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2.
West Indian med. j ; 49(Suppl. 2): 50, Apr. 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review was designed as a pilot study to collect data on colorectal cancer surgery which would provide the basis for conducting formal prospective data collection on the patterns of this disease and its clinical presentation. DESIGN AND METHOD: A comprehensive audit of all patients with a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma was undertaken over a 2 year period (January 1996 to December 1997). RESULTS: A total of seventy-nine patients were studied. There were 47 females and 32 males. The median age was 64.5 years (range 19 to 91 years). The predominant presenting symptoms were abdominal pain in 44 patients (55.7 percent), change in bowel habit in 38 patients (48.1 percent) and rectal bleeding in 37 patients (46.8 percent). The presence of an abdominal mass in 18 patients was the most frequently detected sign. Rectal examination detected the presence of a mass in 14 (17.7 percent) patients. Forty-seven percent of patients present with anaemia. The most common location was the right colon in 21 patients (26.5 percent) followed by sigmoid colon in 15 (18.9 percent) and rectum in 14 (17.7 percent). Left and transverse colon accounted for 7 and 5 cases, respectively. Resection with restorative anastomosis was the most common procedure for primary disease with colostomy being performed infrequently (in 3 cases). Seventeen patients presented with advanced disease. There were 14 deaths, 10 due to metastatic disease and 4 from postoperative complications. Our findings indicate an increased incidence of right-sided colonic carcinomas which has also been reported by other recent series. Although this colorectal audit provides some information about the patterns of disease seen in our unit, further study of a larger group of patients will be necessary before accurate conclusion can be made. CONCLUSION: The detection of early colorectal carcinoma will require screening at a stage when the disease is asymptomatic in order to improve the chance for cure. The data presented here indicate that the majority of patients presented with advanced right sided lesions that could have been detected earlier with an established screening programme.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Cirurgia Colorretal , Auditoria Médica , Jamaica
3.
West Indian med. j ; 48(4): 195-7, Dec. 1999. gra
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1574

RESUMO

Surgical audit is imperative in modern practice, particularly in the developing world where resources are limited and efficient allocation important. The structure, process and outcome of surgical care can be determined for quality assurance or for research. Improved efficiency and reduction of morbidity and mortality are additional goals which may be accomplished. However, computerization, medical staff cooperation and the availability of dedicated staff are among the hurdles which may be encountered. We report the challenge of designing and establishing a database for auditing surgical inpatients in a developing country and the difficuties which were encountered.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Auditoria Médica/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Pacientes Internados , Registros Médicos/normas
4.
West Indian med. j ; 48(3): 147-9, Sept. 1999. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1494

RESUMO

This study reports the first 13 cases of biopsy-proven low rectal carcinoma treated by transanal electrocoagulation using a locally manufactured instrument. At the University Hospital of the West Indies, over a 16-year period, 9 patients were treated for cure, six of whom have no clinical evidence of recurrence for one to 12 years. Four cases who were offered this procedure for palliation defaulted after a single treatment. Transanal electrocoagulation provides an additional option for treating patients with small, mobile low rectal cancers, following careful screening for evidence of nodal or distant spread. The procedure can also be used in the local control of disease in patients with distant spread or in whom a major operation is not feasible (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Eletrocoagulação/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Reto , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Jamaica , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Prospectivos , Coleta de Dados
6.
West Indian med. j ; 48(1): 33-5, Mar. 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1236

RESUMO

Granulosa-theca cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms of low malignancy with hormone secreting potential, accounting for 2-3 percent of all ovarian cancers. They have an uncertain clinical course and a potential for late recurrence aftet surgical removal. Clincal features of a patient presenting with pulmonary metastases 21 years after removal of the primary tumour are described, along with a review of the management options.(AU)


Assuntos
Relatos de Casos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumor de Células da Granulosa/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Bignoniaceae/secundário , Seguimentos , Tumor de Células da Granulosa/patologia , Tumor de Células da Granulosa/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovariectomia , Pneumonectomia , Bignoniaceae/patologia , Bignoniaceae/cirurgia
7.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 3): 43-4, July 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1685

