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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype most prevalent among women of Western Sub-Saharan African ancestry. It accounts for 15-25% of African American (AA) breast cancers (BC) and up to 80% of Ghanaian breast cancers, thus contributing to outcome disparities in BC for black women. The aggressive biology of TNBC has been shown to be regulated partially by breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) which mediate tumor recurrence and metastasis and are more abundant in African breast tumors. METHODS: We studied the biological differences between TNBC in women with African ancestry and those of Caucasian women by comparing the gene expression of the BCSC. From low-passage patient derived xenografts (PDX) from Ghanaian (GH), AA, and Caucasian American (CA) TNBCs, we sorted for and sequenced the stem cell populations and analyzed for differential gene enrichment. RESULTS: In our cohort of TNBC tumors, we observed that the ALDH expressing stem cells display distinct ethnic specific gene expression patterns, with the largest difference existing between the GH and AA ALDH+ cells. Furthermore, the tumors from the women of African ancestry [GH/AA] had ALDH stem cell (SC) enrichment for expression of immune related genes and processes. Among the significantly upregulated genes were CD274 (PD-L1), CXCR9, CXCR10 and IFI27, which could serve as potential drug targets. CONCLUSIONS: Further exploration of the role of immune regulated genes and biological processes in BCSC may offer insight into developing novel approaches to treating TNBC to help ameliorate survival disparities in women with African ancestry.

2.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1647-1655, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates are increasing among individuals < 50 years of age (early-onset CRC) globally with causes unknown. Racial/ethnic disparities in early-onset CRC have also grown more pronounced, because Black individuals have higher early-onset CRC incidence and poorer survival compared with White individuals. We describe the prevalence and burden of early-onset CRC among Africans in Nigeria and African Americans (AAs) in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified Black individuals diagnosed with a first primary CRC ages 18 to 49 years between 1989 and 2017 at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital in Zaria, Nigeria (Nigerians), and in the United States (AAs) using the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute's SEER program of cancer registries. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate clinical and demographic differences between Nigerians and AAs with early-onset CRC, adjusted for age, sex, tumor site, and histology. RESULTS: A total of 5,019 Black individuals were diagnosed with early-onset CRC over the study period (379 Nigerians; 4,640 AAs). Overall, approximately one third of young Black patients were diagnosed with rectal tumors (35.8%). Nigerian individuals with early-onset CRC were eight-fold more likely to be diagnosed with rectal tumors (odds ratio [OR], 8.14; 95% CI, 6.23 to 10.62; P < .0001) and more likely to be diagnosed at younger ages (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.89; P < .0001) compared with young African Americans in adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Compared with AA individuals diagnosed with early-onset CRC, Nigerian individuals harbor distinct features of early-onset CRC. Additional investigation of the histopathologic and biologic heterogeneity of early-onset CRCs among Black individuals is critical for understanding racial disparities in susceptibility and outcomes, which may have implications for tailored early-onset CRC prevention, detection, and treatment strategies.

3.
J Med Chem ; 63(20): 11484-11497, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030342

RESUMO

Abnormal activation of the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19)/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) signaling pathway has been shown to drive the proliferation of a significant portion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Resistance and toxicity are serious drawbacks that have been observed upon use of the current first- and second-line treatment options for HCC, therefore warranting the investigation of alternative therapeutic approaches. We report the development and biological characterization of a covalent inhibitor that is highly potent and exquisitely specific to FGFR4. The crystal structure of this inhibitor in complex with FGFR4 was solved, confirming its covalent binding and revealing its binding mode. We also describe the first clickable probe for FGFR4 that can be used to directly measure target engagement in cells. Our compound exhibited great antitumor activity in HCC cell lines and tumor xenograft models. These results provide evidence of a promising therapeutic lead for the treatment of a subset of HCC patients.

