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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 111, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201438

RESUMO

This study investigated phenotypic differences of zebu females from four breeds using variables of growth, feed efficiency, and age at first calving. Weights throughout the life were recorded, and a growth curve was fitted using the Gompertz model. The growth was also evaluated at standardized ages (205, 365, and 550 days) using the body weight and the total and daily weight gains. The Kleiber index and age at first calving were used as measures of feed efficiency and sexual precocity, respectively, totaling 25 variables. New variables were created using the factor analysis and used in new multivariate analyzes. Only six factors explained 95.41% of the total variance and were used for the subsequent analyses. The factors were defined as maturity, precocity, feed efficiency postweaning, feed efficiency post 1 year of age, puberty, and birth weight. There were differences between breeds according to the multivariate analysis of variance. Each breed appeared in a quadrant on the Biplot graph, showing relationship with different factors, demonstrating the diversity of zebu females. There is a difference in growth, feed efficiency, and sexual precocity in Brazilian zebu females, allowing the identification of potentials of the animals and help breeders and decision-makers.


Assuntos
Maturidade Sexual , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Feminino
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 283, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890183

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematode infections have caused expressive losses in sheep production worldwide. The improvement of host genetic resistance to worms has been used as a strategy to mitigate this problem. In this sense, the inclusion of genomic information has shown potential to increase the accuracy of prediction of breeding values and speed up selection. In this study, we aimed to compare estimates of genetic parameters and breeding values for traits that indicate the resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection in Santa Inês sheep using the pedigree-based BLUP or including genomic information. There were 1478 animals in the pedigree, of which 271 were genotyped using the OvineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina, Inc.). The host resistance was assessed using the following traits: fecal nematode egg counts (FEC); FAMACHA score (FAMACHA); and resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection (RGNI) as a combination of FEC, FAMACHA, body condition score, and hematocrit. The genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated using single- and multi-trait analyses. For RGNI, the heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 using the single-trait genomic model (S-H) to 0.54 using the traditional multi-trait model (M-A). The heritability estimates for FEC ranged from 0.06 to 0.36, using the single-trait pedigree-based model (S-A) and the multi-trait genomic model (M-H), respectively. For FAMACHA, the heritability estimates ranged from 0.46 (M-H) to 0.54 (M-A). Estimates of genetic correlation ranged from 0.22 to 0.69. The inclusion of genomic information provided gain in accuracy for all traits. All estimates of predictive ability obtained using genomic data in a multi-trait setting were higher than those obtained using single-trait models. The estimates of predictive ability ranged from 0.03 (S-A) to 0.46 (M-H). The heritability estimates obtained using genomic information showed that all traits evaluated are suitable for genomic selection. Despite the low accuracies obtained, the use of the genomic model provided more accurate estimates of breeding values in comparison to the pedigree-based model.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Animais , Genótipo , Carne , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
3.
J Dairy Res ; 88(1): 16-22, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593451

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the genetic merit of Holstein cattle population in southern Brazil in response to variations in the regional temperature by analyzing the genotype by environment interaction using reaction norms. Fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) data of 67 360 primiparous cows were obtained from the database of the Paraná Holstein Breeders Association, Brazil (APCBRH). The regional average annual temperature was used as the environmental variable. A random regression model was adopted applying mixed models with Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) algorithm using WOMBAT software. The genetic merit of the 15 most representative bulls, depending on the temperature gradient, was evaluated. Heritability ranged from 0.21 to 0.27 for FY and from 0.14 to 0.20 for PY. The genetic correlation observed among the environmental gradients proved to be higher than 0.80 for both traits. Slight reranking of bulls for both traits was detected, demonstrating that non-relevant genotype by environment interaction for FY and PY were observed. Consequently, no inclusion of the temperature effect in the model of genetic evaluation in southern Brazilian Holstein breed is required.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Leite/química , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Temperatura
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 126, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449218

