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2.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 59: 38-43, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is initial evidence that the use of volatile anesthetics can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Nevertheless, small randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage. Thus, whether volatile anesthetics improve the postoperative outcome of cardiac surgical patients remains uncertain. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial appears desirable. DESIGN: Single blinded, international, multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Tertiary and University hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n=10,600) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft will be randomized to receive either volatile anesthetic as part of the anesthetic plan, or total intravenous anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary end point of the study will be one-year mortality (any cause). Secondary endpoints will be 30-day mortality; 30-day death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (composite endpoint); cardiac mortality at 30day and at one year; incidence of hospital re-admission during the one year follow-up period and duration of intensive care unit, and hospital stay. The sample size is based on the hypothesis that volatile anesthetics will reduce 1-year unadjusted mortality from 3% to 2%, using a two-sided alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The trial will determine whether the simple intervention of adding a volatile anesthetic, an intervention that can be implemented by all anesthesiologists, can improve one-year survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Volatilização
4.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 31(3): 193-206, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284465

RESUMO

Compromised liver function, as a consequence of acute liver insufficiency or severe chronic liver disease may be associated with various neurological syndromes, which involve both central and peripheral nervous system. Acute and severe hyperammoniemia inducing cellular metabolic alterations, prolonged state of "neuroinflammation", activation of brain microglia, accumulation of manganese and ammonia, and systemic inflammation are the main causative factors of brain damage in liver failure. The most widely recognized neurological complications of serious hepatocellular failure include hepatic encephalopathy, diffuse cerebral edema, Wilson disease, hepatic myelopathy, acquired hepatocerebral degeneration, cirrhosis-related Parkinsonism and osmotic demyelination syndrome. Neurological disorders affecting liver transplant candidates while in the waiting list may not only significantly influence preoperative morbidity and even mortality, but also represent important predictive factors for post-transplant neurological manifestations. Careful pre-transplant neurological evaluation is essential to define severity and distribution of the neurological impairment, to identify the abnormalities still responsive to current treatment, and to potentially predict the inherent post-operative prognosis. The preferred specific indices of neurological pre-transplant assessment may vary among centers, however, even with the aid of the current biochemical, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging diagnostic tools, the correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various syndromes may be difficult. In this article the relevant pathophysiological and clinical aspects of the most frequent brain and peripheral nervous system diseases affecting liver transplant candidates with acute or advanced chronic liver failure are briefly reported. The practical diagnostic findings useful for the preoperative assessment and treatment, as well as the expected neurological evolution after liver transplantation are also evaluated.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática/complicações , Transplante de Fígado , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Humanos , Falência Hepática/fisiopatologia , Falência Hepática/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Seleção de Pacientes
5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 59: 38-43, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37191

RESUMO

Objective: There is initial evidence that the use of volatile anesthetics can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Nevertheless,small Randomized Controlled Trials have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage. Thus, whethervolatile anesthetics improve the postoperative outcome of cardiac surgical patients remains uncertain. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial appears desirable.Design: Single blinded, international, multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio.Setting: Tertiary and University hospitals. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Anestesia , Mortalidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos
6.
J Crit Care ; 29(4): 580-5, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24793658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation delivered by helmet (H-NPPV) as a weaning approach in patients with acute respiratory failure is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomly and evenly assigned 64 patients intubated for acute respiratory failure to conventional weaning with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or H-NPPV. The primary end point was a reduction in IMV duration by 6 days between the 2 groups. Secondary end points were the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and major complications, duration of mechanical ventilation and weaning, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and survival. RESULTS: The mean duration of IMV was significantly reduced in the H-NPPV group compared with the IMV group (P<.0001), without significant difference in duration of weaning (P=.26) and total ventilatory support (P=.45). In the H-NPPV group, the incidence of major complications was less than the IMV group (P=.032). Compared with the H-NPPV group, the IMV group was associated with a greater incidence of VAP (P=.018) and an increased risk of nosocomial pneumonia (P=.049). The mortality rate was similar between the groups, with no significant difference in overall intensive care unit (P=.47) or hospital length of stay (P=.37). CONCLUSIONS: H-NPPV was well tolerated and effective in patients who were difficult to wean.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Desmame do Respirador/instrumentação , Idoso , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos
7.
World J Hepatol ; 5(1): 1-15, 2013 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23383361