RESUMO

Breast cancer is now the commonest malignancy among females in Jamaica. In 1985 a Breast Cancer clinic was established at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) and, because young age has been suggested to be an adverse prognostic factor, data collected during the first five years were analysed to establish the pattern of this disease in young women. Thirty of the 227 female patients seen at the clinic during this period were under age 40. Information was insufficient in one case and the remaining 29 formed the study group. Only three patients were less than 30 years of age, 15 being aged 35 to 39 years. Family history was negative in 16 of 24 cases. In 28 patients presentation was related to the finding of a mass. Treatment was by surgery with or without adjunctive therapy. Eight patients were assessed as stage I, eleven were stage II and nine were stage III. Of the 20 patients for less than five years, there were three deaths and eight were distant metastases. Two of the other nine patients had distant metastases. There may be several reasons including difficulty in accessing health care, attitudes to health care that delay diagnosis, and race, why in so many of the study group the presenting disease was advanced, but no information was available to suggest what role these factors might have played in our patients.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Jamaica
8.
West Indian med. j ; 47(Suppl. 3): 30, July 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1715

RESUMO

This study examined patient deaths occurring in the critical first 24 hours after operation in order to identify those patients in whom different management decisions might have improved survival outcomes. During a 36 month period commencing January 1, 1994, information collected prospectively on all patients operated on by the general surgery, orthopaedic, neurosurgery, cardiothoracic and genitourinary services at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) was examined. Data for all patients who died within 24 hours of the operative procedure were retrieved and these patients comprised the study group. Confirmation was obtained as to the completeness of this group and the causes of death from the hospital's autopsy records. 37 patients met the study criteria and the hospital and autopsy records of all were examined. These deaths were divided into three groups: high risk (patients in extremis), medium risk (seriously ill but with reasonable chance of survival) and low risk (not expected to have any serious problem during or immediately after operation). Nine patients were deemed to be at high risk, seventeen at medium risk and eleven were placed in the low risk group. In the high risk group, the majority were trauma cases in whom the findings at operation showed that survival was not in fact possible. Among the medium risk patients there were six severe injuries and a similar number had serious cardiac disease. It was in those cases assessed as being of low risk that there was most cause for concern. The identification and documentation of this group may offer a widely applicable means of assessing and comparing the quality of perioperative surgical care.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Risco , Jamaica
9.
West Indian med. j ; 47(2): 68-71, Jun. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1798

RESUMO

Inflammatory pseudotumour of the orbit is an unusual condition of unknown aetiology which rarely extends beyond the orbit. To our knowledge 19 cases with intracranial extension have been reported, one of which involved the pituitary fossa or sphenoid sinus. Most required cytotoxic agents, surgery or radiotherapy in addition to corticosteroids. We present a case of orbit pseudotumour with extension into the pituitary fossa, sphenoid sinus and cavernous sinuses with vascular compression. Marked clinical improvement occurred on steroid therapy alone.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Relatos de Casos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Orbitárias/patologia
10.
West Indian med. j ; 45(suppl. 2): 18, Apr. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4648

RESUMO

During a three-month period patients aged 16 years and over, admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) via the emergency room, were screened for the metabolites of cannabis in the urine. Forty-six per cent were positive for cannabis. Patients testing positive were significantly younger than those who tested negative (p<0.001), the mean ages (95 percent confidence interval CF) being 28 (25-30) years and 35 (29-39) years, respectively. Patients were placed into one of three groups depending on whether they were victims of motor vehicle accidents, interpersonal violence or "other accidents". The prevalence of cannabis abuse was significantly less in the "other accidents" group compared with victims of motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence. Fifty per cent of the road traffic accident victims (95 percent CI, 35-52 percent), 55 per cent due to interpersonal violence (95 percent CI, 39-69 percent) and 16 per cent of the "other accidents" group (95 percent CI, 4-38 percent) tested positive for cannabis. There was no significant difference in hospital stay (HS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS) or Injury Severity Score (ISS) between cannabis abusers and nonusers. We conclude that there is a high incidence of cannabis abuse among trauma victims in Jamaica and postulate that it may play an important role in the aetiology of motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica , Acidentes de Trânsito , Jamaica
11.
WEST INDIAN MED. J ; 45(1): 31-3, Mar. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-4685

RESUMO

An observational cross-sectional survey showed that 21.1 percent of private motor vehicle drivers and 13.5 percent of front seat passengers voluntarily wore seat belts in Kingston, Jamaica, where there is no law requiring this. Rear passenger utilisation was not examined. Compared to males, females were significantly more likely to wear seat belts when driving but not as front seat passengers. Of all motor vehicles examined 10.1 percent were not equipped with seat belts. The oldest group of vehicles were mostly not fitted with seat belts. Drivers of older vehicles were significantly less likely to use seat belts even when the vehicles were equipped with belts. Implementation of legislation can reduce mortality, morbidity and costs from road traffic accidents which are relatively frequent in Jamaica. Male drivers, drivers of older vehicles and all passengers may require specific targeting in an educational and enforcement campaign should legislation, which is highly desirable, be implemented (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Automóveis
12.
West Indian med. j ; 45(1): 31-3, Mar. 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-165477