4.
Neurooncol Adv ; 2(1): vdaa078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743548

RESUMO

Background: Tumor heterogeneity underlies resistance and disease progression in glioblastoma (GBM), and tumors most commonly recur adjacent to the surgical resection margins in contrast non-enhancing (NE) regions. To date, no targeted therapies have meaningfully altered overall patient survival in the up-front setting. The aim of this study was to characterize intratumoral heterogeneity in recurrent GBM using bulk samples from primary resection and recurrent samples taken from contrast-enhancing (EN) and contrast NE regions. Methods: Whole exome and RNA sequencing were performed on matched bulk primary and multiple recurrent EN and NE tumor samples from 16 GBM patients who received standard of care treatment alone or in combination with investigational clinical trial regimens. Results: Private mutations emerge across multi-region sampling in recurrent tumors. Genomic clonal analysis revealed increased enrichment in gene alterations regulating the G2M checkpoint, Kras signaling, Wnt signaling, and DNA repair in recurrent disease. Subsequent functional studies identified augmented PI3K/AKT transcriptional and protein activity throughout progression, validated by phospho-protein levels. Moreover, a mesenchymal transcriptional signature was observed in recurrent EN regions, which differed from the proneural signature in recurrent NE regions. Conclusions: Subclonal populations observed within bulk resected primary GBMs transcriptionally evolve across tumor recurrence (EN and NE regions) and exhibit aberrant gene expression of common signaling pathways that persist despite standard or targeted therapy. Our findings provide evidence that there are both adaptive and clonally mediated dependencies of GBM on key pathways, such as the PI3K/AKT axis, for survival across recurrences.

5.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of prostate cancer (PCa) is a well-known risk factor, and both common and rare genetic variants are associated with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To detect new genetic variants associated with PCa, capitalizing on the role of family history and more aggressive PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-stage design was used. In stage one, whole-exome sequencing was used to identify potential risk alleles among affected men with a strong family history of disease or with more aggressive disease (491 cases and 429 controls). Aggressive disease was based on a sum of scores for Gleason score, node status, metastasis, tumor stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, systemic recurrence, and time to PCa death. Genes identified in stage one were screened in stage two using a custom-capture design in an independent set of 2917 cases and 1899 controls. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Frequencies of genetic variants (singly or jointly in a gene) were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Eleven genes previously reported to be associated with PCa were detected (ATM, BRCA2, HOXB13, FAM111A, EMSY, HNF1B, KLK3, MSMB, PCAT1, PRSS3, and TERT), as well as an additional 10 novel genes (PABPC1, QK1, FAM114A1, MUC6, MYCBP2, RAPGEF4, RNASEH2B, ULK4, XPO7, and THAP3). Of these 10 novel genes, all but PABPC1 and ULK4 were primarily associated with the risk of aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach demonstrates the advantage of gene sequencing in the search for genetic variants associated with PCa and the benefits of sampling patients with a strong family history of disease or an aggressive form of disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Multiple genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) among men with a strong family history of this disease or among men with an aggressive form of PCa.

6.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 318, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587328

RESUMO

We performed shallow single-cell sequencing of genomic DNA across 1475 cells from a cell-line, COLO829, to resolve overall complexity and clonality. This melanoma tumor-line has been previously characterized by multiple technologies and is a benchmark for evaluating somatic alterations. In some of these studies, COLO829 has shown conflicting and/or indeterminate copy number and, thus, single-cell sequencing provides a tool for gaining insight. Following shallow single-cell sequencing, we first identified at least four major sub-clones by discriminant analysis of principal components of single-cell copy number data. Based on clustering, break-point and loss of heterozygosity analysis of aggregated data from sub-clones, we identified distinct hallmark events that were validated within bulk sequencing and spectral karyotyping. In summary, COLO829 exhibits a classical Dutrillaux's monosomic/trisomic pattern of karyotype evolution with endoreduplication, where consistent sub-clones emerge from the loss/gain of abnormal chromosomes. Overall, our results demonstrate how shallow copy number profiling can uncover hidden biological insights.