RESUMO

There are few animal germplasm/gene bank collections in Brazil, and basic studies are needed to attend the future internal and external demands from international partners. The aim of this work was to validate a "proof of concept" that integrates spatial (georeferenced data) and genetic data regarding the local of origin from 3518 DNA samples from 17 different genetic groups or breeds of sheep in the Brazilian Germplasm bank. Spatialisation shows that not all genetic groups have samples in the bank, and collection is concentrated in the conservation nuclei spread nationwide. Only 21% of states with a specific breed have samples in the gene bank. The mean number of animals sampled per collection was 32, while the mean distance travelled to collect samples was 262 km from the conservation nuclei. For example, the Brazilian Somali were only collected in the conservation nucleus in Ceará State. No samples were collected to date for the Cariri breed, which is recognised by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Only two farms and one breed in the bank are from the northern region. Of the 27 states, there are samples in the gene bank of sheep from 13, so several states have no samples, requiring collection from herds outside the official system of conservation to make sure that studies using this germplasm realised are not biased. Significant genetic differences are seen above 332 km, which should guide future sampling efforts. Suggestions are given for improving the quantity, quality and diversity of samples in the gene bank.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Cruzamento , Variação Genética , Ovinos/genética , Agricultura , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
5.
Vet Anim Sci ; 9: 100098, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734108

RESUMO

Dairy cattle production is distributed throughout the Brazilian regions. However, Brazilian producing regions are different in air temperature and humidity, diet, birth season, and other factors that may alter the reproductive performances of cows. The age of the cow at first calving (AFC) is a good indicator of sexual precocity since it shows the beginning of the female reproductive life and has a great influence on cow replacement costs. Researches on genotype-environment interaction (GEI) show the importance of using specific bulls for the different production systems in Brazil since most semen used in the country is imported. The objective of this work was to evaluate GEI for AFC in Holstein cows in Brazil, using reaction norms. The statistical models used were the standard animal model, which disregards the GEI, and hierarchical reaction norm models with homoscedastic (HRNMHO) and heteroscedastic (HRNMHE) residual variance, and one (HRNMHO1S and HRNMHE1S) and two (HRNMHO2S and HRNMHE2S) steps. HRNMHO1S presented better fit to the data, with lower heritability for environments with lower AFC, and higher heritability for environments with higher AFC. The GEI found was complex, with a reclassification of bulls, denoting the importance of considering GEI for evaluation and selection of bulls for different production levels. The reduction of AFC is possible when using breeding bulls adapted to the tropical and subtropical conditions of Brazil.

6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2425-2432, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297042

RESUMO

Brazil is the world's fourth largest milk producer; this activity extends throughout the national territory, with productions of approximate 34 billion liters of milk per year. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genotype-environment interaction (GEI) in purebred Holstein cows for milk (M), protein (P), and fat (F) yields. The statistical models used were the standard animal model (AM), which disregards the GEI, and hierarchical reaction norm models with homoscedastic (HRNMHO) and heteroscedastic (HRNMHE) residual variance, and one (HRNMHO1S and HRNMHE1S) and two (HRNMHO2S and HRNMHE2S) steps. HRNMHO1S presented a better fit of the data for all traits, with higher heritability for the best environments. Most bulls presented robust phenotypes; however, GEI was found with a reclassification of the bulls in the environmental gradient. Although few, and less used, bulls with plastic phenotypes were found for all traits, and the use of them can optimize genetic gains in specific environments.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Leite/química , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(5): 1033-1040, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417342

