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1.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors and ligands mediate apoptotic bodies engulfment which alteration has been related with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) pathogenesis. Thus, the aim was to determine their soluble levels. METHODS: Serum sTyro3, sAxl, sMer, and Gas6 levels were measured using ELISA in 67 JSLE patients, 12 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) inflammatory and 20 healthy controls and related with SLEDAI-2K score, anti-dsDNA antibody, ESR, CRP, C3, C4 levels, and nephritis. RESULTS: JSLE patients with active disease (SLEDAI-2K> 4) had significantly increased sMer levels compared with healthy controls (median 8.4 vs. 6.0 ng/mL, p = 0.009) and inactive disease patients (5.2 ng/mL, p = 0.0003). sMer levels correlated with SLEDAI-2K (r = 0.44; p = 0.0004) and ESR (r = 0.24; p = 0.04), while sAxl correlated with SLEDAI-2K (r = 0.33; p = 0.008) and C4 levels (r = - 0.24; p = 0.04). JSLE patients taking glucocorticoid had increased sAxl and sMer levels. Moreover, sAxl correlated with sMer and sTyro3 levels. Patients with nephritis and those with focal or diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis had these protein levels similar to healthy controls and patients without renal involvement. sTyro3 levels of JSLE patients taking glucocorticoid were decreased, and correlated with Gas6 and sAxl, while Gas6 levels correlated with age upon enrollment. JIA controls had protein levels similar to healthy controls and JSLE patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces that sMer is increased in active JSLE patients, yet sMer and sAxl correlates with disease activity parameters, and their alterations are disease-specific. However, further studies are needed to determine exact roles of sTyro3 and Gas6 in disease pathogenesis. Key Points • sMer and sAxl serum levels are related with active disease in JSLE patients • sMer correlated with SLEDAI-2K score in JSLE • sTyro3, sAxl, sMer and Gas6 levels did not related with nephritis in JSLE patients • sTyro3 and Gas6 exact roles in JSLE are not established and further studies are needed.

2.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(10): 2857-2863, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of ethnicity in presentation of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients. METHODS: This multicenter study included cSLE patients (American College of Rheumatology criteria) followed in 27 Pediatric Rheumatology services of Brazil. Ethnicities were classified in four groups according to the parents' and all four grandparents' self-reported ethnicity. The statistical analysis was performed using the Bonferroni's correction (p < 0.0027). RESULTS: According to ethnic groups, 1537 cSLE patients were classified in Caucasian (n = 786), African-Latin American (n = 526), Asian (n = 8), and others/unknown (n = 217). Comparisons between 1312 African-Latin American and Caucasian revealed similar median age at cSLE diagnosis [12.2(2.6-18) vs. 12.1(0.3-18) years, p = 0.234], time interval to diagnosis [0.25(0-12) vs. 0.3(0-10) years, p = 0.034], and SLEDAI-2K score [14(0-55) vs. 14(0-63), p = 0.781] in both groups. The mean number of diagnostic criteria according to SLICC (6.47 ± 1.911 vs. 5.81 ± 1.631, p < 0.0001) and frequencies of maculopapular lupus rash (8% vs. 3%, p < 0.0001), palate oral ulcers (17% vs. 11%, p = 0.001), tongue oral ulcers (4% vs. 1%, p = 0.001), and nonscarring alopecia (29% vs. 16%, p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in African-Latin American, whereas malar rash (45% vs. 58%, p < 0.0001) was more frequent in Caucasian. The presence of anti-phospholipid antibody (23% vs. 12%, p < 0.0001), low complement levels (58% vs. 41%, p < 0.0001), and isolated direct Coombs test (10% vs. 5%, p = 0.001) was also significantly higher in the former group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that disease presentation severity of African-Latin American cSLE patients is comparable with Caucasian. Mucocutaneous manifestations and autoantibodies profile were the only distinctive features of the former group. The unique mixed background of Brazilian patients probably minimized race diversity spectrum of these patients. Key Points • Our study demonstrated that disease presentation severity of African-Latin American cSLE patients is comparable with Caucasian. • Mucocutaneous manifestations and autoantibodies profile were the only distinctive features of African-Latin American cSLE patients. • African-Latin American cSLE patients had more often anti-phospholipid antibodies and hypocomplementemia. • The unique mixed background of Brazilian patients probably minimized race diversity spectrum of these patients.