7.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

8.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430639

RESUMO

Lack of substantive research experiences and technical skills mentoring during undergraduate studies leaves many underrepresented minority (URM) students unprepared to apply to competitive graduate programs. As a part of our ongoing effort to increase the pipeline for the development and training of successful URM scientists in biomedical sciences with focus on reducing cancer health disparities, the Florida-California Cancer Research Education and Engagement (CaRE2) Health Equity Center was launched in 2018. Funded through an NIH/NCI U54 grant mechanism, the CaRE2 Center is a triad partnership among Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU), a minority-serving institution, University of Florida (UF), and University of Southern California (USC) Cancer Center. One of the objectives of the triad partnership is to promote the coordination and implementation of the training of the next generation of Black and Latinx biomedical scientists in Florida and California. An important component of the CaRE2 program is the Research and Education Core (REC) designed to coordinate the training of URM students and researchers at different levels in their academic and professional developments. The undergraduate cancer research training program under FAMU-CaRE2 Center is a 3-year (2018-2021) project to identify, train, mentor, and provide the URM undergraduate students with the support network they need to flourish in the program and beyond. In its year-1 funding cycle, the program has made significant progress in developing a novel framework for an undergraduate cancer research education and engagement program at FAMU, one of the forefront minority institutions in the nation. The mentored research program is complemented with professional development and engagement activities, including cancer research seminars, workshops, and community outreach activities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the strategies implemented for an effective partnership, the leadership and mentoring skills, and outcomes from the year-1 experiences. In addition, we present the progress made in advancing the pool of underrepresented minority students with scientific and academic career progression paths focused on cancer health disparities.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2845-2854, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037533

RESUMO

Transcriptomic profiling of metastatic cancer can illuminate mechanisms of progression and lead to new therapies, but standard biopsy is invasive and reflects only a single metastatic site. In contrast, circulating tumor cell (CTC) profiling is noninvasive and repeatable, reflecting the dynamic and systemic nature of advanced disease. To date, transcriptomic profiling of CTCs has not delivered on its full potential, because white blood cells (WBCs) vastly outnumber CTCs. Current profiling strategies either lack cancer sensitivity and specificity or require specialized CTC capture protocols that are not readily scalable to large patient cohorts. Here, we describe a new strategy for rapid CTC enrichment and transcriptomic profiling using commercially available WBC depletion, microfluidic enrichment and RNA sequencing. When applied to blood samples from patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC), transcriptomes from enriched samples cluster with cancer positive controls and previously undetectable prostate-specific transcripts become readily measurable. Gene set enrichment analysis reveals multiple significantly enriched signaling pathways associated with PC, as well as novel pathways that merit further study. This accessible and scalable approach yields cancer-specific transcriptomic data and can be applied repeatedly and noninvasively in large cancer patient cohorts to discover new therapeutic targets in advanced disease.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

11.
J Glob Oncol ; 5: 1-9, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479341

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer incidence is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the capacity of pathology laboratories in this region. We aimed to assess the current state of pathology services in Nigeria to guide strategies to ensure best practices and improve the quality of surgical specimen handling. METHODS: We developed structured pathology survey to assess tissue handling, sample processing, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) capabilities. The survey was distributed electronically to 22 medical centers in Nigeria that are part of established cancer consortia. Data were collected between September and October 2017. RESULTS: Sixteen of 22 centers completed the survey in full. All 16 institutions had at least one board-certified pathologist and at least one full-time laboratory scientist/technologist. The majority of responding institutions (75%) reported processing fewer than 3,000 samples per year. For sample processing, 38% of institutions reported manual tissue processing and 75% processed biopsies and surgical specimens together. The average tissue fixation time ranged from 5 to more than 72 hours before processing and paraffin embedding. Half of the institutions reported having no quality assurance processes to evaluate hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, and 25% reported having no written operating procedures. Half of the participating institutions have a facility for routine IHC staining, and among these there was considerable variability in processes and validation procedures. External proficiency testing was not common among surveyed sites (38%). CONCLUSION: Data from 16 Nigerian medical institutions indicate deficiencies in standardization, quality control, and IHC validation that could affect the reliability of pathology results. These findings highlight addressable gaps in pathology services that can ensure accurate diagnosis and follow-up for the growing number of patients with cancer in this region.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cells ; 8(4)2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987182