RESUMO

Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes. Initially, a discriminant analysis was performed, regardless of the animal's size, followed by factor analysis. The factors were characterized and used as new variables. The diversity among equines and their relationship with the factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis. The factors were classified according to their decreasing importance: balance, rusticity, and robustness for the measurement factors; and load, ability, conformation, and equilibrium for the index factors. The genetic groups of equines have well-defined morphofunctional characteristics. The main differences are based on the rusticity and ability typologies in relation to those based on performance. Equines introduced to the Pantanal biome presented a more robust and compact body with good conformation. As a result, these horses may have superior athletic performance during equestrian activities when compared to the Pantaneiro local breed. However, this biotype may represent less rusticity (less adaptive capacity). Therefore, the regional breed can be equal or better in equestrian activities than breeds introduced to the Pantanal biome. Thus, breeders may cross horses from local breeds as an alternative to those introduced. Undefined crossbred male equines presented a different profile from the Pantaneiro breed, which may indicate little use of crossbreeds in breeding.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Cavalos/genética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Software
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 389-394, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042449

RESUMO

Abstract In Brazil, Leishmania infantum mainly affects humans and dogs. The state of Bahia presents many dogs that are positive for this parasite. Despite the importance of epidemiology in this region, there are still very few studies that have assessed the genetic characteristics of L. infantum. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic variability of L. infantum isolated identified in naturally infected dogs, in order to verify occurrence of subpopulation of this parasite in the different biomes existing in the state of Bahia. Thirty-two samples of L. infantum were analyzed, which were obtained isolated in dogs from the Mata Atlântica (rainforest), Caatinga (semi-arid scrub forest), and Cerrado (a vast tropical savannah eco-region) Bahia municipalities' biomes. All animals presented with clinical changes suggestive of Leishmania spp. and they exhibited positive reactions to serological tests. kDNA analysis with RFLP markers revealed the presence of genetic variability and gene flow in subpopulations of L. infantum; samples from the Mata Atlântica areas were genetically more similar to those from the areas of Caatinga and they were less likely to resemble those of the Cerrado. This data may be used to investigate the dissemination of parasite in the canine population of state of Bahia.


Resumo No Brasil a Leishmania infantum afeta principalmente o homem e os cães. O estado da Bahia apresenta elevado número de cães positivos por este parasito. Apesar da importância epidemiologia para a região, ainda há poucos estudos que avaliam as características genéticas de L. infantum. Objetivou-se com este estudo investigar a variabilidade genética de cepas de L. infantum identificadas em cães naturalmente infectados, a fim de verificar a ocorrência de sobpopulações do parasito nos diferentes biomas existentes no estado da Bahia. Foram analisadas 32 amostras de L. infantum isoladas em cães de municípios baianos distribuídos nos biomas Mata Atlântica, Caatinga e Cerrado. Todos os animais apresentavam alterações clínicas sugestivas de Leishmania spp. e reação positiva em exames sorológicos. A análise do kDNA com marcadores RFLP revelaram a presença de variabilidade genética e fluxo gênico nas subpopulações de L. infantum sendo que as amostras das áreas de Mata Atlântica foram geneticamente mais semelhantes as das áreas de Caatinga e foram mais distantes daquelas oriundas do Cerrado. Estas informações podem auxiliar em investigações de dispersão do parasito na população canino do Estado da Bahia.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Variação Genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Brasil
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 49(8): 1677-1684, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28808902

RESUMO

Genetic diversity is one of the most important issues in studies on conservation of cattle breeds and endangered species. The objective of this study was to estimate the levels of genetic differentiation between locally adapted taurine (Bos taurus taurus) and zebu (Bos taurus indicus) breeds in Brazil, which were genotyped for more than 777,000 SNPs. The fixation index (F ST), principal component analysis (PCA), and Bayesian clustering were estimated. The F ST highlighted genetic differentiation between taurine and zebu breeds. The taurine lines, Caracu and Caracu Caldeano, had significant genetic differentiation (F ST close to 5%) despite their recent selection for different uses (meat and milk). This genetic variability can be used for conservation of locally adapted animals, as well as for breeding programs on zebu breeds. Introgression of zebu in locally adapted breeds was identified, especially in Curraleiro Pé-Duro breed. The Gyr breed, however, had low breed purity at genomic level due to its very heterogeneous mixing pattern.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Cruzamento , Análise de Componente Principal
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 26(3): 389-394, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700001

