. METHODS: Queried hospital network database between 1/2011 and 10/2018. Men over age 40 on medical therapy for LUTS (selective alpha blockade and/or 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor), with 2+ provider visits, and without bladder/prostate malignancy were included. Ethnicity/race determined by self-identification. Insurance status classified as public (Medicare/Medicaid/Tricare), private, self-pay, or other. Multivariable backwards step-wise logistic regression was performed to compare odds of undergoing a surgical procedure by race/ethnicity, controlling for patient age, insurance status, comorbidities, and type of medical therapy. RESULTS: 30,466 patients included, with White (n=24,443, 80.2%), Hispanic (n=2,715, 8.9%), Black (n=1,245, 4.1%), and other race/ethnicity (2,073, 6.8%) identified within the study population. After adjusting for age, insurance status, major comorbidities, and type of medical therapy, Black patients were less likely to undergo surgery than White patients (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 - 0.88, P = .011), as were patients of other race/ethnicity (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49 - 0.92, P = .013). CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting for age, insurance status, major comorbidities and type of LUTS medication, men categorized as Black were significantly less likely to undergo surgical treatment for LUTS/BPH than White patients. It is unknown whether this difference results from differences in counseling, access, or other bias in therapy. Efforts to understand and respond to this disparity are necessary. Limitations include lack of IPSS data, additional comorbidity data, limited geographic area, and retrospective nature.

18.
J Surg Res ; 266: 405-412, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays in obtaining care may lead to perforated appendicitis, increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. We previously explored the role of social determinants in patients undergoing cholecystectomy, finding that emergent presentation is associated with neighborhood Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). We hypothesize that social vulnerability is associated with increased incidence of perforated appendicitis. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients presenting to our urban, academic hospital with acute appendicitis during a 9-month timeframe (11/2019 - 7/2020). Patients were classified as perforated or non-perforated. Patient SVI was determined using geocoding at the census tract level. Because rates of perforation were higher in older patients, we performed a subset analysis of patients ≥ 40 years. RESULTS: 190 patients were included. Patients with perforated appendicitis (n = 48, 25%) were older and were more likely to present to a clinic versus the emergency department (P = 0.009). Perforated patients had longer delay before seeking care (56% versus 6% with > 72 hours of symptoms, P < 0.001). However, there were no differences between groups in terms of sex, race/ethnicity, insurance type, language barrier, having a primary care physician, or any of the SVI subscales. Of patients ≥ 40 years, a higher proportion were perforated (28/80, 35%) despite similar rates of delayed care. In this cohort, higher overall SVI as well as the socioeconomic status and household composition/disability subscales were associated with perforation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, while perforation was associated with delayed care in this population, we did not find overall that social vulnerability or individual social determinants accounted for this delay.


Assuntos
Apendicite/complicações , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, published tracheostomy guidelines have generally recommended deferral of the procedure beyond the initial weeks of intubation given high mortality as well as concerns about transmission of the infection to providers. It is unclear whether tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 infection facilitates ventilator weaning, and long-term outcomes are not yet reported in the literature. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of tracheostomy outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection at a single-center academic tertiary referral intensive care unit. Patients underwent percutaneous tracheostomy at the bedside; the procedure was performed with limited staffing to reduce risk of disease transmission. RESULTS: Between March 1 and June 30, 2020, a total of 206 patients with COVID-19 infection required mechanical ventilation and 26 underwent tracheostomy at a mean of 25±5 days after initial intubation. Overall, 81% of tracheostomy patients were liberated from the ventilator at a mean of 9±6 days postprocedure, and 54% were decannulated prior to hospital discharge at a mean of 21±10 days postprocedure. Sedation and pain medication requirements decreased significantly in the week after the procedure. In-hospital mortality was 15%. Among tracheostomy survivors, 68% were discharged to a facility. DISCUSSION: The management of patients with COVID-19 related respiratory failure can be challenging due to prolonged ventilator dependency. In our initial experience, outcomes post-tracheostomy in this population are encouraging, with short time to liberation from the ventilator, a high rate of decannulation prior to hospital discharge, and similar mortality to tracheostomy performed for other indications. Barriers to weaning ventilation in this cohort may be high sedation needs and ventilator dyssynchrony. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V-Therapeutic/care management.

20.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(8): 1465-1472, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have found rates of emergency department (ED) visits after bariatric surgery approach 15% with the majority (>60%) not requiring admission. The timeframe for which ED utilization remains elevated postoperatively remains unknown. We hypothesize that ED utilization following bariatric surgery remains elevated for months after surgery with the majority of visits not requiring admission. OBJECTIVE: No study has determined the impact bariatric surgery has on health care resource utilization in the two years following surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of ED visitation in the 2 years following bariatric surgery. SETTINGS: Database study, single state-wide insurance database. METHODS: We queried the Colorado All Payers Claim Database. Patients with data 1 year before and 2 years after surgery were included. Primary outcomes of interest were ED visits or readmissions during the 2-year period. Bariatric surgeries were identified using CPT codes. Diagnoses for an ED visit or readmission were determined by ICD codes. RESULTS: A total of 5399 patients underwent bariatric surgery from January 2013-November 2017. Of these, 59% underwent sleeve gastrectomy, 38% Roux-en-Y, 2% gastric band, and 1% another surgery. Median age was 44 (IQR 35-54) years, and 82% were female. Overall, 3103 patients (57%) visited the ED at least once with a total of 12,988 visits, 1267 of which (9.8%) resulted in admission. ED use was highest in the 30 days following surgery (17%) but remained above presurgery baseline for 8 months (7.4% at 8 mo compared with baseline mean 6.4% [95% CI 6.0%-6.8%]). CONCLUSIONS: ED visits remain elevated for 8 months post bariatric surgery with over 90% of visits not requiring an admission. Interventions that prevent emergency department utilization should be key focus of quality improvement projects to limit health care resource utilization following bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Seguro , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
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