RESUMO

Mitochondrial genome-wide association studies identify mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that associate with disease or disease-related phenotypes. Most mitochondrial and nuclear genome-wide association studies adjust for genetic ancestry by including principal components derived from nuclear DNA, but not from mitochondrial DNA, as covariates in statistical regression analyses. Furthermore, there is no standard when controlling for genetic ancestry during mitochondrial and nuclear genetic interaction association scans, especially across ethnicities with substantial mitochondrial genetic heterogeneity. The purpose of this study is to (1) compare the degree of ethnic variation captured by principal components calculated from microarray-defined nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and (2) assess the utility of mitochondrial principal components for association studies. Analytic techniques used in this study include a principal component analysis for genetic ancestry, decision-tree classification for self-reported ethnicity, and linear regression for association tests. Data from the Health and Retirement Study, which includes self-reported White, Black, and Hispanic Americans, was used for all analyses. We report that (1) mitochondrial principal component analysis (PCA) captures ethnic variation to a similar or slightly greater degree than nuclear PCA in Blacks and Hispanics, (2) nuclear and mitochondrial DNA classify self-reported ethnicity to a high degree but with a similar level of error, and 3) mitochondrial principal components can be used as covariates to adjust for population stratification in association studies with complex traits, as demonstrated by our analysis of height-a phenotype with a high heritability. Overall, genetic association studies might reveal true and robust mtSNP associations when including mitochondrial principal components as regression covariates.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1482, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728399

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing (WES), targeted gene panel sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are increasingly used for the identification of actionable alterations that are critical to cancer care. Here, we compared The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange (GENIE) breast cancer genomic datasets (array and next generation sequencing (NGS) data) in detecting genomic alterations in clinically relevant genes. We performed an in silico analysis to determine the concordance in the frequencies of actionable mutations and copy number alterations/aberrations (CNAs) in the two most common breast cancer histologies, invasive lobular and invasive ductal carcinoma. We found that targeted sequencing identified a larger number of mutational hotspots and clinically significant amplifications that would have been missed by WES and SNP arrays in many actionable genes such as PIK3CA, EGFR, AKT3, FGFR1, ERBB2, ERBB3 and ESR1. The striking differences between the number of mutational hotspots and CNAs generated from these platforms highlight a number of factors that should be considered in the interpretation of array and NGS-based genomic data for precision medicine. Targeted panel sequencing was preferable to WES to define the full spectrum of somatic mutations present in a tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/normas , Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
14.
JCI Insight ; 4(5)2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702443

RESUMO

Molecular profiling of prostate cancer with liquid biopsies, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acid analysis, yields informative yet distinct data sets. Additional insights may be gained by simultaneously interrogating multiple liquid biopsy components to construct a more comprehensive molecular disease profile. We conducted an initial proof-of-principle study aimed at piloting this multiparametric approach. Peripheral blood samples from men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer were analyzed simultaneously for CTC enumeration, single-cell copy number variations, CTC DNA and matched cell-free DNA mutations, and plasma cell-free RNA levels of androgen receptor (AR) and AR splice variant (ARV7). In addition, liquid biopsies were compared with matched tumor profiles when available, and a second liquid biopsy was drawn and analyzed at disease progression in a subset of patients. In this manner, multiparametric liquid biopsy profiles were successfully generated for each patient and time point, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and highlighting shared as well as unique cancer-relevant alterations. With further refinement and validation in large cohorts, multiparametric liquid biopsies can optimally integrate disparate but clinically informative data sets and maximize their utility for molecularly directed, real-time patient management.


