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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036487

RESUMO

Current guidelines recommend the use of exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) in patients with unexplained dyspnoea. SE was recently reshaped with the ABCDE protocol: A for asynergy, B for B-lines (4-site simplified scan), C for contractile reserve based on force, D for Doppler-based coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending coronary artery; and E for EKG-based heart rate reserve (HRR, defined as peak/rest HR < 1.62). Aim of the study was to define the ESE response in patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom. From the initial population of patients referred in 2018 in a single center for semi-supine ESE, we selected two groups (without history of previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) on the basis of the main presenting symptom: dyspnoea (Group 1, n = 100, 62 men, 63 ± 10 years) or chest pain (Group 2, n = 100, 58 men, age 61 ± 8 years). All underwent ESE with ABCDE protocol. Success rate was 100% for steps A, B, C, E, and 88% for step D. Positivity for A criterion occurred in 56 patients of Group 1 and 24 of Group 2 (p < 0.0001). B-lines positivity (stress > rest for ≥ 2 points) occurred in 40 patients of Group 1 and 28 of Group 2 (p = 0.07). LVCR positivity (< 2.0) occurred in 60 patients of Group 1 and 42 of Group 2 (p < 0.05). A reduced CFVR occurred in 56 of Group 1 and 22 of Group 2 (p < 0.0001). A blunted HRR was present in 44 patients of Group 1 and 22 of Group 2 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, in patients with unexplained dyspnoea, SE with ABCDE protocol is useful to document the cardiac origin of dyspnoea with a comprehensive assessment focused not only on ischemia (A) but also pulmonary congestion (B), myocardial scar or necrosis (C), coronary microvascular dysfunction (D) or chronotropic incompetence (E).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701136

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the prognostic relevance of coronary anatomy, coronary function, and early revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: From March 2009 to June 2012, 430 patients with suspected CAD (61 ± 9 years, 62% men) underwent coronary anatomical imaging by computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and coronary functional imaging followed by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) if at least one non-invasive test was abnormal. Obstructive CAD was documented by ICA in 119 patients and 90 were revascularized within 90 days of enrolment. Core laboratory analysis showed that 134 patients had obstructive CAD by CTCA (>50% stenosis in major coronary vessels) and 79 significant ischaemia by functional imaging [>10% left ventricular (LV) myocardium]. Over mean follow-up of 4.4 years, major adverse events (AEs) (all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or hospital admission for unstable angina or heart failure) or AEs plus late revascularization (LR) occurred in 40 (9.3%) and 58 (13.5%) patients, respectively. Obstructive CAD at CTCA was the only independent imaging predictor of AEs [hazard ratio (HR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-9.30; P = 0.033] and AEs plus LR (HR 4.3, 95% CI 1.56-11.81; P = 0.005). Patients with CAD in whom early revascularization was performed in the presence of ischaemia and deferred in its absence had fewer AEs, similar to patients without CAD (HR 2.0, 95% CI 0.71-5.51; P = 0.195). CONCLUSION: Obstructive CAD imaged by CTCA is an independent predictor of clinical outcome. Early management of CAD targeted to the combined anatomical and functional disease phenotype improves clinical outcome.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(18): 2278-2291, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) expands the risk stratification potential of stress echocardiography (SE) based on stress-induced regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and functional correlates of CFVR. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study initially screened 3,410 patients (2,061 [60%] male; age 63 ± 11 years; ejection fraction 61 ± 9%) with known or suspected coronary artery disease and/or heart failure. All patients underwent SE (exercise, n = 1,288; vasodilator, n = 1,860; dobutamine, n = 262) based on new or worsening RWMA in 20 accredited laboratories of 8 countries. CFVR was calculated as the stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity pulsed-Doppler assessment of LAD flow. A subset of 1,867 patients was followed up. RESULTS: The success rate for CFVR on LAD was 3,002 of 3,410 (feasibility = 88%). Reduced (≤2.0) CFVR was found in 896 of 3,002 (30%) patients. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, inducible RWMA (odds ratio [OR]: 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9 to 8.5; p < 0.01), abnormal left ventricular contractile reserve (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.7 to 4.2; p < 0.01), and B-lines (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; p = 0.01) were associated with reduced CFVR. During a median follow-up time of 16 months, 218 events occurred. RWMA (hazard ratio: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.3; p < 0.001) and reduced CFVR (hazard ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.009) were independently associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: CFVR is feasible with all SE protocols. Reduced CFVR is often accompanied by RWMA, abnormal LVCR, and pulmonary congestion during stress, and shows independent value over RWMA in predicting an adverse outcome.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 972-977, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324358