RESUMO

An observational cross-sectional survey showed that 21.1 percent of private motor vehicle drivers and 13.5 percent of front seat passengers voluntarily wore seat belts in Kingston, Jamaica, where there is no law requiring this. Rear passenger utilisation was not examined. Compared to males, females were significantly more likely to wear seat belts when driving but not as front seat passengers. Of all motor vehicles examined 10.1 percent were not equipped with seat belts. The oldest group of vehicles were mostly not fitted with seat belts. Drivers of older vehicles were significantly less likely to use seat belts even when the vehicles were equipped with belts. Implementation of legislation can reduce mortality, morbidity and costs from road traffic accidents which are relatively frequent in Jamaica. Male drivers, drivers of older vehicles and all passengers may require specific targeting in an educational and enforcement campaign should legislation, which is highly desirable, be implemented


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Automóveis , Estudos Transversais , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
13.
West Indian med. j ; 44(3): 93-5, Sept. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-5884

RESUMO

One hundred and thirty-eight patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated by aneurysmorrhaphy over an eleven-year period. Six patients, all male and aged 60 - 74 years, were found to have developed primary aorteonteric fistulae. Four patients presented with bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract in association with a tender abdominal swelling. In the other two cases, the aneurysm was discovered at emergency laparatomy for gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The presence of the fistula was confirmed at operation in five patients and at autopsy in one. Two patients died, one from a massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage to surgery, the other from sepsis complicated by adult respiratory distress syndrome and renal failure following operation (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fístula Intestinal/etiologia , Fístula Intestinal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia
14.
West Indian med. j ; 44(3): 93-5, Sept. 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-152464

RESUMO

One hundred and thirty-eight patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated by aneurysmorrhaphy over an eleven-year period. Six patients, all male and aged 60 - 74 years, were found to have developed primary aorteonteric fistulae. Four patients presented with bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract in association with a tender abdominal swelling. In the other two cases, the aneurysm was discovered at emergency laparatomy for gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The presence of the fistula was confirmed at operation in five patients and at autopsy in one. Two patients died, one from a massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage to surgery, the other from sepsis complicated by adult respiratory distress syndrome and renal failure following operation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Fístula Intestinal/etiologia , Fístula Intestinal/cirurgia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia
15.
West Indian med. j ; 43(4): 117-20, Dec. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-140754

RESUMO

Trauma accounted for 20 per cent of all admissions to the general surgery wards of this University Hospital in a developing country. It was the most common reason for admission. This condition affects the young, males more commonly than females, and results in the need for operation in almost 40 per cent of admitted trauma patients. Trauma surgery accounts for 17 per cent of all operations done. Hospital stay and age are significantly greater in those requiring operation. The head, chest and abdomen are, in order of frequency, the most commonly affected areas of the body, and injury is mainly the result of interpersonal violence (52 per cent ), accidental injuries including burns (20 per cent ), and road traffic accidents (20 per cent ). In-patient mortality was 4.5 per cent , significantly higher in older patients and mainly in those with head injuries and burns. Scarce resources and resource allocation mandate preventive measures to minimize the human and economic waste


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Fatores Etários , Queimaduras , Violência Doméstica , Hospitais Universitários , Tempo de Internação , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
West Indian med. j ; 43(4): 134-7, Dec. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-140759

RESUMO

Of the twenty-nine children with solid tumours treated at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) between January, 1972 and December, 1991, there were twenty-eight cases of nephroblastoma and one of mesoblastic nephroma. Peak incidence was between the ages of two and four years. Twenty-five children had radical nephrectomy while one had bilateral partial nephrectomy. In thirteen cases, pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy was used. Post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used in 24 and 13 cases, respectively. Stage of the tumour was the most decisive factor influencing the outcome. Whereas there was 100 per cent cure rate in Stages I and II, Stage III had only a 55.5 per cent survival rate and non of the Stage IV survived. Bilateral (Stage V) tumours are curable if individual tumours are localised, as in one of the two cases. The benign mesoblastic nephroma, in a one-month-old infant, was cured by nephrectomy alone. While the present therapy of radical nephrectomy along with combination chemotherapy is satisfactory for early stages, more aggressive adjuvant therapy is needed for improving the results in Stages III and IV


Assuntos
Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Renais , Tumor de Wilms , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nefroma Mesoblástico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tumor de Wilms/diagnóstico , Tumor de Wilms/mortalidade , Tumor de Wilms/terapia
17.
West Indian med. j ; 43(3): 89-92, Sept. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7758