3.
Vaccine ; 37(19): 2569-2579, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955978

RESUMO

Maternal immunization with pertussis acellular vaccine (Tdap) is an intervention that provides protection to newborns. However, it has been reported that high maternal antibody levels may adversely affect the immune response of infants after active immunization. In this study, we evaluated neonatal passive acquisition of pertussis-specific antibodies and their influence on the neonatal cell-mediated immune response. Pregnant women were either vaccinated with Tdap vaccine (case group, n = 66) or received no vaccine (control group, n = 101). Whole-cell Bordetella pertussis (Bp), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN)-specific serum IgG were quantified in paired maternal-cord sera, and Bp- and PT-specific IgA were evaluated in colostrum by ELISA. Ex vivo neonatal blood lymphocyte responsiveness after Bp stimulation was assessed in case (n = 17) and control (n = 15) groups using flow cytometry to detect proliferation, cytokine production and activation phenotype of lymphocytes in the context of high specific IgG acquired after maternal vaccination. Anti-Bp, PT, FHA and PRN IgG concentrations in maternal and cord sera from case group were higher than those in control group with positive correlation indexes in both groups for all pertussis antigens. The control group presented higher placental transfer ratios of specific antibodies and, in the case group, vaccination between 26 and 31 gestation weeks was associated with the best placental transfer ratios. Specific IgA concentrations in colostrum were not affected by vaccine status. Whole blood assays revealed that newborns responded to Bp stimulation with higher expression of CD40L, CD69 and CD4+ T cell proliferation compared to unstimulated cells, and a lower Th1 response, while a preserved Th2 response compared to adults, but there were no differences between the neonatal groups for any of the studied parameters. Our results indicate that higher pertussis-specific IgG levels in newborn sera after maternal vaccination do not affect the neonatal ex vivo cell-mediated immune response.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470982

RESUMO

The results of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) have been improving over time. Unfortunately, developing countries do not experience the same results. This first report of Brazilian experience of HSCT for PID describes the development and results in the field. We included data from transplants in 221 patients, performed at 11 centers which participated in the Brazilian collaborative group, from July 1990 to December 2015. The majority of transplants were concentrated in one center (n = 123). The median age at HSCT was 22 months, and the most common diseases were severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (n = 67) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (n = 67). Only 15 patients received unconditioned transplants. Cumulative incidence of GVHD grades II to IV was 23%, and GVHD grades III to IV was 10%. The 5-year overall survival was 71.6%. WAS patients had better survival compared to other diseases. Most deaths (n = 53) occurred in the first year after transplantation mainly due to infection (55%) and GVHD (13%). Although transplant for PID patients in Brazil has evolved since its beginning, we still face some challenges like delayed diagnosis and referral, severe infections before transplant, a limited number of transplant centers with expertise, and resources for more advanced techniques. Measures like newborn screening for SCID may hasten the diagnosis and ameliorate patients' conditions at the moment of transplant.

6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(5): 539-545, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-975986