RESUMO

A blunted heart rate (HR) response during dipyridamole myocardial perfusion imaging has been associated with a poor outcome. To assess the value of HR response in patients who underwent high-dose dipyridamole stress echocardiography (SE), we retrospectively selected a sample of 3,059 patients (none with pacemakers or atrial fibrillation; mean age 66 ± 11 years). All underwent high-dose (0.84 mg/kg) dipyridamole SE for evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease and/or heart failure in 2 laboratories of Pisa-IFC and Lucca. HR (with 12-lead ECG) was obtained each minute and recorded at rest and peak stress. HR reserve (HRR) was calculated as the peak/rest HR ratio. All patients were followed up. Patients were randomly divided into the modeling and validation group of equal size. During a median follow-up time of 1,004 days, 321 hard events occurred: 231 deaths and 90 nonfatal myocardial infarctions. HRR ≤ 1.22 identified by receiver operating characteristic analysis in the modeling group was an independent predictor of infarction-free survival in the modeling (hazard ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 2.60, p = 0.001), in the validation (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.01, p = 0.02), and in the overall group (hazard ratio 1.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.02, p <0.0001), either off- or on-ß blockers. Five-year event rate increased from 8% to 24 % from the highest (≥1.41) to the lowest (≤1.14) HRR quartile. In conclusion, blunted HRR is a useful nonimaging predictor of adverse events during high-dose dipyridamole SE, independent of inducible ischemia, and beta-blocker therapy.

5.
Thromb Res ; 180: 32-36, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185329

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA) machinery genes may affect the regulatory capacity of miRNAs by impacting their biogenesis. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between SNPs in two key genes (DICER rs1057035T>C and XPO5 rs11077A>C) and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk as well as to examine their effects on circulating levels of vascular miRNAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Italian GENOCOR cohort, we studied a cohort of 557 patients (502 males, 57 ±â€¯9 years) with angiographically documented CAD. A total of 443 healthy controls (262 males, 56 ±â€¯12 years) was also enrolled. Genotyping was determined by using a TaqMan®SNP genotyping assay. Analysis of miR-132 and miR-140-3p was assessed in a subset of 70 CAD patients by using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between CAD patients and healthy controls in the distribution of both DICER and XPO5 genotypes (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed a significantly decreased risk of CAD by 50% in patients with DICER rs105703CC genotype as compared to TC heterozygote and TT homozygote patients (ORadjusted = 0.50; CI: 0.30-0.83, p = 0.007). In a recessive model, the XPO5 rs11077CC genotype was associated with a 32% reduced risk of CAD (ORadjusted = 0.68; CI: 0.30-0.99 p = 0.047). XPO5 rs11077CC genotype was significantly associated with higher levels of both miRNA-132 (p = 0.04) and miRNA-140-3p (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms in DICER and XPO5 genes are associated with a decreased risk of CAD, probably by impacting expression levels of vascular and cardiac-specific miRNAs. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the biological relevance of both variants in CAD development.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Carioferinas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ribonuclease III/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(6): e008564, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167561

RESUMO

Background Cardiology guidelines identify the low-risk response during stress echocardiography as the absence of regional wall motion abnormalities. Methods From 1983 to 2016, we enrolled 5817 patients (age 63±12 years; 2830 males) with suspected coronary artery disease, normal regional, and global left ventricular function at rest and during stress (exercise in 692, dipyridamole in 4291, and dobutamine in 834). Based on timing of enrollment, 4 groups were identified in chronological order of recruitment: years 1983 to 1989, group 1 (n=211); years 1990 to 1999, group 2 (n=1491); years 2000 to 2009, group 3 (n=3285); and years 2010 to 2016, group 4 (n=830). Results There were 240 (4%) events (119 deaths and 121 infarctions) in the follow-up. At 1-year follow-up, the event rate was 0.5% (95% CI, 0.05-0.95), 1.5% (95% CI, -1.18 to 1.82), 1.9% (95% CI, 1.63-2.17), and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.01-2.39; χ2, 9.0; P=0.03) in groups 1 to 4, respectively. At multivariable Cox analysis, independent predictors of future events were age (hazard ratio (HR), 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04-1.07; P<0.0001), male sex (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.20-2.04; P=0.001), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.34-2.37; P<0.0001), smoking habit (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.05-1.85; P=0.02), and ongoing anti-ischemic therapy (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.15-1.97; P=0.003) Conclusions Over the past 3 decades, we observed a progressive decline in the prognostic value of a negative test based on regional wall motion abnormalities, likely reflecting both an increase in risk in patients, as well as a potential decrease in test performance due to concomitant anti-ischemic therapy.