Assuntos
Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/sangue , Receptores Androgênicos/genética
15.
J Urol ; 201(2): 332-341, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conventional imaging cannot definitively detect nodal metastases of prostate cancer. We histologically validated C-acetate positron emission tomography/computerized tomography to identify nodal metastases, examining prostate cancer factors that influence detection rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with C-acetate avid positron emission tomography/computerized tomography imaged pelvic/retroperitoneal lymph nodes underwent high extended robotic lymphadenectomy. A standardized mapping template comprising 8 predetermined anatomical regions was dissected during lymphadenectomy, allowing for matched, region based analysis and comparison of imaging and histological data. RESULTS: In 25 patients a total of 2,149 lymph nodes were excised (mean 86 per patient, range 27 to 136) and 528 (22%) harbored metastases (mean 21 positive nodes per patient, range 0 to 109). A total of 174 anatomical regions had matching imaging histological data. C-acetate positron emission tomography/computerized tomography accurately identified 48 node-positive regions and accurately ruled out 88 regions as metastasis-free. C-acetate sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 67%, 84%, 74% and 79%, respectively. An increasing, histologically measured metastatic lesion size in long axis diameter of 5 or less, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, 16 to 20 and 21 mm or greater correlated with improved C-acetate detection rates of 45%, 62%, 81%, 89% and 100%, respectively. Each standard uptake value unit increase correlated with a 1.9 mm increase in nodal long axis diameter (p <0.001) and a 1.2 mm increase in short axis diameter (p <0.001). Positive C-acetate positron emission tomography/computerized tomography findings correlated with histological lymph node size (long axis diameter 12 mm and short axis diameter 6 mm), metastatic lesion size (long axis diameter 11 mm and short axis diameter 6 mm) and extranodal extension (positive 88% vs false-negative 58%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: C-acetate positron emission tomography/computerized tomography can identify prostate cancer metastatic nodal disease. However, it underestimates the true cephalad extent of nodal involvement, performing better in the pelvis than in the retroperitoneum. Standard uptake value, histological nodal size, intranodal metastasis size and extranodal extension correlate with cancer bearing nodes.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Reações Falso-Negativas , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Espaço Retroperitoneal/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Invest New Drugs ; 37(4): 636-645, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264293

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma (MM) exhibits a high propensity for central nervous system dissemination with ~50% of metastatic MM patients developing brain metastases (BM). Targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved overall survival for MM patients with BM. However, responses are usually of short duration and new agents that effectively penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB) are needed. Here, we report a MM patient with BM who experienced an exceptional response to E6201, an ATP-competitive MEK1 inhibitor, on a Phase 1 study, with ongoing near-complete response and overall survival extending beyond 8 years. Whole exome and transcriptome sequencing revealed a high mutational burden tumor (22 mutations/Megabase) with homozygous BRAF V600E mutation. Correlative preclinical studies demonstrated broad activity for E6201 across BRAF V600E mutant melanoma cell lines and effective BBB penetration in vivo. Together, these results suggest that E6201 may represent a potential new treatment option for BRAF-mutant MM patients with BM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactonas/sangue , Lactonas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/sangue , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(12): e1475873, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524885

RESUMO

Osteosarcomas are aggressive bone tumors for which therapeutic advances have not improved over several decades. Unlike most pediatric tumors, the osteosarcoma genome is remarkably unstable, characterized by numerous copy number alterations and chromosomal structural aberrations. In this study, we asked if the targetable immune checkpoints CD274 (PD-L1), PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2), CD276 (B7-H3) and IDO1 are impacted by copy number alterations in osteosarcoma. Of the 215 osteosarcoma samples investigated, PD-L1/PD-L2, B7-H3 and IDO1 were independently gained at frequencies of approximately 8-9%, with a cumulative frequency of approximately 24%. RNA sequencing data from two independent cohorts revealed that B7-H3 is the most highly expressed immune checkpoint gene among the four investigated. We also show that IDO1 is preferentially expressed in pediatric solid tumors and that increased protein expression of B7-H3 and IDO1 are significantly associated with inferior survival in patient samples. Using human osteosarcoma cell lines, we demonstrate that IDO1 is gained in MG63 and G292 cells and that the IDO1 inhibitor, epacadostat, inhibits the enzymatic activity of IDO1 in a dose-dependent manner in these cells. Together, these data reveal the genomic and transcriptomic profiles of PD-L1, PD-L2, B7-H3 and IDO1 in osteosarcoma and identifies a potential context for targeted immunotherapeutic intervention in a subset of patients.

