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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

2.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 363-374, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838450

RESUMO

Neural tube defect disorders are developmental diseases that originate from an incomplete closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis. Despite high prevalence-1 out of 3000 live births-their etiology is not yet established and both environmental and genetic factors have been proposed, with a heritability rate of about 60%. Studies in mouse models as well as in human have further suggested a multifactorial pattern of inheritance for neural tube defect disorders. Here, we report results obtained from clinical diagnosis and NGS analysis of a cohort composed of 52 patients. Using a candidate gene panel approach, we identified variants in known genes of planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, although with higher prevalence than previously reported. Our study also reveals variants in novel genes such as FREM2 and DISP1. Altogether, these results confirm the implication of the PCP genes and involve the FRAS/FREM2 complex and Sonic Hedgehog signaling as novel components in the appearance of NTDs.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/patologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Brain ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508070

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly is a pathology of forebrain development characterized by high phenotypic heterogeneity. The disease presents with various clinical manifestations at the cerebral or facial levels. Several genes have been implicated in holoprosencephaly but its genetic basis remains unclear: different transmission patterns have been described including autosomal dominant, recessive and digenic inheritance. Conventional molecular testing approaches result in a very low diagnostic yield and most cases remain unsolved. In our study, we address the possibility that genetically unsolved cases of holoprosencephaly present an oligogenic origin and result from combined inherited mutations in several genes. Twenty-six unrelated families, for whom no genetic cause of holoprosencephaly could be identified in clinical settings [whole exome sequencing and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array analyses], were reanalysed under the hypothesis of oligogenic inheritance. Standard variant analysis was improved with a gene prioritization strategy based on clinical ontologies and gene co-expression networks. Clinical phenotyping and exploration of cross-species similarities were further performed on a family-by-family basis. Statistical validation was performed on 248 ancestrally similar control trios provided by the Genome of the Netherlands project and on 574 ancestrally matched controls provided by the French Exome Project. Variants of clinical interest were identified in 180 genes significantly associated with key pathways of forebrain development including sonic hedgehog (SHH) and primary cilia. Oligogenic events were observed in 10 families and involved both known and novel holoprosencephaly genes including recurrently mutated FAT1, NDST1, COL2A1 and SCUBE2. The incidence of oligogenic combinations was significantly higher in holoprosencephaly patients compared to two control populations (P < 10-9). We also show that depending on the affected genes, patients present with particular clinical features. This study reports novel disease genes and supports oligogenicity as clinically relevant model in holoprosencephaly. It also highlights key roles of SHH signalling and primary cilia in forebrain development. We hypothesize that distinction between different clinical manifestations of holoprosencephaly lies in the degree of overall functional impact on SHH signalling. Finally, we underline that integrating clinical phenotyping in genetic studies is a powerful tool to specify the clinical relevance of certain mutations.

4.
Brain ; 141(11): 3160-3178, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351409

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 695, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although hatching is perhaps the most abrupt and profound metabolic challenge that a chicken must undergo; there have been no attempts to functionally map the metabolic pathways induced in liver during the embryo-to-hatchling transition. Furthermore, we know very little about the metabolic and regulatory factors that regulate lipid metabolism in late embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In the present study, we examined hepatic transcriptomes of 12 embryos and 12 hatchling chicks during the peri-hatch period-or the metabolic switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration. RESULTS: Initial hierarchical clustering revealed two distinct, albeit opposing, patterns of hepatic gene expression. Cluster A genes are largely lipolytic and highly expressed in embryos. While, Cluster B genes are lipogenic/thermogenic and mainly controlled by the lipogenic transcription factor THRSPA. Using pairwise comparisons of embryo and hatchling ages, we found 1272 genes that were differentially expressed between embryos and hatchling chicks, including 24 transcription factors and 284 genes that regulate lipid metabolism. The three most differentially-expressed transcripts found in liver of embryos were MOGAT1, DIO3 and PDK4, whereas THRSPA, FASN and DIO2 were highest in hatchlings. An unusual finding was the "ectopic" and extremely high differentially expression of seven feather keratin transcripts in liver of 16 day embryos, which coincides with engorgement of liver with yolk lipids. Gene interaction networks show several transcription factors, transcriptional co-activators/co-inhibitors and their downstream genes that exert a 'ying-yang' action on lipid metabolism during the embryo-to-hatching transition. These upstream regulators include ligand-activated transcription factors, sirtuins and Kruppel-like factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our genome-wide transcriptional analysis has greatly expanded the hepatic repertoire of regulatory and metabolic genes involved in the embryo-to-hatchling transition. New knowledge was gained on interactive transcriptional networks and metabolic pathways that enable the abrupt switch from ectothermy (embryo) to endothermy (hatchling) in the chicken. Several transcription factors and their coactivators/co-inhibitors appear to exert opposing actions on lipid metabolism, leading to the predominance of lipolysis in embryos and lipogenesis in hatchlings. Our analysis of hepatic transcriptomes has enabled discovery of opposing, interconnected and interdependent transcriptional regulators that provide precise ying-yang or homeorhetic regulation of lipid metabolism during the critical embryo-to-hatchling transition.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 744-759, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656859