8.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 86(6): 14-19, dic. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003232

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Una plataforma de entrenamiento estandarizada ayuda a armonizar la lectura de la ecocardiografía de estrés (EE) más allá de las anormalidades en la motilidad parietal regional (AMPR) Objetivo: Armonizar los criterios de lectura del EE a través de diferentes laboratorios. Métodos: El laboratorio central preparó para los lectores de ecocardiografía un módulo obligatorio de 5 parámetros basado en la web de 2 horas de duración: AMPR; líneas B, reserva de la velocidad de flujo coronario (RVFC) evaluada mediante la velocidad pico del flujo diastólico en la arteria coronaria descendente anterior; reserva contráctil ventricular izquierda (RCVI, evaluada a partir de mediciones crudas del volumen de fin de sístole, VFS); y presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar (basada en mediciones crudas de la velocidad del jet de regurgitación tricuspídea, VRT). La prueba de control de calidad consistió en 20 casos seleccionados por el centro coordinador. El umbral de aprobación determinado a priori fue de 18/20 (> 90%) con un coeficiente de correlación intraclase entre el laboratorio coordinador y el lector periférico > 0.90. Resultados: Ochenta y cuatro lectores completaron la certificación para las AMPR, 65 para las líneas B, 30 para la RVFC, 24 para el VFS y 20 para la VRT. El tiempo de lectura medio por intento fue más corto para la VRT (9 ± 4 min), la RVFC (13 ± 6 min) y las líneas B (17 ± 3 min), intermedio para el VFS (24 ± 7 min), y más prolongado para las AMPR (29 ± 12 min, p < 0.01). La tasa de acierto del primer intento fue más alta para la RVFC (85%), intermedia para la VRT (75%) y las líneas B (43%), menor para el VFS (35%) y más baja para las AMPR (28%, p < 0.01). Conclusiones: La plataforma de aprendizaje basada en la web mejora las habilidades de interpretación de imágenes sin necesidad de un equipamiento de imágenes costoso o de estudiar un paciente. El camino hacia la certificación es más largo para las AMPR, intermedio para el VFS y más corto para la VRT, la RVFC y las líneas B.


ABSTRACT Background: A standardized training platform helps to achieve reading harmonization in stress echocardiography (SE) beyond regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Objective: To harmonize SE reading criteria across different laboratories. Methods: The core lab prepared for readers an obligatory 2-hour web-based learning module for 5 parameters: RWMA; B-lines; coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) based on peak diastolic flow velocity on the left anterior descending coronary artery; left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR, from raw measurementis of end-systolic volume, ESV); systolic arterial pulmonary pressure (from raw measurementis of peak tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, TRV). The quality control test consisted of 20 cases selected by the coordinating center. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (>90%) with intra-class correla-tion coefficient between the coordinating lab and the peripheral reader >0.90. Resultis: The certification was completed by 84 readers for RWMA, 65 for B-lines, 30 for CFVR, 24 for ESV and 20 for TRV The mean reading time per attempt was shorter for TRV (9±4 min), CFVR (13±6 min) and B-lines (17±3 min), intermedi-ate for ESV (24±7 min), and longer for RWMA (29±12 min, p <0.01). The success rate of the first attempt was higher for CFVR (85%), intermediate for TRV (75%) and B-lines (43 %), lower for ESV (35%) and lowest for RWMA (28 %, p <0.01). Conclusions: A web-based learning platform improves image interpretation skills without need for expensive imaging equip-ment or a patient to scan. The road to certification is longer for RWMA, intermediate for ESV, and shorter for TRV, CFVR and B-lines.