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To describe the characteristics of children and adolescentes with chronic diseases of outpatient clinics at a tertiary university hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 16,237 patients with chronic diseases followed-up in one year. The data were collected through the electronic system, according to the number of physician appointments in 23 pediatric specialties. Patients were divided in two groups: children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years). Early (10-14 years) and late (15-19 years) adolescent groups were also analyzed. Results: Of the total sample, 56% were children and 46% were adolescents. The frequencies of following pediatric specialties were significantly higher in adolescents when compared with children: cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, nephrology/renal transplantation, neurology, nutrology, oncology, palliative and pain care, psychiatry, and rheumatology (p < 0.05). The frequencies of emergency service visits (30% vs. 17%, p < 0.001), hospitalizations (23% vs. 11%, p < 0.001), intensive care unit admissions (6% vs. 2%, p < 0.001), and deaths (1% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.002) were significantly lower in adolescents than in children. However, the number of physician appointments (≥13) per patient was also higher in the adolescent group (5% vs. 6%, p = 0.018). Further analysis comparison between early and late adolescents revealed that the first group had significantly more physician appointments (35% vs. 32%, p = 0.025), and required more than two pediatric specialties (22% vs. 21%, p = 0.047). Likewise, the frequencies of emergency service visits (19% vs. 14%, p < 0.001) and hospitalizations (12% vs. 10%, p = 0.035) were higher in early adolescents. Conclusions: This study evaluated a large population in a Latin American hospital and suggested that early adolescents with chronic diseases required many appointments, multiple specialties and hospital admissions.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever características de crianças e adolescentes com doenças crônicas de clínicas ambulatoriais em um hospital universitário terciário. Métodos: Um estudo transversal foi realizado com 16.237 pacientes com doenças crônicas acompanhados em um ano. Os dados foram coletados por meio de dados do sistema eletrônico de acordo com o número de consultas médicas em 23 especialidades pediátricas. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: crianças (0-9 anos) e adolescentes (10-19 anos). Também foram analisados grupos de jovens adolescentes (10-14 anos) e adolescentes mais velhos (15-19 anos). Resultados: 54% eram crianças e 46% eram adolescentes. As frequências das seguintes especialidades pediátricas foram significativamente maiores em adolescentes em comparação a crianças: cardiologia, endocrinologia, hematologia, nefrologia/transplante renal, neurologia, nutrologia, oncologia, cuidados paliativos e cuidado da dor, psiquiatria e reumatologia (p < 0,05). As frequências de visitas a serviços de emergência (30%, em comparação a 17%, p < 0,001), internações (23%, em comparação a 11%, p < 0,001), internações em unidade de terapia intensiva (6%, em comparação a 2%, p < 0,001) e óbitos (1%, em comparação a 0,6%, p = 0,002) foram significativamente menores em adolescentes do que em crianças. Contudo, o número de consultas médicas (≥ 13) por paciente (também) foi maior em grupos de adolescentes (5%, em comparação a 6%, p = 0,018). A comparação de análises adicionais entre jovens adolescentes e adolescentes mais velhos revelou que o primeiro grupo apresentou um número significativamente maior de consultas médicas (35%, em comparação a 32%, p = 0,025) e precisou de mais de duas especialidades pediátricas (22%, em comparação a 21%, p = 0,047). Da mesma forma, as frequências de visitas a serviços de emergência (19%, em comparação a 14%, p < 0,001) e internações (12%, em comparação a 10%, p = 0,035) foram maiores em jovens adolescentes. Conclusões: Este estudo avaliou uma grande população em um hospital da América Latina e sugeriu que jovens adolescentes com doenças crônicas precisaram de muitas consultas, diversas especialidades e internações hospitalares.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13169, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177771

RESUMO

AIRE expression in thymus is downregulated by estrogen after puberty, what probably renders women more susceptible to autoimmune disorders. Here we investigated the effects of minipuberty on male and female infant human thymic tissue in order to verify if this initial transient increase in sex hormones - along the first six months of life - could affect thymic transcriptional network regulation and AIRE expression. Gene co-expression network analysis for differentially expressed genes and miRNA-target analysis revealed sex differences in thymic tissue during minipuberty, but such differences were not detected in the thymic tissue of infants aged 7-18 months, i.e. the non-puberty group. AIRE expression was essentially the same in both sexes in minipuberty and in non-puberty groups, as assessed by genomic and immunohistochemical assays. However, AIRE-interactors networks showed several differences in all groups regarding gene-gene expression correlation. Therefore, minipuberty and genomic mechanisms interact in shaping thymic sexual dimorphism along the first six months of life.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 45(11): 1577-1580, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate soluble Fas antigen (sFas), sFas ligand (sFasL), soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and soluble cytoplasmic Bcl-2 protein (sBcl-2) serum levels, Fas and Bcl-2 expressions in T and B lymphocytes and monocytes and relations with erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale, and manual muscle testing in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). METHODS: Serum levels were determined by ELISA and peripheral cell expressions by flow cytometry for patients with JDM or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with JDM had increased sBcl-2, which correlated with CRP. Expression of Bcl-2 was increased and expression of Fas was decreased in CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes compared with JIA and/or healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Patients with JDM presented a unique apoptosis-related proteins profile, which may contribute to disease development.