RESUMO

A retrospective analysis of 26 children with neuroblastic tumours treated at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) between 1970 and 1991 was undertaken to evaluate factors affecting prognosis. The peak incidence was between 48 months and 60 months of age, and 75 percent of the deaths occurred in children older than 3 years. The abdomen was the most common site of the tumours 79 percent of which were from the adrenal gland and carried a dismal outcome. Other sites were thoracic, pelvic and cervical. Extra-adrenal tumours have a good outcome even when the histology is unfavourable; 92 percent of the tumours were in Stages III or IV at the time of initial presentation. Stage IV disease accounted for all but one of the deaths. Of the 8 children with favourable histology (ganglioneuroma or well-differentiated ganglioneuroblastoma), only one (12.5 percent) died, whereas of the remaining 18 cases with unfavourable histology (neuroblastoma and undifferentiated ganglioneuroblastoma), eleven (61 percent) died. When managed by surgery alone or with adjuvant chemo- and/or radio-therapy, only 36.4 percent succumbed while all 4 children with chemotherapy only died. Ten children are alive without disease for more than three years post-therapy. A scoring system was designed which takes into account the factors influencing the outcome in neuroblastic tumours, namely, age, location, stage and histological types of the tumours and therapy. All the children with a score of 21 or less survived, whereas all those with scores of 22 or above succumbed. This underlines the multifactorial influences on the final outcome of neuroblastic tumours (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Prognóstico , Neuroblastoma , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
West Indian med. j ; 43(3): 89-92, Sept. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-140348

RESUMO

A retrospective analysis of 26 children with neuroblastic tumours treated at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) between 1970 and 1991 was undertaken to evaluate factors affecting prognosis. The peak incidence was between 48 months and 60 months of age, and 75//of the deaths occurred in children older than 3 years. The abdomen was the most common site of the tumours 79//of which were from the adrenal gland and carried a dismal outcome. Other sites were thoracic, pelvic and cervical. Extra-adrenal tumours have a good outcome even when the histology is unfavourable; 92//of the tumours were in Stages III or IV at the time of initial presentation. Stage IV disease accounted for all but one of the deaths. Of the 8 children with favourable histology (ganglioneuroma or well-differentiated ganglioneuroblastoma), only one (12.5//) died, whereas of the remaining 18 cases with unfavourable histology (neuroblastoma and undifferentiated ganglioneuroblastoma), eleven (61//) died. When managed by surgery alone or with adjuvant chemo- and/or radio-therapy, only 36.4//succumbed while all 4 children with chemotherapy only died. Ten children are alive without disease for more than three years post-therapy. A scoring system was designed which takes into account the factors influencing the outcome in neuroblastic tumours, namely, age, location, stage and histological types of the tumours and therapy. All the children with a score of 21 or less survived, whereas all those with scores of 22 or above succumbed. This underlines the multifactorial influences on the final outcome of neuroblastic tumours


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Neuroblastoma , Prognóstico , Evolução Fatal , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
West Indian med. j ; 43(2): 63-5, Jun. 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-136484

RESUMO

The Rapunzel Syndrome, a rare manifestation of trichobezoar, occurs when bolus gastrointestinal obstruction is produced by an unusual trichobezoar with a long tail that extends to or beyond the ileocaecal valve. A five-year-old Jamaican girl presented with this abnormality and was found at laparotomy also to have an ileo-ileal intussuception. For the Rapunzel Syndrome, we recommended bezoar extraction at laparotomy via multiple enterotomies. In addition, psychiatric evaluation and therapy is essential due to the commonly associated finding of underlying emotional stress.


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Bezoares , Obstrução Intestinal , Fibrose , Gastrostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecido de Granulação , Ileostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Jamaica , Jejuno , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
West Indian med. j ; 43(2): 63-7, June 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-7995

RESUMO

The Rapunzel Syndrome, a rare manifestation of trichobezoar, occurs when bolus gastrointestinal obstruction is produced by an unusual trichobezoar with a long tail that extends to or beyond the ileocaecal valve. A five-year-old Jamaican girl presented with this abnormality and was found at laparotomy also to have an ileo-ileal intussuception. For the Rapunzel Syndrome, we recommended bezoar extraction at laparotomy via multiple enterotomies. In addition, psychiatric evaluation and therapy is essential due to the commonly associated finding of underlying emotional stress. (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Bezoares , Obstrução Intestinal , Jamaica , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastrostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ileostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Jejuno , Tecido de Granulação , Fibrose
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