9.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 22, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The detection of regional wall motion abnormalities is the cornerstone of stress echocardiography. Today, stress echo shows increasing trends of utilization due to growing concerns for radiation risk, higher cost and stronger environmental impact of competing techniques. However, it has also limitations: underused ability to identify factors of clinical vulnerability outside coronary artery stenosis; operator-dependence; low positivity rate in contemporary populations; intermediate risk associated with a negative test; limited value of wall motion beyond coronary artery disease. Nevertheless, stress echo has potential to adapt to a changing environment and overcome its current limitations. INTEGRATED-QUADRUPLE STRESS-ECHO: Four parameters now converge conceptually, logistically, and methodologically in the Integrated Quadruple (IQ)-stress echo. They are: 1- regional wall motion abnormalities; 2-B-lines measured by lung ultrasound; 3-left ventricular contractile reserve assessed as the stress/rest ratio of force (systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanometer/end-systolic volume from 2D); 4- coronary flow velocity reserve on left anterior descending coronary artery (with color-Doppler guided pulsed wave Doppler). IQ-Stress echo allows a synoptic functional assessment of epicardial coronary artery stenosis (wall motion), lung water (B-lines), myocardial function (left ventricular contractile reserve) and coronary small vessels (coronary flow velocity reserve in mid or distal left anterior descending artery). In "ABCD" protocol, A stands for Asynergy (ischemic vs non-ischemic heart); B for B-lines (wet vs dry lung); C for Contractile reserve (weak vs strong heart); D for Doppler flowmetry (warm vs cold heart, since the hyperemic blood flow increases the local temperature of the myocardium). From the technical (acquisition/analysis) viewpoint and required training, B-lines are the kindergarten, left ventricular contractile reserve the primary (for acquisition) and secondary (for analysis) school, wall motion the university, and coronary flow velocity reserve the PhD program of stress echo. CONCLUSION: Stress echo is changing. As an old landline telephone with only one function, yesterday stress echo used one sign (regional wall motion abnormalities) for one patient with coronary artery disease. As a versatile smart-phone with multiple applications, stress echo today uses many signs for different pathophysiological and clinical targets. Large scale effectiveness studies are now in progress in the Stress Echo2020 project with the omnivorous "ABCD" protocol.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler de Pulso/métodos , Idoso , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 156, 2018 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angina pectoris (AP) and unheralded myocardial infarction (MI) are considered random clinical equivalents of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term progression of AP as opposed to unheralded MI as alternative first clinical presentations of IHD and the effect of sex on prognosis. METHODS: The study included 2272 consecutive patients, 1419 MI and 1353 AP, hospitalized from 1995 to 2007 at CNR Clinical Physiology Institute, Pisa, Italy and followed up to December 2013, who fulfilled the following criteria: unheralded MI or AP as first manifestation of IHD; age < = 70 years; known coronary anatomy; at least 10-year follow-up. Fatal and non fatal MI, all-cause, and cardiac deaths were the end-points. RESULTS: Males were predominant in MI (86%) as compared to AP (77%). Females were predominantly affected by AP (61%, MI 39%), and older than men (61 ± 7 vs 59 ± 8 years, p < 0.001). Coronary stenoses were prevalent in MI. During 115 ± 58 months follow-up, 628 deaths (23%) were observed, including 269 cardiac (43%), and 149 cancer deaths (24%). Long-term prognosis was significantly better in AP than MI group. The lowest prevalence of future MI was recorded in female AP (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MI as first clinical manifestation of IHD implies a more adverse prognosis than AP; future MI is a rare event in AP; sex influences the first presentation of IHD and its course with possible implications for preventive strategy.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Angina Pectoris/mortalidade , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Doença Crônica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Atherosclerosis ; 276: 91-97, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) depletion has been recently associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. However, the integrity of mtDNA is another key aspect of the energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. We investigated the prognostic role of peripheral blood common mitochondrial deletion (mtDNA4977) and mtDNA-CN on long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Within the Italian GENOCOR (Genetic Mapping for Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk) cohort, we studied 515 patients (450 males, 65 ±â€¯8 years) with known or suspected stable CAD. mtDNA4977 deletion and mtDNA-CN were assessed in peripheral blood using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.5 ±â€¯1.1 years, 78 (15%) patients had MACEs (15 cardiac deaths, 17 nonfatal myocardial infarction and 46 coronary revascularizations) and 28 patients died for non-cardiac causes. Patients with high levels of mtDNA4977 deletion (>75th) had increased risk of MACEs (log rank = 7.2, p=0.007) and all-cause mortality (log rank = 5.7, p=0.01) compared with patients with low mtDNA4977 deletion (≤75th). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that log mtDNA4977 was a significant predictor of MACEs (HR = 2.17; 95% CI, 1.31-3.59; p=0.003) and all-cause mortality (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.13-3.65, p=0.02). Log mtDNA-CN was not significantly associated with MACEs or all-cause mortality. However, patients with high mtDNA4977 deletion (>75th) and low mtDNA-CN (<25th) had significantly increased risk for MACEs (HR: 3.73; 95% CI: 1.79-7.79; p=0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondria DNA damage was associated with an increased risk of MACEs and all-cause mortality in patients with stable CAD, confirming the critical role of mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Deleção de Genes , Dosagem de Genes , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Heart ; 104(9): 760-766, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of a simple score integrating non-ischaemia-related variables in expanding the wall motion abnormalities risk power during stress echocardiography (SE). METHODS: Study includes 14 279 patients who underwent SE for evaluation of coronary artery disease. All-cause death was the end point. Patients were randomly divided into the modelling and validation group of equal size. In the modelling group, multivariate analysis was conducted using clinical, rest and SE data, and a score was obtained from the number of non-ischaemia-related independent prognostic predictors. The score prognostic capability was compared in both groups. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 31 months, 1230 patients died: 622 (9%) in the modelling and 608 (9%) in the validation group (p=0.68). Independent predictors of mortality were ischaemia at SE (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.12; p<0.0001) and six other parameters: age>65 years, wall motion at rest, diabetes, left bundle branch block, anti-ischaemic therapy and male sex. Risk score resulted prognostically effective in the modelling and validation groups, both with and without inducible ischaemia subset. When risk score was included in the multivariate analysis, besides ischaemia at SE it was the only independent predictor of mortality in the modelling (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.60 to 1.82; p<0.0001), in the validation (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.65 to 1.90; p<0.0001) and in the overall group (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.66 to 1.82; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical variables may be able to optimise SE risk stratification.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Adulto , Idoso , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Bloqueio de Ramo/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(12)2017 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) predicts cardiac death, but an increasing share of cardiac patients eventually die of cancer. The aim of the study was to assess whether SE positivity predicts cancer death. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired single-center, observational data, we evaluated 4673 consecutive patients who underwent SE from 1983 to 2009. All patients were cancer-free at index SE and were followed up for a median of 131 months (interquartile range 134). We separately analyzed predetermined end points: cardiovascular, cancer, and noncardiovascular, noncancer death, with and without competing risk. SE was positive in 1757 and negative in 2916 patients; 869 cardiovascular, 418 cancer, and 625 noncardiovascular, noncancer deaths were registered. The 25-year mortality was higher in SE-positive than in SE-negative patients, considering cardiovascular (40% versus 31%; P<0.001) and cancer mortality (26% versus 17%; P<0.01). SE positivity was a strong predictor of cancer (cause-specific hazard ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.73; P=0.05) and cardiovascular mortality (1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.35; P=0.02). Fine-Gray analysis to account for competing risk gave similar results. Cancer risk diverged after 15 years, whereas differences were already significant at 5 years for cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSIONS: SE results predict cardiovascular and cancer mortality. SE may act as a proxy of the shared risk factor milieu for cancer or cardiovascular death.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 479-485, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial "Stress Echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE beyond coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was control quality and harmonize reading criteria. METHODS: One reader from 78 centers of the SE 2020 network asked for credentials to read a set of 20 SE video-clips selected by the core lab. All aspiring centers met the pre-requisite of high-volume and the years of experience in SE ranged from 5 to 31years (mean value 18years). The diagnostic gold standard was a reading by the core lab. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥90%). RESULTS: Of the initial 78 who started, 57 completed the first attempt: individual readers' score on first attempt ranged from 07/20 to 20/20 (accuracy from 35% to 100%, mean 78.7±13%) and 44 readers passed it. There was a very poor correlation between years of experience and the reader's score on first attempt (r=-0.161, p=0.231). Of the 13 readers who failed the first attempt, 12 took it again after the web-based session and their accuracy improved (74% vs. 96%, p<0.001). The kappa inter-observer agreement before and after web-based training was 0.59 on first attempt and rose to 0.91 on the last attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In SE reading, the volume of activity or years of experience is not synonymous with diagnostic quality. Qualitative analysis and operator-dependence can become a limiting weakness in clinical practice, in the absence of strict pathways of learning, credentialing and audit.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 43(11): 2558-2566, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865726