9.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate mortality in adolescents and young adult patients with chronic diseases followed in a Latin American tertiary hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed in a tertiary/academic hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Death occurred in 529/2850 (18.5%) adolescents and young adult patients with chronic diseases, and 25/529 (4.7%) were excluded due to incomplete medical charts. Therefore, 504 deaths were evaluated. RESULTS: Deaths occurred in 316/504 (63%) of early adolescent patients and in 188/504 (37%) of late adolescent/young adult patients. Further comparisons between early adolescents (n=316) and late adolescent/young adult patients (n=188) with pediatric chronic diseases at the last hospitalization showed that the median disease duration (22.0 [0-173] vs. 43.0 [0-227] months, p<0.001) was significantly lower in early adolescents vs. late adolescent/young adult patients. The median number of previous hospitalizations was significantly lower in the former group (4.0 [1-45] vs. 6.0 [1-52], p<0.001), whereas the last hospitalization in intensive care unit was significantly higher (60% vs. 47%, p=0.003). Regarding supportive measures, palliative care was significantly lower in the younger group compared to the older group (33% vs. 43%, p=0.02). The frequencies of renal replacement therapy (22% vs. 13%, p=0.02), vasoactive agents (65% vs. 54%, p=0.01), and transfusion of blood products (75% vs. 66%, p=0.03) were significantly higher in the younger group. The five most important etiologies of pediatric chronic diseases were: neoplasias (54.2%), hepatic diseases/transplantation (10%), human immunodeficiency virus (5.9%), and childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (4.9%). Autopsy was performed in 58/504 (11%), and discordance between clinical and postmortem diagnoses was evidenced in 24/58 (41.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Almost 20% of deaths occurred in adolescents and young adults with distinct supportive care and severe disease patterns. Discordance between clinical diagnosis and autopsy was frequently observed.

10.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e68, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to present a survey of vulnerabilities and to suggest approaches for the treatment of rare diseases according to the perceptions of a group of affected individuals, patient association representatives and health care professionals. METHODS: The focus group technique was used in interviews with patients and primary caregivers, patient support groups/non-governmental organizations, primary health care professionals and physician specialists. RESULTS: The transcript analysis focused on thematic units, which were tailored to each group and allowed comparisons in search of concordant views. Unanimity was observed in relation to the physical, emotional and social damage to the life standards of the affected individuals and their families as a result of illness. The Brazilian health system was unanimously classified as inadequate to respond to the needs of patients with rare diseases, and this inadequacy led to unpleasant experiences, such as the seemingly endless referrals among health services to reach a final diagnosis and develop a treatment plan. CONCLUSIONS: The complex set of health system requirements necessary to support the care of patients with rare diseases represents an obstacle to successfully meeting the needs of patients and their families. Therefore, it is important to develop specific public policies to create referral services, guarantee access to appropriate therapeutic modalities and incorporate technologies that promote research for developing new, affordable therapies.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Doenças Raras/psicologia , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Grupos de Autoajuda , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 1036-1049.e5, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy x-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by FOXP3 mutations. Because it is a rare disease, the natural history and response to treatments, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppression (IS), have not been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVE: This analysis sought to evaluate disease onset, progression, and long-term outcome of the 2 main treatments in long-term IPEX survivors. METHODS: Clinical histories of 96 patients with a genetically proven IPEX syndrome were collected from 38 institutions worldwide and retrospectively analyzed. To investigate possible factors suitable to predict the outcome, an organ involvement (OI) scoring system was developed. RESULTS: We confirm neonatal onset with enteropathy, type 1 diabetes, and eczema. In addition, we found less common manifestations in delayed onset patients or during disease evolution. There is no correlation between the site of mutation and the disease course or outcome, and the same genotype can present with variable phenotypes. HSCT patients (n = 58) had a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range, 1 week-15 years). Patients receiving chronic IS (n = 34) had a median follow-up of 4 years (range, 2 months-25 years). The overall survival after HSCT was 73.2% (95% CI, 59.4-83.0) and after IS was 65.1% (95% CI, 62.8-95.8). The pretreatment OI score was the only significant predictor of overall survival after transplant (P = .035) but not under IS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving chronic IS were hampered by disease recurrence or complications, impacting long-term disease-free survival. When performed in patients with a low OI score, HSCT resulted in disease resolution with better quality of life, independent of age, donor source, or conditioning regimen.