RESUMO

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 177, 2018 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A strain of Leghorn chickens (rd/rd), unable to produce a functional riboflavin-binding protein, lays riboflavin-deficient eggs, in which all embryos suddenly die at mid-incubation (days 13-15). This malady, caused by riboflavin deficiency, leads to excessive lipid accumulation in liver, impaired ß-oxidation of lipid, and severe hypoglycemia prior to death. We have used high-density chicken microarrays for time-course transcriptional scans of liver in chicken embryos between days 9-15 during this riboflavin-deficiency-induced metabolic catastrophe. For comparison, half of rd/rd embryos (n = 16) were rescued from this calamity by injection of riboflavin just prior to incubation of fertile eggs from rd/rd hens. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between hepatic transcriptomes of riboflavin-deficient and riboflavin-rescued embryos at the first two ages (days 9 and 11). Overall, we found a 3.2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed hepatic genes between day 13 (231 genes) and day 15 (734 genes). Higher expression of genes encoding the chicken flavoproteome was more evident in rescued- (15 genes) than in deficient-embryos (4 genes) at day 15. Diminished activity of flavin-dependent enzymes in riboflavin-deficient embryos blocks catabolism of yolk lipids, which normally serves as the predominant source of energy required for embryonic development. CONCLUSIONS: Riboflavin deficiency in mid-stage embryos leads to reduced expression of numerous genes controlling critical functions, including ß-oxidation of lipids, blood coagulation and feathering. Surprisingly, reduced expression of feather keratin 1 was found in liver of riboflavin-deficient embryos at e15, which could be related to their delayed feathering and sparse clubbed down. A large number of genes are expressed at higher levels in liver of riboflavin-deficient embryos; these up-regulated genes control lipid storage/transport, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, protein catabolism/ubiquitination and cell death.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Deficiência de Riboflavina/genética , Deficiência de Riboflavina/veterinária , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Metabolismo Energético , Plumas/metabolismo , Hemorragia/genética , Hemorragia/patologia , Hemorragia/veterinária , Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Deficiência de Riboflavina/metabolismo , Deficiência de Riboflavina/patologia
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164846, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749924

RESUMO

Sulfatases cleave sulfate groups from various molecules and constitute a biologically and industrially important group of enzymes. However, the number of sulfatases whose substrate has been characterized is limited in comparison to the huge diversity of sulfated compounds, yielding functional annotations of sulfatases particularly prone to flaws and misinterpretations. In the context of the explosion of genomic data, a classification system allowing a better prediction of substrate specificity and for setting the limit of functional annotations is urgently needed for sulfatases. Here, after an overview on the diversity of sulfated compounds and on the known sulfatases, we propose a classification database, SulfAtlas (http://abims.sb-roscoff.fr/sulfatlas/), based on sequence homology and composed of four families of sulfatases. The formylglycine-dependent sulfatases, which constitute the largest family, are also divided by phylogenetic approach into 73 subfamilies, each subfamily corresponding to either a known specificity or to an uncharacterized substrate. SulfAtlas summarizes information about the different families of sulfatases. Within a family a web page displays the list of its subfamilies (when they exist) and the list of EC numbers. The family or subfamily page shows some descriptors and a table with all the UniProt accession numbers linked to the databases UniProt, ExplorEnz, and PDB.