RESUMO

Various lung ultrasound (LUS) scanning modalities have been proposed for the detection of B-lines, also referred to as ultrasound lung comets, which are an important indication of extravascular lung water at rest and after exercise stress echo (ESE). The aim of our study was to assess the lung water spatial distribution (comet map) at rest and after ESE. We performed LUS at rest and immediately after semi-supine ESE in 135 patients (45 women, 90 men; age 62 ± 12 y, resting left ventricular ejection fraction = 41 ± 13%) with known or suspected heart failure or coronary artery disease. B-lines were measured by scanning 28 intercostal spaces (ISs) on the antero-lateral chest, 2nd-5th IS, along with the midaxillary (MA), anterior axillary (AA), mid-clavicular (MC) and parasternal (PS) lines. Complete 28-region, 16-region (3rd and 4th IS), 8-region (3rd IS), 4-region (3rd IS, only AA and MA) and 1-region (left 3rd IS, MA) scans were analyzed. In each space, the B-lines were counted from 0 = black lung to 10 = white lung. Interpretable images were obtained in all spaces (feasibility = 100 %). B-lines (>0 in at least 1 space) were present at ESE in 93 patients (69%) and absent in 42. More B-lines were found in the 3rd IS and along AA and MA lines. The B-line cumulative distribution was symmetric at rest (right/left = 1.10) and asymmetric with left lung predominance during stress (right/left = 0.67). The correlation of per-patient B-line number between 28-S and 16-S (R2 = 0.9478), 8-S (R2 = 0.9478) and 4-S scan (R2 = 0.9146) was excellent, but only good with 1-S (R2 = 0.8101). The average imaging and online analysis time were 5 s per space. In conclusion, during ESE, the comet map of lung water accumulation follows a predictable spatial pattern with wet spots preferentially aligned with the third IS and along the AA and MA lines. The time-saving 4-region scan is especially convenient during stress, simply dismissing dry regions and focusing on wet regions alone.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Água Extravascular Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Água Extravascular Pulmonar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Descanso , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
17.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 17(1): 223, 2017 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR) during stress echo (SE) may provide favorable response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in heart failure patients. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of available SE data in this set of patients. METHODS: From a Pubmed and Advance Google Scholar database web based search scan up to December 2016, we initially identified 5906 records. From this initial set, we removed that did not include SE and duplicate studies. We assessed for eligibility 71 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, and 60 of them did not meet the inclusion criteria as follow: 1) heart failure patients with NYHA class III and IV, depressed ejection fraction (EF <35%) and QRS duration ≥120 ms at study entry; 2) SE with assessment of LVCR; 3) Follow-up data. LVCR during SE was identified as reduction in wall motion score index and/or an increase in EF. RESULTS: Eleven studies with 861 patients (mean age 67 ± 9 years, ejection fraction 25 ± 6%) were included in the meta-analysis. The type of stress was either exercise (n = 2) or dobutamine (n = 9), the latter with low-dose (10 mcg) in two, intermediate-dose (20 mcg) in five, and high-dose (40 mcg) protocol in two studies. LVCR was detected in 555 patients (63%) and CRT-response was present in 584 (66%). The overall odds ratio for LVCR to predict a favorable CRT response was 2.06 (95%, CI 1.70-2-43), Z score: 11.055, p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The presence of LVCR during SE with either dobutamine or exercise is associated with a greater chance of response to CRT. This parameter is now ready to be tested in a prospective multicenter trial to select patients more likely to benefit from CRT.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Contração Miocárdica , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Clin Chim Acta ; 471: 68-75, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501389