12.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 94(5): 539-545, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children and adolescentes with chronic diseases of outpatient clinics at a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 16,237 patients with chronic diseases followed-up in one year. The data were collected through the electronic system, according to the number of physician appointments in 23 pediatric specialties. Patients were divided in two groups: children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years). Early (10-14 years) and late (15-19 years) adolescent groups were also analyzed. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 56% were children and 46% were adolescents. The frequencies of following pediatric specialties were significantly higher in adolescents when compared with children: cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, nephrology/renal transplantation, neurology, nutrology, oncology, palliative and pain care, psychiatry, and rheumatology (p<0.05). The frequencies of emergency service visits (30% vs. 17%, p<0.001), hospitalizations (23% vs. 11%, p<0.001), intensive care unit admissions (6% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and deaths (1% vs. 0.6%, p=0.002) were significantly lower in adolescents than in children. However, the number of physician appointments (≥13) per patient was also higher in the adolescent group (5% vs. 6%, p=0.018). Further analysis comparison between early and late adolescents revealed that the first group had significantly more physician appointments (35% vs. 32%, p=0.025), and required more than two pediatric specialties (22% vs. 21%, p=0.047). Likewise, the frequencies of emergency service visits (19% vs. 14%, p<0.001) and hospitalizations (12% vs. 10%, p=0.035) were higher in early adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated a large population in a Latin American hospital and suggested that early adolescents with chronic diseases required many appointments, multiple specialties and hospital admissions.

13.
Clinics ; 73: e68, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to present a survey of vulnerabilities and to suggest approaches for the treatment of rare diseases according to the perceptions of a group of affected individuals, patient association representatives and health care professionals. METHODS: The focus group technique was used in interviews with patients and primary caregivers, patient support groups/non-governmental organizations, primary health care professionals and physician specialists. RESULTS: The transcript analysis focused on thematic units, which were tailored to each group and allowed comparisons in search of concordant views. Unanimity was observed in relation to the physical, emotional and social damage to the life standards of the affected individuals and their families as a result of illness. The Brazilian health system was unanimously classified as inadequate to respond to the needs of patients with rare diseases, and this inadequacy led to unpleasant experiences, such as the seemingly endless referrals among health services to reach a final diagnosis and develop a treatment plan. CONCLUSIONS: The complex set of health system requirements necessary to support the care of patients with rare diseases represents an obstacle to successfully meeting the needs of patients and their families. Therefore, it is important to develop specific public policies to create referral services, guarantee access to appropriate therapeutic modalities and incorporate technologies that promote research for developing new, affordable therapies.

14.
Clin Rheumatol ; 36(12): 2847-2852, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378099

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to assess serum Fas, FasL, TRAIL, and Bcl-2 levels in patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and to evaluate their relations with disease activity parameters and nephritis. Forty-eight JSLE patients, 33 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, inflammatory controls) patients and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. sFas, sFasL, sTRAIL, and sBcl-2 serum levels were measured by ELISA. Disease activity parameters included SLEDAI score, ESR, anti-dsDNA antibodies, C3, and C4 levels. Thirty-five JSLE patients had nephritis and 32 patients were classified as having active disease (SLEDAI ≥4). Statistical analysis methods included Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank test. JSLE patients had significantly increased sFas serum levels compared with healthy controls (median 177.6 vs. 117.5 pg/mL; p = 0.0001), higher sTRAIL (median 484.6 vs 270.8 pg/mL; p = 0.02), and reduced sFasL (median 0.05 vs 0.3 ng/mL; p = 0.0002). The same results were observed for JSLE patients with active disease and for patients with nephritis. Additionally, sFas levels in JSLE patients directly correlated with SLEDAI score (r = 0.40; p = 0.009), and sTRAIL levels were increased in JSLE patients with neuropsychiatric disease compared with those without this involvement (median 667.9 vs. 216.2 pg/mL; p = 0.03). Otherwise, sBcl-2 levels of JSLE patients were similar to healthy controls. JIA patients had sFas, sFasL, sTRAIL, and sBcl-2 serum levels similar to JSLE patients and to healthy controls. In summary, this study characterized in JSLE a distinct profile from adult SLE that comprises increased sFas, sTRAIL, and reduced sFasL, notably in patients with active disease and with nephritis.