RESUMO

In Brazil, Leishmania infantum mainly affects humans and dogs. The state of Bahia presents many dogs that are positive for this parasite. Despite the importance of epidemiology in this region, there are still very few studies that have assessed the genetic characteristics of L. infantum. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic variability of L. infantum isolated identified in naturally infected dogs, in order to verify occurrence of subpopulation of this parasite in the different biomes existing in the state of Bahia. Thirty-two samples of L. infantum were analyzed, which were obtained isolated in dogs from the Mata Atlântica (rainforest), Caatinga (semi-arid scrub forest), and Cerrado (a vast tropical savannah eco-region) Bahia municipalities' biomes. All animals presented with clinical changes suggestive of Leishmania spp. and they exhibited positive reactions to serological tests. kDNA analysis with RFLP markers revealed the presence of genetic variability and gene flow in subpopulations of L. infantum; samples from the Mata Atlântica areas were genetically more similar to those from the areas of Caatinga and they were less likely to resemble those of the Cerrado. This data may be used to investigate the dissemination of parasite in the canine population of state of Bahia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Cães
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 48(7): 1401-7, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342588

RESUMO

We evaluate genotype × environment (G × E) interactions for age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI) of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil using four hierarchical reaction norm models (HRNMs). The best-fit model for the traits was the one step heteroscedastic hierarchical reaction norm model. Heritability was close to zero in the worst environments and increased as the environments improved (from 0.06 to 0.12 for AFC and from 0.01 to 0.03 for CI). The correlations between the intercept and the slope of the reaction norms for CI and AFC were from medium to high magnitude (0.75 ± 0.10 and 0.90 ± 0.04, respectively), indicating that animals with higher average breeding values had the greatest responses to the improvement of environmental conditions. The variation in heritability indicates different response to selection according to the environment in which the animals of the population are evaluated. The G × E was evident in bulls with more female offspring. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that selection for AFC in medium- and high-level environments leads to higher genetic gains.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Clima Tropical
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 48(2): 331-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584942

RESUMO

We evaluated the population genetic structure of the Holstein breed in Brazil through pedigree analysis with the aim of supporting genetic management of extant herds. We used data from genealogical records of 204,511 animals in farms from south and southeast Brazil. Pedigree records between 1943 and 2005 were divided into seven periods of 8 years to estimate the effective population size (N e ). N e varied during the study periods, ranging from 0.19 to 3016.25. There was an increase in the percentage of inbred animals over time, from 0.18 to 5.0 %. However, this figure may be an underestimate due to the low completeness of pedigree, primarily related to paternal pedigree. The effective number of founders (fe) was 473 animals and ancestors (fa) was 471. The genetic contribution of 260 ancestors (founders or not) accounted for 50 % of the genetic variability in the population. The average relatedness coefficient (AR) and inbreeding coefficient indicate that the Holstein breed in Brazil is being effectively managed, despite a moderate founder effect and the low number of animals that are responsible for the population variance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Linhagem
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 23(3): 328-36, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25271452

RESUMO

Direct diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested PCR (nPCR) tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of Ibicaraí, Bahia. From diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for Anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for Babesia sp. From nPCR diagnoses, they were 63% for A. marginale, 34% for Babesia bigemina and 20.4% for Babesia bovis. There were significant differences (P <0.01) between the two diagnostic methods (nPCR and blood smear slides). The compliance obtained from the kappa test was 0.41 and 0.48 for A. marginale and Babesia sp., respectively. The tick samples from the six farms analyzed using nPCR were only positive for A. marginale. Evaluation of the risk factors relating to the presence of ticks and the age of the animals showed that there was a significant association (P <0.01) with the frequency of animals infected with both pathogens. Therefore, under the conditions studied, nPCR proved to be a good tool for diagnosing the agents of the bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex because of its sensitivity and specificity in comparison with blood smears. The municipality of Ibicaraí is an area with endemic prevalence of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis confirmed by nPCR and A. marginale is the main agent of the disease.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/complicações , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/complicações , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(3): 328-336, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-722722