RESUMO

The initial clinical manifestation of ischemic heart disease (IHD) i.e. unheralded myocardial infarction (MI) versus chronic angina pectoris (AP) is statistically associated with adverse or mild disease progression respectively in the long-term follow-up. Here, we subjected AP and MI patients to blood proteomic analysis by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) in order to investigate putative new prognostic biomarkers of IHD manifestation. We found several differentially expressed peaks but four of them (4176, 4475, 14,158m/z and 8922m/z for AP and MI, respectively) were most reliable. Two of them were identified; 14,158m/z peak was the double-charged form of Apolipoprotein A-I and its vasoprotective action accords with prominence in AP. The 4176m/z peak was related to FAM83C protein, while neither the 4475m/z peak nor the MI-linked 8922m/z peak could be identified. We conclude that SELDI-TOF-MS analysis may yield a panel of molecular signals able to retrospectively classify patients according to their clinical and molecular features, exploitable for predicting the natural course of IHD.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/diagnóstico , Angina Estável/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Angina Estável/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Prognóstico
19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 17(1): 63, 2017 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary artery disease can accumulate significant radiation dose through repeated exposures to coronary computed tomographic angiography, myocardial perfusion imaging with single photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography, and to invasive coronary angiography. Aim of the study was to audit radiation doses of coronary computed tomographic angiography, single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography and invasive coronary angiography in patients enrolled in the prospective, randomized, multi-centre European study-EVINCI (Evaluation of Integrated Cardiac Imaging for the Detection and Characterization of Ischemic Heart Disease). METHODS: We reviewed 1070 tests (476 coronary computed tomographic angiographies, 85 positron emission tomographies, 310 single photon emission computed tomographies, 199 invasive coronary angiographies) performed in 476 patients (mean age 60 ± 9 years, 60% males) enrolled in 12 centers of the EVINCI. The effective doses were calculated in milli-Sievert (mSv) as median, interquartile range (IQR) and coefficient of variation of the mean. RESULTS: Coronary computed tomographic angiography (476 exams in 12 centers) median effective dose was 9.6 mSv (IQR = 13.2 mSv); single photon emission computed tomography (310 exams in 9 centers) effective dose was 9.3 (IQR = 2.8); positron emission tomography (85 in 3 centers) effective dose 1.8 (IQR = 1.6) and invasive coronary angiography (199 in 9 centers) effective dose 7.4 (IQR = 7.3). Inter-institutional variability was highest for invasive coronary angiography (100%) and coronary computed tomographic angiography (54%) and lowest for single photon emission computed tomography (20%). Intra-institutional variability was highest for invasive coronary angiography (121%) and coronary computed tomographic angiography (115%) and lowest for single photon emission computed tomography (14%). CONCLUSION: Coronary computed tomographic angiography and invasive coronary angiography doses vary substantially between and within centers. The variability in nuclear medicine procedures is substantially lower. The findings highlight the need to audit doses, to track cumulative exposures and to standardize doses for imaging techniques. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol is available at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00979199 ). Information provided on September 16, 2009.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação , Idoso , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Segurança do Paciente , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Padrões de Prática Médica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
20.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 15(1): 3, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) has an established role in evidence-based guidelines, but recently its breadth and variety of applications have extended well beyond coronary artery disease (CAD). We lack a prospective research study of SE applications, in and beyond CAD, also considering a variety of signs in addition to regional wall motion abnormalities. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study design, > 100 certified high-volume SE labs (initially from Italy, Brazil, Hungary, and Serbia) will be networked with an organized system of clinical, laboratory and imaging data collection at the time of physical or pharmacological SE, with structured follow-up information. The study is endorsed by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography and organized in 10 subprojects focusing on: contractile reserve for prediction of cardiac resynchronization or medical therapy response; stress B-lines in heart failure; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; mitral regurgitation after either transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement; outdoor SE in extreme physiology; right ventricular contractile reserve in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot; suspected or initial pulmonary arterial hypertension; coronary flow velocity, left ventricular elastance reserve and B-lines in known or suspected CAD; identification of subclinical familial disease in genotype-positive, phenotype- negative healthy relatives of inherited disease (such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). RESULTS: We expect to recruit about 10,000 patients over a 5-year period (2016-2020), with sample sizes ranging from 5,000 for coronary flow velocity/ left ventricular elastance/ B-lines in CAD to around 250 for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. This data-base will allow to investigate technical questions such as feasibility and reproducibility of various SE parameters and to assess their prognostic value in different clinical scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: The study will create the cultural, informatic and scientific infrastructure connecting high-volume, accredited SE labs, sharing common criteria of indication, execution, reporting and image storage of SE to obtain original safety, feasibility, and outcome data in evidence-poor diagnostic fields, also outside the established core application of SE in CAD based on regional wall motion abnormalities. The study will standardize procedures, validate emerging signs, and integrate the new information with established knowledge, helping to build a next-generation SE lab without inner walls.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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