Assuntos
Proteína Ligante Fas/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/sangue , Receptor fas/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/sangue , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clinics ; 71(12): 687-694, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-840027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of anti-Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 via placental transfer and the transfer of IgA via the colostrum according to maternal Sa carrier status at delivery. METHODS: We evaluated anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in maternal and cord sera and IgA in colostrum from a case (n=49, Sa+) and a control group (n=98, Sa-). RESULTS: Of the 250 parturients analyzed for this study, 49 were nasally colonized with S. aureus (prevalence of 19.6%). Ninety-eight non-colonized subjects were selected for the control group. The anti-Sa IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels and the IgG avidity indexes in the maternal and cord sera did not differ between the groups, with a low transfer ratio of anti-Sa IgG to the newborns in both groups. The anti-Sa IgG2 titers were significantly higher than the IgG1 titers in the maternal and cord sera. Inversely, the transfer ratios were higher for anti-Sa IgG1 compared with IgG2; however, no differences between the groups were detected. The Sa-specific IgA levels and avidity indexes in the colostrum were equivalent between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal Sa nasal colonization at delivery is not associated with higher antibody levels in the mother or newborns. The high titers of anti-Sa IgG2 found in the cord serum indicate a greater reactivity with non-protein antigens, which may further contribute to the susceptibility to staphylococcal infections at birth. The presence of IgA in the colostrum with avidity to S. aureus reinforces the importance of breastfeeding shortly after birth.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Aleitamento Materno , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Placenta/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Valores de Referência , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Cordão Umbilical/imunologia
16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 62(6): 530-536, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27849230

RESUMO

Objective:: To describe clinical features, tomographic findings and pulmonary function in pediatric patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia (PH). Method:: A retrospective cohort study of children with PH who received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and prophylactic antibiotics between 2005 and 2010. Epidemiological and clinical features, computed tomography (CT) findings, and spirometric data were compared, assuming a 5% significance level. Results:: We evaluated 30 patients with PH. After the start of IVIG replacement, there was a decline in the frequency of pneumonia (p<0.001). The 11 patients with bronchiectasis in their first CT scan were older at diagnosis (p=0.001) and had greater diagnostic delay (p=0.001) compared to patients without bronchiectasis. At the end of the study, 18 patients had bronchiectasis and 27 also had other lung disorders, alone or in combination. The Bhalla score was applied to the last CT scan of 16 patients, with a median score of 11 (range 7-21), with a positive correlation between the score and the number of pneumonias after the start of treatment (r=0.561; p=0.024). The score was also correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values in 13/16 patients, with negative correlation to FEV1 previously to bronchodilator (r=-0.778; p=0.002) and after bronchodilator (r =-0.837; p<0.001) and FVC (r=-0.773; p=0.002). Conclusion:: Pulmonary complications were common in this cohort, despite the decrease in the frequency of pneumonia with treatment. Early investigation of patients with recurrent infections for primary immunodeficiencies can reduce the frequency of these complications. The monitoring of changes in spirometry may indicate the need to carry out radiological investigation.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Agamaglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquiectasia/etiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 62(6): 584-593, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27849237

RESUMO

In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk's immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant's ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant's secretory IgA production is insignificant.


Assuntos
Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/imunologia , Colostro/química , Colostro/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(6): 530-536, Sept. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-829499

RESUMO

Summary Objective: To describe clinical features, tomographic findings and pulmonary function in pediatric patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia (PH). Method: A retrospective cohort study of children with PH who received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and prophylactic antibiotics between 2005 and 2010. Epidemiological and clinical features, computed tomography (CT) findings, and spirometric data were compared, assuming a 5% significance level. Results: We evaluated 30 patients with PH. After the start of IVIG replacement, there was a decline in the frequency of pneumonia (p<0.001). The 11 patients with bronchiectasis in their first CT scan were older at diagnosis (p=0.001) and had greater diagnostic delay (p=0.001) compared to patients without bronchiectasis. At the end of the study, 18 patients had bronchiectasis and 27 also had other lung disorders, alone or in combination. The Bhalla score was applied to the last CT scan of 16 patients, with a median score of 11 (range 7-21), with a positive correlation between the score and the number of pneumonias after the start of treatment (r=0.561; p=0.024). The score was also correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values in 13/16 patients, with negative correlation to FEV1 previously to bronchodilator (r=-0.778; p=0.002) and after bronchodilator (r =-0.837; p<0.001) and FVC (r=-0.773; p=0.002). Conclusion: Pulmonary complications were common in this cohort, despite the decrease in the frequency of pneumonia with treatment. Early investigation of patients with recurrent infections for primary immunodeficiencies can reduce the frequency of these complications. The monitoring of changes in spirometry may indicate the need to carry out radiological investigation.