RESUMO

Direct diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested PCR (nPCR) tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of Ibicaraí, Bahia. From diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for Anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for Babesia sp. From nPCR diagnoses, they were 63% for A. marginale, 34% for Babesia bigemina and 20.4% for Babesia bovis. There were significant differences (P <0.01) between the two diagnostic methods (nPCR and blood smear slides). The compliance obtained from the kappa test was 0.41 and 0.48 for A. marginale and Babesia sp., respectively. The tick samples from the six farms analyzed using nPCR were only positive for A. marginale. Evaluation of the risk factors relating to the presence of ticks and the age of the animals showed that there was a significant association (P <0.01) with the frequency of animals infected with both pathogens. Therefore, under the conditions studied, nPCR proved to be a good tool for diagnosing the agents of the bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex because of its sensitivity and specificity in comparison with blood smears. The municipality of Ibicaraí is an area with endemic prevalence of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis confirmed by nPCR and A. marginale is the main agent of the disease.


Realizou-se o diagnóstico direto por esfregaço sanguíneo e nested PCR (nPCR) em 309 amostras de sangue de bovinos mestiços leiteiros provenientes do município de Ibicaraí, Bahia. A frequência observada no diagnóstico por lâminas de esfregaço sanguíneo foi 31,1% para Anaplasma marginale e 20,4% para Babesia sp. Enquanto que no diagnóstico por nPCR foi 63% para A. marginale, 34% para Babesia bigemina e 20,4% Babesia bovis. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,01) na comparação entre os dois métodos de diagnósticos (nPCR e esfregaço sanguíneo). A concordância ao teste KAPPA obtida foi de 0,41 e 0,48 para A. marginale e Babesia sp., respectivamente. As amostras de carrapatos das seis propriedades analisadas por nPCR foram positivas apenas para A. marginale. Na avaliação dos fatores de risco verificou-se que a presença de carrapato e idade dos animais apresentaram associação significativa (P<0,01) com a frequência de animais infectados por ambos os patógenos analisados por nPCR. Portanto, nas condições estudadas, a nPCR revelou-se uma boa ferramenta para diagnóstico dos agentes do complexo tristeza parasitária bovina (TPB) devido a sensibilidade e especificidade, quando comparado ao esfregaço sanguíneo. O município de Ibicaraí apresenta-se como uma área endêmica para TPB com prevalência comprovada através de nPCR e, A. marginale o principal agente encontrado.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/complicações , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Brasil , Babesiose/complicações , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Zebrafish ; 10(4): 451-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24083504

RESUMO

The Neotropical catfish family Callichthyidae is characterized by wide karyotype variation, although reports are restricted to a few species/populations. This work provides new chromosomal information in two populations of armoured catfish (Callichthys callichthys) within the Atlantic forest boundaries in northeastern Brazil. Both populations of C. callichthys presented 2n=54 (16 metacentric, 24 submetacentric, 6 subtelocentric, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes) with occurrence of a metacentric B macrochromosome, reported for the first time in "2n=54" karyomorph. The lack of heterochromatin in the supernumerary chromosome suggests a recent origin of Bs with a significant difference in their frequency (p<0.05) between localities. Contrasting to the predominance of single nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in other populations from South America, a remarkable polymorphism of 18S rDNA and GC-rich sites was detected, inasmuch as NOR phenotypes were unique for each individual, comprising up to 13 NOR-bearing chromosomes. The 5S rDNA was also mapped onto multiple chromosomes nonsyntenic to NORs. Such divergence in a number of NORs and occurrence of an euchromatic B chromosome in relation to other karyomorphs reinforces the divergent evolution of C. callichthys populations. Furthermore, these results also support central and drier Atlantic forest areas in northeastern Brazil as a biodiversity hotspot.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Peixes-Gato/genética , Cromossomos , Variação Genética , Animais , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Rios
16.
Anim Sci J ; 84(4): 289-95, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23590501