Assuntos
Sulfatases/metabolismo , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Humanos , Internet , Filogenia , Especificidade por Substrato , Sulfatases/química , Sulfatases/classificação , Sulfatos/química , Interface Usuário-Computador
10.
Hum Mutat ; 37(12): 1329-1339, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27363716

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital cerebral malformation in humans, characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage and midline facial anomalies. It presents a high heterogeneity, both in clinics and genetics. We have developed a novel targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay and screened a cohort of 257 HPE patients. Mutations with high confidence in their deleterious effect were identified in approximately 24% of the cases and were held for diagnosis, whereas variants of uncertain significance were identified in 10% of cases. This study provides a new classification of genes that are involved in HPE. SHH, ZIC2, and SIX3 remain the top genes in term of frequency with GLI2, and are followed by FGF8 and FGFR1. The three minor HPE genes identified by our study are DLL1, DISP1, and SUFU. Here, we demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor signaling must now be considered a major pathway involved in HPE. Interestingly, several cases of double mutations were found and argue for a polygenic inheritance of HPE. Altogether, it supports that the implementation of NGS in HPE diagnosis is required to improve genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Mutação , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 43(13): 6384-98, 2015 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26101255

RESUMO

There is currently convincing evidence that microRNAs have evolved independently in at least six different eukaryotic lineages: animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, demosponges, slime molds and brown algae. MicroRNAs from different lineages are not homologous but some structural features are strongly conserved across the eukaryotic tree allowing the application of stringent criteria to identify novel microRNA loci. A large set of 63 microRNA families was identified in the brown alga Ectocarpus based on mapping of RNA-seq data and nine microRNAs were confirmed by northern blotting. The Ectocarpus microRNAs are highly diverse at the sequence level with few multi-gene families, and do not tend to occur in clusters but exhibit some highly conserved structural features such as the presence of a uracil at the first residue. No homologues of Ectocarpus microRNAs were found in other stramenopile genomes indicating that they emerged late in stramenopile evolution and are perhaps specific to the brown algae. The large number of microRNA loci in Ectocarpus is consistent with the developmental complexity of many brown algal species and supports a proposed link between the emergence and expansion of microRNA regulatory systems and the evolution of complex multicellularity.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , MicroRNAs/genética , Feófitas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Genoma , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Feófitas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
PLoS One ; 10(2): e0117418, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25658757

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a frequent congenital malformation of the brain characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage and midline facial anomalies. Heterozygous mutations in 14 genes have been identified in HPE patients that account for only 30% of HPE cases, suggesting the existence of other HPE genes. Data from homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in a consanguineous Turkish family were combined to identify a homozygous missense mutation (c.2150G>A; p.Gly717Glu) in STIL, common to the two affected children. STIL has a role in centriole formation and has previously been described in rare cases of microcephaly. Rescue experiments in U2OS cells showed that the STIL p.Gly717Glu mutation was not able to fully restore the centriole duplication failure following depletion of endogenous STIL protein indicating the deleterious role of the mutation. In situ hybridization experiments using chick embryos demonstrated that expression of Stil was in accordance with a function during early patterning of the forebrain. It is only the second time that a STIL homozygous mutation causing a recessive form of HPE was reported. This result also supports the genetic heterogeneity of HPE and increases the panel of genes to be tested for HPE diagnosis.


Assuntos
Holoprosencefalia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Linhagem Celular , Centríolos , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Holoprosencefalia/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Radiografia , Irmãos
13.
Biol Open ; 3(11): 1098-107, 2014 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25361580

RESUMO

In order to gain insight into the impact of yolk increase on endoderm development, we have analyzed the mechanisms of endoderm formation in the catshark S. canicula, a species exhibiting telolecithal eggs and a distinct yolk sac. We show that in this species, endoderm markers are expressed in two distinct tissues, the deep mesenchyme, a mesenchymal population of deep blastomeres lying beneath the epithelial-like superficial layer, already specified at early blastula stages, and the involuting mesendoderm layer, which appears at the blastoderm posterior margin at the onset of gastrulation. Formation of the deep mesenchyme involves cell internalizations from the superficial layer prior to gastrulation, by a movement suggestive of ingressions. These cell movements were observed not only at the posterior margin, where massive internalizations take place prior to the start of involution, but also in the center of the blastoderm, where internalizations of single cells prevail. Like the adjacent involuting mesendoderm, the posterior deep mesenchyme expresses anterior mesendoderm markers under the control of Nodal/activin signaling. Comparisons across vertebrates support the conclusion that endoderm is specified in two distinct temporal phases in the catshark as in all major osteichthyan lineages, in line with an ancient origin of a biphasic mode of endoderm specification in gnathostomes. They also highlight unexpected similarities with amniotes, such as the occurrence of cell ingressions from the superficial layer prior to gastrulation. These similarities may correspond to homoplastic traits fixed separately in amniotes and chondrichthyans and related to the increase in egg yolk mass.