RESUMO

Blood loss during liver transplantation (OLTx) is a common consequence of pre-existing abnormalities of the hemostatic system, portal hypertension with multiple collateral vessels, portal vein thrombosis, previous abdominal surgery, splenomegaly, and poor "functional" recovery of the new liver. The intrinsic coagulopathic features of end stage cirrhosis along with surgical technical difficulties make transfusion-free liver transplantation a major challenge, and, despite the improvements in understanding of intraoperative coagulation profiles and strategies to control blood loss, the requirements for blood or blood products remains high. The impact of blood transfusion has been shown to be significant and independent of other well-known predictors of posttransplant-outcome. Negative effects on immunomodulation and an increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality have been repeatedly demonstrated. Isovolemic hemodilution, the extensive utilization of thromboelastogram and the use of autotransfusion devices are among the commonly adopted procedures to limit the amount of blood transfusion. The use of intraoperative blood salvage and autologous blood transfusion should still be considered an important method to reduce the need for allogenic blood and the associated complications. In this article we report on the common preoperative and intraoperative factors contributing to blood loss, intraoperative transfusion practices, anesthesiologic and surgical strategies to prevent blood loss, and on intraoperative blood salvaging techniques and autologous blood transfusion. Even though the advances in surgical technique and anesthetic management, as well as a better understanding of the risk factors, have resulted in a steady decrease in intraoperative bleeding, most patients still bleed extensively. Blood transfusion therapy is still a critical feature during OLTx and various studies have shown a large variability in the use of blood products among different centers and even among individual anesthesiologists within the same center. Unfortunately, despite the large number of OLTx performed each year, there is still paucity of large randomized, multicentre, and controlled studies which indicate how to prevent bleeding, the transfusion needs and thresholds, and the "evidence based" perioperative strategies to reduce the amount of transfusion.

8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 19(48): 9271-81, 2013 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24409054

RESUMO

The poor clinical conditions associated with end-stage cirrhosis, pre-existing pulmonary abnormalities, and high comorbidity rates in patients with high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores are all well-recognized factors that increase the risk of pulmonary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) surgery. Many intraoperative and postoperative events, such as fluid overload, massive transfusion of blood products, hemodynamic instability, unexpected coagulation abnormalities, renal dysfunction, and serious adverse effects of reperfusion syndrome, are other factors that predispose an individual to postoperative respiratory disorders. Despite advances in surgical techniques and anesthesiological management, the lung may still suffer throughout the perioperative period from various types of injury and ventilatory impairment, with different clinical outcomes. Pulmonary complications after OLT can be classified as infectious or non-infectious. Pleural effusion, atelectasis, pulmonary edema, respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumonia may contribute considerably to early morbidity and mortality in liver transplant patients. It is of paramount importance to accurately identify lung disorders because infectious pulmonary complications warrant speedy and aggressive treatment to prevent diffuse lung injury and the risk of evolution into multisystem organ failure. This review discusses the most common perioperative factors that predispose an individual to postoperative pulmonary complications and these complications' early clinical manifestations after OLT and influence on patient outcome.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
World J Hepatol ; 3(3): 61-71, 2011 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21487537

RESUMO

Advances in pre-transplant treatment of cirrhosis-related organ dysfunction, intraoperative patient management, and improvements in the treatment of rejection and infections have made human liver transplantation an effective and valuable option for patients with end stage liver disease. However, many important factors, related both to an increasing "marginality" of the implanted graft and unexpected perioperative complications still make immediate post-operative care challenging and the early outcome unpredictable. In recent years sicker patients with multiple comorbidities and organ dysfunction have been undergoing Liver transplantation; appropriate critical care management is required to support prompt graft recovery and prevent systemic complications. Early post-operative management is highly demanding as significant changes may occur in both the allograft and the "distant" organs. A functioning transplanted liver is almost always associated with organ system recovery, resulting in a new life for the patient. However, in the unfortunate event of graft dysfunction, the unavoidable development of multi-organ failure will require an enhanced level of critical care support and a prolonged ICU stay. Strict monitoring and sustainment of cardiorespiratory function, frequent assessment of graft performance, timely recognition of unexpected complications and the institution of prophylactic measures to prevent extrahepatic organ system dysfunction are mandatory in the immediate post-operative period. A reduced rate of complications and satisfactory outcomes have been obtained from multidisciplinary, collaborative efforts, skillful vigilance, and a thorough knowledge of pathophysiologic characteristics of the transplanted liver.

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