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of inbreeding depression on traits of buffaloes from Brazil. Specifically, the traits studied were body weight at 205 and 365 days of age, average daily gain from birth to 205 days (ADG_205), average daily gain between 205 and 365 days (ADG205_365) in Mediterranean buffaloes, and milk yield, lactation length, age of first calving and calving intervals in Murrah buffaloes. Inbreeding effects on the traits were determined by fitting four regression models (linear, quadratic, exponential and Michaelis-Menten) about the errors generated by the animal model. The linear model was only significant (P < 0.05) for growth traits (exception of ADG205_365). The exponential and Michaelis-Menten models were significant (P < 0.01) for all the studied traits while the quadratic model was not significant (P > 0.05) for any of the traits. Weight at 205 and 365 days of age decreased 0.25 kg and 0.39 kg per 1% of increase in inbreeding, respectively. The inbred animals (F = 0.25) produced less milk than non-inbred individuals: 50.4 kg of milk. Moreover, calving interval increased 0.164 days per 1% of increase in inbreeding. Interestingly, inbreeding had a positive effect on age at first calving and lactation length, decreasing age of first calving and increasing lactation length.


Assuntos
Búfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Búfalos/genética , Endogamia , Reprodução/genética , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso/genética
17.
Genet Mol Biol ; 35(4): 797-801, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23271941

RESUMO

The fish genus Astyanax is widespread throughout the Neotropical region and is one of the most species-rich genera of the Characiformes. Cytogenetic studies of Astyanax have revealed marked intra- and interspecific diversity, with the identification of various species complexes. In this report, we describe the karyotypic structure of two sympatric species of Astyanax (Astyanax sp. and Astyanax aff. fasciatus) from the Middle Contas River basin in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Both species had 2n = 48 but differed in their karyotypic formulae. Small heterochromatic blocks and multiple nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in both species. Terminal CMA(3) (+)/DAPI(-) signals were observed in Astyanax sp. and A. aff. fasciatus, mostly coincident with NORs. These results show that chromosomal markers can be used to identify species in this fish complex. These markers can provide useful information for evolutionary studies and investigations on the mechanisms of chromosomal diversity in Astyanax.

18.
Ciênc. rural ; 42(12): 2252-2264, dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-658036

RESUMO

O principal objetivo deste estudo foi aplicar componentes principais com múltiplas matrizes de dados para verificar a interação tripla genótipo x local x regime alimentar no valor genético do efeito direto do peso, aos 205 dias de idade. Foram utilizados touros com filhos em três regiões de produção do Nordeste Brasileiro (Maranhão, Mata e Agreste, e Recôncavo Baiano) e criados nos regimes alimentares a pasto ou com suplementação. Não se evidenciou interação genótipo x local para a característica estudada, entretanto, constatou-se interação do genótipo x regime alimentar. A utilização dos touros deve ser direcionada de acordo com o regime alimentar de seus filhos.


The main objective of this study was to apply three-mode principal component analysis to assess the triple interaction (genotype x location x feeding) on direct genetic value for weight at 205 days of age. We used 60 sires with offspring in three regions of northeastern Brazil (Maranhão, Mata and Agreste, and Recôncavo Baiano) and raised on a pasture regime or with supplementation. There was no interaction between genotype and location, but there was a correlation between genotype and direct effect of feeding. The use of sires should be dictated according to the system of rearing of their offspring.