14.
Gut ; 63(10): 1566-77, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24436141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No Crohn's disease (CD) molecular maker has advanced to clinical use, and independent lines of evidence support a central role of the gut microbial community in CD. Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and healthy controls. DESIGN: We first developed and validated a workflow-including extraction of microbial communities, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and LC-MS/MS-to discover protein signals from CD-associated gut microbial communities. Then we used selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to confirm a set of candidates. In parallel, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for an integrated analysis of gut ecosystem structure and functions. RESULTS: Our 2D-DIGE-based discovery approach revealed an imbalance of intestinal bacterial functions in CD. Many proteins, largely derived from Bacteroides species, were over-represented, while under-represented proteins were mostly from Firmicutes and some Prevotella members. Most overabundant proteins could be confirmed using SRM. They correspond to functions allowing opportunistic pathogens to colonise the mucus layers, breach the host barriers and invade the mucosae, which could still be aggravated by decreased host-derived pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein GP2 in CD patients. Moreover, although the abundance of most protein groups reflected that of related bacterial populations, we found a specific independent regulation of bacteria-derived cell envelope proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence that quantifiable bacterial protein signals are associated with CD, which can have a profound impact on future molecular diagnosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Transversais , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
BMC Genomics ; 14: 557, 2013 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23947536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1-11 weeks of age). RESULTS: Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have enhanced expression of numerous lipogenic genes mainly after onset of divergence, presumably directed by multiple transcription factors. This transcriptional analysis shows that abdominal fat of the chicken serves a dual function as both an endocrine organ and an active metabolic tissue, which could play a more significant role in lipogenesis than previously thought.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Adipocinas/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Galinhas/genética , Hemostasia/genética , Magreza/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipogênese/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
16.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e59001, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23536846

RESUMO

Red algae have the most gene-rich plastid genomes known, but despite their evolutionary importance these genomes remain poorly sampled. Here we characterize three complete and one partial plastid genome from a diverse range of florideophytes. By unifying annotations across all available red algal plastid genomes we show they all share a highly compact and slowly-evolving architecture and uniquely rich gene complements. Both chromosome structure and gene content have changed very little during red algal diversification, and suggest that plastid-to nucleus gene transfers have been rare. Despite their ancient character, however, the red algal plastids also contain several unprecedented features, including a group II intron in a tRNA-Met gene that encodes the first example of red algal plastid intron maturase - a feature uniquely shared among florideophytes. We also identify a rare case of a horizontally-acquired proteobacterial operon, and propose this operon may have been recruited for plastid function and potentially replaced a nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted paralogue. Plastid genome phylogenies yield a fully resolved tree and suggest that plastid DNA is a useful tool for resolving red algal relationships. Lastly, we estimate the evolutionary rates among more than 200 plastid genes, and assess their usefulness for species and subspecies taxonomy by comparison to well-established barcoding markers such as cox1 and rbcL. Overall, these data demonstrates that red algal plastid genomes are easily obtainable using high-throughput sequencing of total genomic DNA, interesting from evolutionary perspectives, and promising in resolving red algal relationships at evolutionarily-deep and species/subspecies levels.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genomas de Plastídeos , Rodófitas/classificação , Rodófitas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Ordem dos Genes , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Íntrons , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Óperon/genética , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(13): 5247-52, 2013 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23503846