Resumo Objetivo: descrever características clínicas, tomográficas e de função pulmonar em pacientes pediátricos com hipogamaglobulinemia primária (HP). Método: estudo de coorte retrospectivo de crianças com HP que recebiam gamaglobulina endovenosa (GEV) e antibiótico profilático entre 2005 e 2010. As características epidemiológicas, clínicas, os achados de tomografia e espirometria foram comparadas adotando níveis de significância de 5%. Resultados: foram avaliados 30 pacientes com HP. Após o início da reposição de GEV, houve redução da frequência de pneumonias (p<0,001). Os 11 pacientes que apresentavam bronquiectasias na primeira tomografia computadorizada (TC) eram mais velhos ao diagnóstico (p=0,001) e tiveram maior atraso no diagnóstico (p=0,001) quando comparados aos pacientes sem bronquiectasias. Ao final do estudo, 18 pacientes apresentavam bronquiectasias e 27/30 também apresentaram outras alterações pulmonares, isoladas ou concomitantes. O escore de Bhalla foi aplicado à última TC de 16/30 pacientes, com mediana do escore de 11 (variação 7-21), com correlação positiva entre o escore e o número de pneumonias após o início do tratamento (r=0,561; p=0,024). O escore foi ainda correlacionado com valores de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1) e capacidade vital forçada (CVF) obtidos por espirometria de 13/16 pacientes, com correlação negativa com VEF1 pré- (r=-0,778; p=0,002) e pós-broncodilatador (r=-0,837; p<0,001) e CVF (r=-0,773; p=0,002). Conclusão: complicações pulmonares foram frequentes nesta coorte, apesar da diminuição na frequência de pneumonias com o tratamento. A investigação precoce de pacientes com infecções de repetição para imunodeficiências primárias pode reduzir a frequência dessas complicações. A monitorização de alterações na espirometria pode indicar a necessidade de investigação radiológica.

19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(6): 584-593, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-829501

RESUMO

Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.


Resumo Na fase crítica de imaturidade imunológica do recém-nascido, em especial do sistema imune de mucosas, o lactente recebe grandes quantidades de componentes bioativos através do colostro e do leite materno. O colostro é o reforço imunológico natural mais potente conhecido pela ciência. O aleitamento materno protege o lactente de infecções principalmente por meio dos anticorpos IgA secretores (IgAS), mas também por meio de vários outros fatores bioativos. É surpreendente que os fatores de defesa do leite humano ajam sem causar inflamação e alguns componentes são, de fato, anti-inflamatórios. A proteção contra infecções tem sido bem evidenciada durante a lactação, combatendo, por exemplo, diarreia aguda e prolongada, infecções do trato respiratório, incluindo otite média, infecção do trato urinário, sepse neonatal e enterocolite necrosante. O conteúdo imunológico do leite evolui ao longo do tempo: nas fases iniciais de lactação, IgAS, fatores anti-inflamatórios e, mais provavelmente, as células imunologicamente ativas provêm ajuda adicional para o sistema imune imaturo do neonato. Depois desse período, o leite materno continua a adaptar-se extraordinariamente à ontogenia infantil, às suas necessidades de proteção imune e nutricionais. Entende-se, portanto, a necessidade de se estimular o aleitamento materno pelo menos durante o primeiro semestre de vida, período em que a produção própria de IgA secretória é ainda pouco significativa.

20.
Hum Immunol ; 77(10): 972-980, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450230

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate whether phagocytes from healthy and septic newborns have a developmental deficiency in their capacity to recognize, phagocytize and generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in response to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. TLR expression and phagocytic ability of neutrophils and monocytes from 44 healthy preterm and term neonates, from 13 newborns with late-onset sepsis and from 24 healthy adults were determined using flow cytometry, and H2O2 production was measured by dihydrorhodamine test. TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions were similar among the groups. The phagocytic ability of monocytes and neutrophils exposed to E. coli and S. aureus in healthy and septic neonates was significantly reduced compared to that of adults. Monocytes from septic newborns exposed to E. coli had higher H2O2 production than those of the other groups. The oxidative burst of monocytes exposed to S. aureus was reduced in preterm newborns compared with term ones and those with sepsis, and no differences were found in the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Even with the ability to recognize bacteria, a decreased clearance of pathogens can cause an imbalance in the immune response, which could lead to a predisposition to sepsis. Once established, the increased production of cytokines and ROS in an attempt to control the infection as well as the lack of full phagocytic activity leads to persistence of the pathogen and a state of constant inflammation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Monócitos/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Sepse/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido , Monócitos/microbiologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Fagocitose , Explosão Respiratória , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
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