18.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(11): 1311-1319, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304372

RESUMO

Prostate cancer remains the second most prevalent cancer in men. Its incidence, progression and mortality profiles vary significantly by race and ethnicity, with African-American men having the highest incidence rate and mortality rate in the world. Although these disparities can be partially explained by socioeconomic factors, the underlying molecular causes are complex and require careful research. A considerable amount of literature exists, supporting the association between mitochondrial health and the incidence, aggression and risk of prostate cancer. Genetic alterations in mitochondrial DNA are frequent in prostate cancer; therefore, the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic dysregulation may contribute to or indicate oncogenesis. Many of the prominent features of cancer cells are also closely related to mitochondrial functions, such as resistance to apoptosis, excess reactive oxygen species production and altered oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, prostate cancer ethnic disparity is influenced by environmental and lifestyle factors, which involves differences in mitochondrial metabolism and retrograde signaling events.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Agressão , Apoptose/genética , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(11): 1331-1341, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239619

RESUMO

African Americans (AAs) have higher incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with other US populations. They present with more right-sided, microsatellite stable disease and are diagnosed at earlier ages compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). To gain insight into these trends, we conducted exome sequencing (n = 45), copy number (n = 33) and methylation analysis (n = 11) of microsatellite stable AA CRCs. Results were compared with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Two of the 45 tumors contained POLE mutations. In the remaining 43 tumors, only 27 (63%) contained loss-of-function mutations in APC compared with 80% of TCGA NHW CRCs. APC-mutation-negative CRCs were associated with an earlier onset of CRC (P = 0.01). They were also associated with lower overall mutation burden, fewer copy number variants and a DNA methylation signature that was distinct from the CpG island methylator phenotype characterized in microsatellite unstable disease. Three of the APC-mutation-negative CRCs had loss-of-function mutations in BCL9L. Mutations in driver genes identified by TCGA exome analysis were less frequent in AA CRC cases than TCGA NHWs. Genes that regulate the WNT signaling pathway, including SOX9, GATA6, TET1, GLIS1 and FAT1, were differentially hypermethylated in APC-mutation-negative CRCs, suggesting a novel mechanism for cancer development in these tumors. In summary, we have identified a subtype of CRC that is associated with younger age of diagnosis, lack of APC mutation, microsatellite and chromosome stability, lower mutation burden and distinctive methylation changes.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Caderinas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA6/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
20.
Mol Oncol ; 12(7): 1138-1152, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741809

RESUMO

African American men (AAM) are at higher risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) and are at higher risk of dying from the disease compared to European American men (EAM). We sought to better understand PCa molecular diversity that may be underlying these disparities. We performed RNA-sequencing analysis on high-grade PCa to identify genes showing differential tumor versus noncancer adjacent tissue expression patterns unique to AAM or EAM. We observed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) was upregulated in the nonmalignant adjacent tissue in AAM, but in EAM IL-6 expression was higher in PCa tissue. Enrichment analysis identified that genes linked to the function of TP53 were overrepresented and downregulated in PCa tissue from AAM. These RNA-sequencing results informed our subsequent investigation of a diverse PCa cell line panel. We observed that PCa cell lines that are TP53 wild-type, which includes cell lines derived from AAM (MDA-PCa-2b and RC77T), did not express detectable IL-6 mRNA. IL-6 treatment of these cells downregulated wild-type TP53 protein and induced mRNA and protein expression of the epigenetic reader methyl CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), specifically the alternative mRNA splicing variant MBD2_v2. Further investigation validated that upregulation of this short isoform promotes self-renewal and expansion of PCa cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). In conclusion, this report contributes to characterizing gene expression patterns in high-grade PCa and adjacent noncancer tissues from EAM and AAM. The results we describe here advance what is known about the biology associated with PCa race disparities and the molecular signaling of CSCs.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Afro-Americanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia
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