19.
Ciênc. rural ; 42(11): 2037-2042, nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-654326

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to study the population genetic structure of four herds of Mediterranean buffaloes in Brazil. It was used pedigree data from 6,588 buffaloes of Mediterranean breed born from 1980 to 2002. Of the total number of animals studied, 60.5, 15.3 and 2.1% had a pedigree in the first, second and third ascendancy, respectively. The effective number of herds that provided breeding males was 1.60 for parents, 1.16 for grandparents and 1.00 for great-grandparents. There were 923 founder animals and only 71 effective founders. The effective number of ancestors explaining the genetic variability of the population was 71 and only 30 ancestors accounted for 50% of the genetic variability of the population. The average relatedness coefficient (AR) between individuals and inbreeding (F) of the population were estimated at 0.37 and 0.34% respectively. The average estimate of generation interval was 8.71±2.85 years. The variability of the current population is the result of a few ancestors, who are mostly also founders showing that the population was developed from a narrow genetic base which characterizes the occurrence of founder effect.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a estrutura genética populacional de bubalinos da raça Mediterrâneo, em quatros rebanhos, no Brasil. Foram utilizados dados de pedigree de 6.588 bubalinos da raça Mediterrâneo nascidos no período de 1980 a 2002. Do total de animais estudados, 60,5; 15,3 e 2,1% possuíam pedigree na primeira, segunda e terceira ascendência, respectivamente. O número efetivo de rebanhos que forneceram machos reprodutores foi de 1,60 para pais; 1,16 para avôs e 1,00 para bisavôs. O número de animais fundadores foi 923 e o número efetivo de fundadores foi apenas 71. O número efetivo de ancestrais que explicaram a variabilidade genética da população foi de 71 e somente 30 ancestrais explicaram 50% da variabilidade genética da população. Os coeficientes médios de relação (CR) entre os indivíduos da população e de endogamia (F) foram estimados em 0,37 e 0,34%, respectivamente. A estimativa média do intervalo de gerações foi de 8,71±2,85 anos. A variabilidade da população atual é fruto da contribuição de poucos ancestrais, que são, na sua maioria, também fundadores, evidenciando que a população se desenvolveu a partir de uma base genética estreita, o que caracteriza a ocorrência do efeito fundador.

20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 44(8): 1891-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22535150

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to use pedigree analysis to evaluate the population structure and genetic variability in the Murrah dairy breed of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil. Pedigree analysis was performed on 5,061 animals born between 1972 and 2002. The effective number of founders (fe) was 60, representing 6.32 % of the potential number of founders. The effective number of ancestors (fa) was 36 and the genetic contribution of the 17 most influent ancestors explained 50 % of the genetic variability in the population. The ratio fe/fa (effective number of founders/effective number of ancestors), which expresses the effect of population bottlenecks, was 1.66. Completeness level for the whole pedigree was 76.8, 49.2, 27.7, and 12.8 % for, respectively, the first, second, third, and fourth known parental generations. The average inbreeding values for the whole analyzed pedigree and for inbreed animals were, respectively, 1.28 and 7.64 %. The average relatedness coefficient between individuals of the population was estimated to be 2.05 %-the highest individual coefficient was 10.31 %. The actual inbreeding and average relatedness coefficient are probably higher than estimated due to low levels of pedigree completeness. Moreover, the inbreeding coefficient increased with the addition of each generation to the pedigree, indicating that incomplete pedigrees tend to underestimate the level of inbreeding. Introduction of new sires with the lowest possible average relatedness coefficient and the use of appropriate mating strategies are recommended to keep inbreeding at acceptable levels and increase the genetic variability in this economically important species, which has relatively low numbers compared to other commercial cattle breeds. The inclusion of additional parameters, such as effective number of founders, effective number of ancestors, and fe/fa ratio, provides better resolution as compared to the inclusion of inbreeding coefficient and may help breeders and farmers adopt better precautionary measures against inbreeding depression and other deleterious genetic effects.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Variação Genética , Endogamia , Linhagem , Animais , Brasil , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional
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