RESUMO

Red seaweeds are key components of coastal ecosystems and are economically important as food and as a source of gelling agents, but their genes and genomes have received little attention. Here we report the sequencing of the 105-Mbp genome of the florideophyte Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and the annotation of the 9,606 genes. The genome features an unusual structure characterized by gene-dense regions surrounded by repeat-rich regions dominated by transposable elements. Despite its fairly large size, this genome shows features typical of compact genomes, e.g., on average only 0.3 introns per gene, short introns, low median distance between genes, small gene families, and no indication of large-scale genome duplication. The genome also gives insights into the metabolism of marine red algae and adaptations to the marine environment, including genes related to halogen metabolism, oxylipins, and multicellularity (microRNA processing and transcription factors). Particularly interesting are features related to carbohydrate metabolism, which include a minimalistic gene set for starch biosynthesis, the presence of cellulose synthases acquired before the primary endosymbiosis showing the polyphyly of cellulose synthesis in Archaeplastida, and cellulases absent in terrestrial plants as well as the occurrence of a mannosylglycerate synthase potentially originating from a marine bacterium. To explain the observations on genome structure and gene content, we propose an evolutionary scenario involving an ancestral red alga that was driven by early ecological forces to lose genes, introns, and intergenetic DNA; this loss was followed by an expansion of genome size as a consequence of activity of transposable elements.


Assuntos
Chondrus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Sequência de Bases , MicroRNAs/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética
18.
Immunogenetics ; 63(7): 437-48, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21380581

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease caused by a positive RNA strand arterivirus. PRRS virus (PRRSV) interacts primarily with lung macrophages. Little is known how the virus subverts the innate immune response to initiate its replication in alveolar macrophages. Large-scale transcriptional responses of macrophages with different levels of susceptibility to PRRSV infection were compared over 30 h of infection. This study demonstrates a rapid and intense host transcriptional remodelling during the early phase of the replication of the virus which correlates with transient repression of type-I interferon transcript as early as 8 h post-infection. These results support the suggestion from previous studies that host innate immune response inhibits replication of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in macrophages by altering differential regulation of type-I interferon transcriptional response.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata/genética , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Suínos
19.
BMB Rep ; 42(9): 568-73, 2009 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19788857

RESUMO

Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects cause abnormal lipid accumulation in various tissues, which provides an opportunity to uncover novel genes that are involved in lipid metabolism. During a gene expression study in the riboflavin deficient induced FAO disorder in the chicken, we discovered the dramatic increase in mRNA levels of an uncharacterized gene, ANKRD9. No functions have been ascribed to ANKRD9 and its orthologs, although their sequences are well conserved among vertebrates. To provide insight into the function of ANKRD9, the expression of ANKRD9 mRNA in lipidperturbed paradigms was examined. The hepatic mRNA level of ANKRD9 was repressed by thyroid hormone (T(3)) and fasting, elevated by re-feeding upon fasting. However, ANKRD9 mRNA level is reduced in response to apoptosis. Transient transfection assay with green fluorescent protein tagged- ANKRD9 showed that this protein is localized within the cytoplasm. These findings point to the possibility that ANKRD9 is involved in intracellular lipid accumulation. [BMB reports 2009; 42(9): 568-573].


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/fisiologia , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Repetição de Anquirina , Apoptose , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
20.
BMC Genomics ; 10 Suppl 2: S5, 2009 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19607656

RESUMO

Comparative genomics is an essential component of the post-genomic era. The chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced and it will serve as a model for other avian species. Moreover, due to its unique evolutionary niche, the chicken genome can be used to understand evolution of functional elements and gene regulation in mammalian species. However comparative biology both within avian species and within amniotes is hampered due to the difficulty of recognising functional orthologs. This problem is compounded as different databases and sequence repositories proliferate and the names they assign to functional elements proliferate along with them. Currently, genes can be published under more than one name and one name sometimes refers to unrelated genes. Standardized gene nomenclature is necessary to facilitate communication between scientists and genomic resources. Moreover, it is important that this nomenclature be based on existing nomenclature efforts where possible to truly facilitate studies between different species. We report here the formation of the Chicken Gene Nomenclature Committee (CGNC), an international and centralized effort to provide standardized nomenclature for chicken genes. The CGNC works in conjunction with public resources such as NCBI and Ensembl and in consultation with existing nomenclature committees for human and mouse. The CGNC will develop standardized nomenclature in consultation with the research community and relies on the support of the research community to ensure that the nomenclature facilitates comparative and genomic studies.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Genômica/normas , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais , Genoma
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